List of slaves
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|Opposition and resistance|
Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons known as slaves are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services. The following is a list of known slaves in alphabetical order of first name:
- Abby Guy sued her master William Daniel for her freedom in Arkansas, alleging that her mother had been a kidnapped and enslaved white woman.
- Abraham, a black slave who carried messages between the frontier and Charles Town during wars with the Cherokee, for which he was freed.
- Abram Petrovich Gannibal (1696–1781), adopted by Russian czar Peter the Great, governor of Tallinn (Reval) (1742–52), general-en-chef (1759–62) for building of sea forts and canals in Russia. See The Slave in European Art for portraits.
- Absalom Jones, (1746 – February 13, 1818), former slave who purchased his freedom, abolitionist and clergyman – first ordained black priest of the Episcopal Church.
- Aelfsige, a male cook in Anglo-Saxon England, property of Wynflaed, who left him to her granddaughter Eadgifu.
- Aelius Perseus, a freedman of the late Roman Empire, whom T. Aelius Dionysius included by name on a stela for him, his wife, their freedman and those who came after them.
- Aelstan, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England freed with his wife and all their children (born and unborn) by Geatflæd "for the love of God and the good of her soul".
- Aesop, Greek poet, c. 6th century BC, author or transcriber of Aesop's Fables.
- Agathoclia, a martyr.
- Alexina Morrison, a fugitive slave in Louisiana who claimed to be a kidnapped white girl, and sued her master for her freedom on that ground, arousing such popular feeling against him that a mob threatened to lynch him.
- Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish explorer was enslaved by Native Americans on the Gulf Coast after surviving an expedition's collapse.
- Al-Khayzuran bint Atta, a Yemenite slave girl who became the wife of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mahdi and mother of both caliphs Al-Hadi and Harun al-Rashid, the most famous of the Abbasids.
- Amanda America Dickson, the daughter of the white planter David Dickson and the slave Julia Frances Lewis, who belonged to his mother. Although technically a slave until emancipation after the American Civil War, Amanda Dickson was raised as her father's favorite. At his death in 1885, she inherited his estate of $500,000.
- Ammar bin Yasir, one of the most famous sahaba (companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad), freed by Abu Bakr.
- Andrea Aguyar, a freed Black slave from Uruguay who joined Garibaldi during Italian revolutionary involvement in the Uruguayan Civil War of the 1840s, followed him to Italy, and was killed fighting in defence of the Roman Republic of 1849.
- Ann Calhoun, a white girl and cousin to John C. Calhoun, was enslaved from the age of 4 until she was 7 by the Cherokee.
- Anna J. Cooper, author, educator, speaker and prominent African-American scholar
- Antarah ibn Shaddad, pre-Islamic Arab born to a slave mother, freed by his father on the eve of battle, also a poet.
- Antisthenes, an Athenian slave and banker.
- Antonia Bonnelli, captured and enslaved by the Mikasuki tribe in Florida in 1802.
- Antonio and Mundy, the presumed names of 16th Century African slaves brought by Portuguese owners to Macau, who managed to escape into China. The first time when an English person learned Chinese was from one of them.
- Archestratus, an Athenian slave and banker.
- Archibald Grimké, born into slavery and son of a white father, became an American lawyer, intellectual, journalist, diplomat and community leader
- Arkil, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England freed by Geatflæd "for the love of God and the good of her soul".
- Augustine Tolton (1854–1897), the first black priest in the United States.
- Aurelia Philematium, a freedwoman, whose tombstone glorifies her marriage with her fellow freedman, Lucius Aurelius Hermia.
- Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, also known as Job ben Solomon (1701–1773).
- Baibars, a Kipchack Turk who became a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria.
- Sarah Basset (d.1730), American slave.
- Balthild, a 7th century Anglo-Saxon woman of elite birth, was sold into slavery on the Continent as a young girl and served in the household of Erchinoald, mayor of the palace of Neustria. Later she married King Clovis II. As a Queen – after her husband's death holding power as regent for her son Clotaire – she abolished the practice of trading Christian slaves and sought the freedom of children sold into slavery. Forced into a convent when her son came of age, Balthild was canonised by Pope Nicholas I about 200 years after her death.
- Batteas, a black slave sold by the Choctaw chief Francimastabe to Benjamin James, was later stolen by Robert Welsh.
- Benedict the Moor (1526 – April 4, 1589), slave and Italian saint.
