Kadapa

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Kadapa
కడప
Cuddapah
City
Montage of Kadapa city. clockwise from Top Left: A Clock tower in Kadapa, Railway Station, An Industry near Kadapa, RIMS Dental College in Kadapa
Montage of Kadapa city. clockwise from Top Left: A Clock tower in Kadapa, Railway Station, An Industry near Kadapa, RIMS Dental College in Kadapa
Nickname(s): Gadapa
Kadapa is located in Andhra Pradesh
Kadapa
Kadapa
Coordinates: 14°28′N 78°55′E / 14.47°N 78.92°E / 14.47; 78.92Coordinates: 14°28′N 78°55′E / 14.47°N 78.92°E / 14.47; 78.92
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Rayalaseema
District Kadapa
Founded 1808 AD[1]
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body Kadapa Municipal Corporation
 • MP Y. S. Avinash Reddy
 • MLA Amzath Basha S.B
 • Mayor Suresh Babu
Area[2]
 • Total 164.08 km2 (63.35 sq mi)
Area rank 2nd (in AP)
Elevation 138 m (453 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 341,823
 • Rank 129th
 • Density 2,100/km2 (5,400/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Telugu, Urdu[3]
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 516001,516002,516003,516004 [4]
Telephone code 08562[5]
Vehicle registration AP-04
Website Kadapa Municipal Corporation

Kadapa (formerly known as Cuddapah) is a city (municipal corporation) in the Rayalseema region of the south-central part of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is the district headquarters of Kadapa district. the second largest city in the state after Visakhapatnam (in terms of area). As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 344078.

It is one of the oldest municipalities in Kadapa District[citation needed] and is located 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the Penna River. The city is surrounded on three sides by the Nallamala and Palakonda hills lying on the tectonic landscape being sandwiched between the Eastern and Western ghats. Black and Red ferruginous soils occupy the region. The city is nicknamed "Gadapa" (which means 'Threshold') since it is the gateway from the west to the sacred hills of Tirumala, which is known for its connections to Venkateswara Swamy.

The city is famous for its temple of Sri Laxmi Venkateswara located in Devunikadapa. It is historically been known as the gateway to the temple of Venkateswara.[6] It has other tourist attractions like Lankamalleshwara Wildlife Sanctuary and Ameen Peer Dargah.[7] With hills like Nallamala, Palamuru and rivers like Pinakini Papaghni, it offers some adventurous tourist places.[8]

Kadapa has been under the rule of different Kingdoms like The Cholas, The Kings of Vijayanagara Empire, The Nizam Nawabs and The British Empire from 11th century to the 20th century which helped in the origin of diversified doctrines in the city. It is also well known for its spicy and culinary food.[9]

Toponomy[edit]

The city's name originated from the Telugu word "Kadapa" meaning threshold or gate. It acquired this name with its relation to the Tirumala Hills; one had to pass through Cuddapah in olden days to reach Tirumala Hills.[10] In old Telugu the word Kadapa meant a threshold which in modern standard Telugu is evolved to gadapa while the city's name retained the old flavour. It was spelled "Cuddapah" but was changed to "Kadapa" on 19 August 2005 to reflect the local pronunciation of the name.[11]

History[edit]

Post Classical Era of Kadapa (AD 200-800)[edit]

The history of Kadapa dates back to the 2nd century BC. Although it is nearly impossible to have data of that time, but the evidences of archeological survey suggests that it started with Mourya and Satavahana dynasty. And since then it has remained battle field for numerous dynasties including Chalukya, Cholas and Pallava. Among all of these dynasties, first one to rule over Kadapa was Pallava dynasty. Pallava kings ruled over the city during 5th century after penetrating into North of Kadapa. After that Cholas ruled till the 8th century after defeating Pallavas. Later Banas came into existence as the next dynasty to rule over Kadapa.

Medieval Era of Kadapa (8th to 18th centuries)[edit]

Rashtrakutas ruled over Kadapa after Banas. Among the popular rulers of Kadapa was King Indra III, who served during the period of 915 AD. In his period, Kadapa gained a lot of power and influence, which declined with his death later. Telugu Cholas, were the next one to rule over Kadapa. Their kingdom has its palmier days in first half of 13th century. Ambadeva ruled over Kadapa in the latter half of 13th century. He had taken over the crown of Kadapa on a temporarily basis and ruled from Vallur, which is located at a distance of about 15 km from Kadapa.