- Bilal ibn Ribah, 6th century, was freed. He converted to Islam and was Muhammad's muezzin.
- Billy, a seven-year-old black boy captured by Creek raiders in 1788; he passed through several hands before being sold at auction in Havana.
- Henry Bibb, 1815–1854) was an American author and abolitionist who was born a slave. After escaping from slavery to Canada, he founded an abolitionist newspaper, The Voice of the Fugitive. He returned to the US and lectured against slavery.
- Blaesus and Blaesia, whose late Republican Rome tomb inscription name them as the freedman of Caius, and the freedwoman of Aulus.
- Blandina, a slave and martyr.
- Boga, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England, and all his family, were freed by his mistress Æthelgifu's will.
- Booker T. Washington (1856–1915), born into slavery, became an American educator, author and leader of the African-American community after the Civil War.
- Brigitta Scherzenfeldt (1698–1733), Swedish memoirist and weaving teacher, was captured during the Great Northern War and lived as a slave in the kingdom of the Kalmyk in Central Asia.
- Caenis, a former slave and secretary of Antonia Minor (mother of the emperor Claudius), was the mistress of the Roman emperor Vespasian.
- Pope Callixtus I (died 222), a former slave, became pope from about 217 to about 222, during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Heliogabalus and Alexander Severus. He was martyred for his Christian faith and is a canonized saint of the Roman Catholic Church.
- Callistratus, an Athenian slave and banker.
- Cevri Kalfa – A Georgian slave girl at the Sultan's harem in Istanbul, who saved Mahmud II's life and was rewarded for her bravery and loyalty by being appointed haznedar usta, the chief treasurer of the imperial Harem (see Mahmud II).
- Charles Taylor, a slave freed by General Benjamin F. Butler in New Orleans, was described in a Harper's Weekly article as appearing white and having come to a school for emancipated slaves in Philadelphia.
- Cinque, leader of the slaves in a slave rebellion on a ship and the Amistad v. United States case in 1839
- Claudia Prepontis, a freedwoman, erected a funerary altar to her freedman husband T. Claudius Dionysius; their clasped hands, depicted on it, show the legitimacy of their marriage, possible only once they obtained their freedom.
- Pope Clement I (died in 100) was the fourth Pope according to Catholic tradition. He may have been a freedman of Titus Flavius Clemens.
- Cesar Picton ca.1765–1831, enslaved in Senegal, worked as a servant in England, and later became a wealthy coal-merchant.
- Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha (1713–1790) an Ottoman grand vizier, Kapudan Pasha and an army commander.
- Cole, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England freed by Geatflæd "for the love of God and the good of her soul".
- Colonel Tye/Titus Cornelius, a former slave, became a Black Loyalist soldier and guerrilla leader during the American Revolution.
- Cooper, a black slave about 20, fled to the Creek. He was captured for sale to the whites and killed after he wounded a warrior.
- Danae, "the new maidservant of Capito", named in lead curse tablet from Republican Rome, which aimed to destroy Danae.
- Dave Drake, also known as Dave the Potter, (c. 1801–1876)
- David George, a black who fled a cruel Virginia master and was captured by Creeks and enslaved by Chief Blue Salt.
- Denmark Vesey (c. 1767–1822) was an African American slave, and later a freeman, who planned what would have been one of the largest slave rebellions in the United States had word of the plans not been leaked.
- Diondre Hammond, Hails from Africa, sent by British to colonial America, later escaped to what is now Southern California.
- Dincă, the half-Roma slave and illegitimate child of a Cantacuzino boyar in the 19th Century Danubian Principalities (the present Romania). Well-educated, working as a cook but not allowed to marry his French mistress and go free, which had led him to murder his lover and kill himself. The affair shocked public opinion and was one of the factors contributing to the abolition of Slavery in Romania (see ).
- The Roman Emperor Diocletian was, by some sources, born as the slave of Senator Anullinus. By other sources, it was Diocletian's father (whose own name in unknown) who was a slave, and he was freed previous to the birth of his son, the future emperor
- Dred Scott (c. 1799–1858), attempted to sue for his freedom in Scott v. Sandford.
- Dufe the Old, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England, was freed by his mistress Æthelgifu's will.
- Ecceard the smith, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England freed by Geatflæd "for the love of God and the good of her soul".