After the death of Ambadeva, Kakatiya king Prataparudra became the ruler of the place till early 14th century. Later Pratap Rudra was defeated by Muslims in the reign of Khilji emperor Alla Uddin, who became the next ruler of Kadapa after giving imprisonment to Pratap Rudra. Later in the mid-13th century, Hindus of Vijayanagar dynasty drove the Muslims out of Warangal and subsequently Kadapa as well and ruled for around two centuries till they get defeated by the King of Golkonda. The most illustrious ruler during this time was Pemmasani Thimma Nayudu (1422 CE) who developed the region and constructed many tanks and temples here. Muslims of Golkonda conquered the region in 1594 when Mir Jumla II raided Gandikota fort and defeated Chinna Thimma Nayudu by treachery. Marathas took over the city in 1740 after defeating the Nawab of Kurnool and Cuddapah. Hyder Ali also ruled over the city before it fell in the hands of Nizam by the treaties of Mysore and Srirangapatnam.[12] Later the British took control of Kadapa District in 1800 CE. Although the town is an ancient one, it was probably extended by Neknam Khan, the Qutb Shahi commander, who called the extension "Neknamabad". The name "Neknamabad" was used for the town for some time but slowly fell into disuse and the records of the 18th century refer to the rulers not as Nawabs of Nekanamabad but Nawabs of Kadapa. Except for some years in the beginning, Kadapa District was the seat of the Mayana Nawabs in the 18th century. With the British occupation of the tract in 1800 CE it became the headquarters of one of the four subordinate collectorates under the principal collector Sir Thomas Munro. Monuments from the rule of the Kadapa District Nawabs are still found in the town. Most prominent among these are two towers and the dargahs. In 2004, Kadapa was recognized as a municipal corporation.[13]

Geography[edit]

Topography[edit]

Kadapa is located at 14°28′N 78°49′E / 14.47°N 78.82°E / 14.47; 78.82 about 412 km from Hyderabad, in the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh.[14] The city is situated in the Bugga or Ralla Vanka which is bordered by the Palakondas to the south and to the east by a patch of the same hills casting north for the Lankamalas on Penneru`s other side.[15] It has an average elevation of 138 metres (452 ft).[16] The hills of western and eastern ghats stand on either sides, shielding it from the extreme winds of summer and winter.[17]

Climate[edit]

Kadapa has a tropical wet and dry climate characterized by year round high temperatures. Kadapa has a record of reaching more than 50 degree Celsius. Summers are especially uncomfortable with hot and humid climate. During this time temperatures range from a minimum of 34 °C and can rise up to a maximum of 40 °C. Temperatures are range in the mid thirties during the day. Humidity is around 75% during the summer months. Monsoon season brings substantial rain to the area. Kadapa gets rainfall from both the South west monsoon as well as the North East Monsoon. June to October is usually the monsoon. Winters are comparatively milder and the temperatures are lower after the onset of the monsoons. During this time the temperatures range from a maximum of 25 °C and can rise up to a maximum of 35 °C. Humidity is much lower during the winter season. Winter season is the best time to visit the place.[18]

Climate data for Kadapa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.8
(87.4)
34.2
(93.6)
37.6
(99.7)
39.7
(103.5)
40.1
(104.2)
36.9
(98.4)
35.0
(95)
34.0
(93.2)
33.4
(92.1)
32.4
(90.3)
30.3
(86.5)
29.3
(84.7)
34.48
(94.05)
Average low °C (°F) 19.1
(66.4)
20.9
(69.6)
23.8
(74.8)
27.3
(81.1)
28.6
(83.5)
26.8
(80.2)
25.7
(78.3)
25.4
(77.7)
25.0
(77)
23.8
(74.8)
21.2
(70.2)
19.0
(66.2)
23.88
(74.98)
Precipitation mm (inches) 0
(0)
1
(0.04)
5
(0.2)
17
(0.67)
48
(1.89)
76
(2.99)
121
(4.76)
114
(4.49)
133
(5.24)
148
(5.83)
67
(2.64)
23
(0.91)
753
(29.66)
[citation needed]

source="http://en.climate-data.org/location/968121/"

Administration[edit]

Local Government[edit]

Kadapa city is the headquarters of YSR District. The municipal Corporation of Kadapa was previously a municipal council which has been converted to a corporation in 2005. The Kadapa Municipal Corporation oversees the civic infrastructure of the city. The Municipal Corporation of Kadapa is the largest is the largest in Rayalaseema region and the second largest in Andhra Pradesh. The City encompass 50 municipal wards. Each ward is represented by a corporator, elected by popular vote. The corporators elect the Mayor, who is the titular head of KMC.[19] In the year 2010-2011, Cuddapah Municipal Corporation has issued a 72.2 Crore Rupee amount to improve Sewage systems; 29.23 Crores for water supply improvements. Municipal Corporation of Kadapa provides employment for 1292 people, including 13 Senior Officials, 51 ministerial employees and 16 field level employees etc.

Kadapa also has a Central Prison. Kadapa Prison is one of the Seven Central Jails in the state for Andhra Pradesh. These Central jails are comparatively larger than other jails like the sub jails and the district jails. Generally convicts who are sentenced to more than two years of imprisonment are accommodated in these central jails.[20]

Health Care[edit]

Most of the medical shops in Kadapa stores allopathic, homeopathic and ayurvedic medicines. Some of them even delivers medicines free of cost at your door step.[21]

Shopping[edit]

Kadapa offers many shopping places from traditional markets to shopping malls. Some of the famous shopping places include YV Street, BKM Street, Sree Veera Bhadra Swamy Shopping Mall,Madras Road and Trunk road. There are many shopping malls located in the city of Kadapa. Some of them are specialized in apparel business, while some of them are specialized in electronics items. Some of the special things that can be brought in Kadapa are Cuddapah stone, Handicrafts, Traditional Sarees, Cotton Weaves and Old Antiques.[22]

Culture[edit]

Since Kadapa was ruled by different kings like the Kakatiyas, Vijayanagara Kings, Pallavas, Nizam Nawabs and Cholas it has managed to develop a rich culture. People of various ethnicity can be found to live here. As a result one can witness various festivals, rituals and customs in Kadapa. The urban population consists of different religions including Islam, Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Christianity. Due to his rich historical past, one can also see a dominance of Buddhism and Jainism in the culture of Kadapa. A Chinese traveler namely Huen Tsang, gives clear existence of nirgantha heretics (Jain) and Sangharams (Buddhist monasteries) through his travel in the 7th century AD in Kadapa. Muslims are known to have their existence from the 14th century, while Christians came at last in the first half of the 18th century.[23]

Architecture[edit]

The presence of Gandikota Fort and Ameen Peer Dargah make it easy for us to understand the architecture of Kadapa. Various mosques, churches and temples built in 14th century to 21st century shows variety in the architecture of Kadapa.[24]

Languages[edit]

Telugu is the official,largest spoken as well as the main language in the city. Just like any other part of Andhra Pradesh, majority of the people in the city speak Telugu in their daily routine. Most of the Muslims speak Urdu either alone or with the combination of Telugu. English is gaining popularity day by day in the city with the it's rapid development.[25]

Cuisine[edit]

Kadapa is well known for its spicy and culinary food which is very similar to the South Indian food. People have idly, sambar and chutney in their breafast. rice, daal and curry is usually served as lunch. Most of the restaurants serve South Indian thali including these dishes in their lunch and dinner menu.

Although it has a South Indian touch in its dishes it also has a diverse variety of its own which include Ragi Sangati or Ragi Mudda which is the most famous in Kadapa, Boti Curry, Natukodi Chicken, Paya Curry etc. Like many other cities of India fast food is also increasing its reach in the city.[26]

Economy[edit]

The City's economy is mainly based on agriculture. The Andhra Pradesh State Financial Corporation estimates the total share of agriculture in the revenue of Kadapa to be more than 70%.

In addition to agriculture Kadapa has a great industrial background. Industries including both medium and small scale sectors and agriculture add to the economical growth of the city. Both the micro and medium scale industries are being registered every day. Approximately an average of 150 new industries including micro as well as medium scale industries are registered every year. Industrial areas, development projects, large scale excavation processes including clusters for various regional profitable business also contribute their part in the Kadapa’s economy. The total Investment in all kinds of industries has been approximately amounted to 193 crores. However, mining is also one of the major large scale businesses. There are about 2664 mining industries in Kadapa according to government records in 2011-12. The geographical advantages of the Kadapa basin has made this particular industry flourish. Abundant minerals of barytes, limestone etc. is a huge attractor of investors from all over the country. Besides these, Tourism, Agriculture also contribute significant revenues to the economy. The City is full of many commercial and rare minerals which made the Mining Industry to gain command over the economy of Kadapa. There was also the discovery of Fullerene deposits in the Kadapa Basin. The estimated revenue that’s going to be generated by the mining of Fullerene minerals is very high. Early estimates reveal deposits of 74 million tonnes of fullerene. Each gram of fullerene costs around $2000 which vaguely accounts for 120 billion rupees.

The other industrial segments of Kadapa are cement manufacturing, steel, oil and natural gases and also Agro industries like Cotton, Sugar and Gunny bags Industries. All these industries are under the estates of APIIC, AEP, AEP etc. The leading number of Mining Industries is followed by Agro Industries (554 registered) which is further followed by electronics industry.[27]

Demographics[edit]

Kadapa population 
Census Pop.
1961 49,027
1971 66,195 35.0%
1981 103,125 55.8%
1991 121,463 17.8%
2001 126,505 4.2%
2011 344,078 172.0%

Kadapa is one of the largest and fast developing cities in Andhra Pradesh. As per the 1991 census the population of the town was 1,21,463. It didn't increase much as per the 2001 census which recorded 1,26,505 lakhs for 20 wards population with an average decade growth rate of 0.36 per cent.[28] Later it was converted to a Municipal Corporation in 2005. As per provisional data of 2011 census, Kadapa urban agglomeration had a population of 344,078, out of which males were 172,969 and females were 171,109. The literacy rate was 79.34 per cent. The urban population had 75% Hindus, 22% Muslims and 3% Christians.-[29][30]

Education[edit]

There are good number of schools, Degree colleges, Engineering colleges and University as well in Kadapa. These include:

Transport[edit]

Kadapa has one of the best transport systems in the state. It's road transport services are said to be one of the best. Kadapa railway station is located on Guntakal-Chennai line which is part of Mumbai-Chennai line. It also has a domestic airport in the outskirts.

Hospitals[edit]

The following are the notable hospitals in the district.

Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences(RIMS), Putlam palli

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.india4info.com/kadapa-city.html
  2. ^ "Brief about Kadapa Municipal Corporation". www.cdma.gov.in. Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 
  3. ^ http://www.languageinindia.com/april2003/urduinap.html
  4. ^ "India Post- PIN Code Search". http://www.indiapost.gov.in/. Department of Posts, Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Government of India. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 
  5. ^ "STD Codes (Andhra Pradesh)". Sarkaritel. 2005. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  6. ^ http://apalltemples.com/kadapatemp_details.php?id=6
  7. ^ http://www.kadapaonline.in/city-guide/localities-and-areas-of-kadapa
  8. ^ http://www.kadapaonline.in/city-guide/about-kadapa
  9. ^ http://www.kadapaonline.in/city-guide/about-kadapa
  10. ^ http://www.kadapaonline.in/city-guide/about-kadapa
  11. ^ "It will be `Kadapa' henceforth". The Hindu. 18 August 2005. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 
  12. ^ http://www.kadapaonline.in/city-guide/history-of-kadapa
  13. ^ "Brief about Kadapa Municipal Corporation". Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 27 November 2012. 
  14. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Cuddapah
  15. ^ http://www.kadapaonline.in/city-guide/geography-of-cuddapah
  16. ^ http://kadapacityrayalseema.blogspot.com/2010/12/geography.html
  17. ^ http://www.kadapaonline.in/city-guide/geography-of-cuddapah
  18. ^ http://www.mustseeindia.com/Kadapa-weather
  19. ^ http://cdma.ap.gov.in/KADAPA/Elected_Representatives.html
  20. ^ http://www.kadapaonline.in/city-guide/kadapa-administration
  21. ^ http://www.kadapaonline.in/city-guide/healthcare-in-kadapa
  22. ^ http://www.kadapaonline.in/city-guide/shopping-in-kadapa
  23. ^ http://www.kadapaonline.in/city-guide/culture-of-kadapa
  24. ^ http://www.kadapaonline.in/city-guide/culture-of-kadapa
  25. ^ http://www.kadapaonline.in/city-guide/culture-of-kadapa
  26. ^ http://www.kadapaonline.in/city-guide/cuisine-of-kadapa
  27. ^ http://www.kadapaonline.in/city-guide/business-and-economy-of-kadapa
  28. ^ http://theglobaljournals.com/paripex/file.php?val=November_2012_1353430588_c1e2b_21.pdf
  29. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-10-20. 
  30. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-10-20. 

External links[edit]

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.