- Ecgferð Aldun's daughter, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England freed by Geatflæd "for the love of God and the good of her soul".
- Edmond Flint, a black enslaved among the Choctaw Nation who later described it as very like slavery among the whites.
- Ediþ, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England, who bought her freedom and that of her children.
- Elijah Abel, born in Maryland as a slave, and believed to have escaped slavery on the Underground Railroad into Canada. He joined The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in its early days, was among the first blacks to receive its priesthood and the first black to rise to the ranks of an elder and seventy.
- Eliezer of Damascus, The Biblical Abraham's slave and trusted manager of the Partiarch's household.
- Elsey Thompson, a white captive enslaved by a Creek. When trader John O'Reilly attempted to ransom her and Nancy Caffrey, he was told they were not taken captive to be allowed to go back, but to work.
- Enrique of Malacca, also known as Henry the Black, slave and interpreter of Ferdinand Magellan, the first man to circumnavigate the globe.
- Epictetus (55–c. 135), ancient Greek stoic philosopher
- Epunuel, a native of Chappaquidick, who was taken captive by English explorers in the 1610s, with twenty-nine others, and was taken to London as a slave.
- Estevanico, also known as Esteban the Moor, one of only four survivors of the ill-fated Narváez expedition, later a guide in search of the fabled Seven Cities of Gold (ca. 1503–1539)
- Eucharis, freedwoman of Licinia, described in her epitath as fourteen when she died and a child actress.
- Euphraios, an Athenian slave and banker.
- Felicitas, Christian martyr and saint (died March 7, 203).
- Francis Bok, born 1979, Dinka slave from Sudan now in United States
- François Mackandal, Haitian maroon leader.
- Frederick Douglass (c. 1818–1895), abolitionist writer and speaker.
- French John, a French furtrader captured by the Cherokee and enslaved by Old Hop, apparently making no effort for his freedom for many years, until he ran away when the British offered to buy him.
- Gabriel Prosser (1776–1800), leader of Virginia slave revolt
- Ganga Zumba or Ganazumba, escaped slave in colonial Brazil, first leader of Quilombo dos Palmares.
- George Africanus (1763–1834) an African slave from Sierra Leone who became a successful entrepreneur in Nottingham.
- George Edward Doney (1758–1809), Gambian slave of the Earl of Essex
- George Sanders, a black slave among the Cherokee, who described his masters as kind and providing clothes and food.
- George Washington Carver (1864–1943) an American scientist, botanist, educator and inventor, born in slavery and freed as a yiung child by the Emancipoation Procalmation.
- Glaumur, slave of the outlaw Grettir in early medieval Iceland (protagonist of "Grettis saga"). Glaumur is mentioned as loyally sharing his master's long exile on the lonely island of Drangey, off the northern tip of Iceland, though in the circumstances described in the saga he could have easily escaped.
- Joshua Glover, fugitive slave saved by abolitionists at Racine, Wisconsin in 1854.
- Gonzalo Guerrero (?–1536) a sailor from Palos, in Spain who shipwrecked along the Yucatan Peninsula and was taken as a slave by the local Maya.
- Guðríður Símonardóttir (1598–1682), Icelandic woman taken captive by North African slavers (Barbary Pirates).
- Gustav Badin (d. 1822), butler at the royal Swedish court.
- Hababah, beloved concubine of Caliph Yazid II.
- Hagar, Biblical figure, belonging to Sarah.
- Hanna, a slave in Virginia, and grandmother of Jackey Wright, who sued for her freedom in Hudgins vs. Wright (1806) on the grounds that three generations descended from Butterwood Nan, who was an American Indian, not a black. The Virginia Supreme Court affirmed a lower court decision by George Wythe, that because of Jackey's and Hanna's appearance as mixed Indian and European, she was entitled to the presumption of freedom, given the limited nature of Indian slavery. St. George Tucker and Spencer Roane said that, as most Africans had been imported as slaves and blacks descended from slave mothers, a black would not have the same presumption of freedom.
- Harddick, English courtier, spent 25 years as a slave in North Africa.
- Hark Olufs (1708–1754), Danish sailor, was captured by Algerian pirates. Sold to the Bey of Constantine, he became Commander in Chief of the Bey's cavalry. He was released in 1735.
- Harriet Ann Jacobs (1813–1897), author of Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl.
- Harriet Tubman, nicknamed "Moses" because of her efforts in helping other American slaves escape through the Underground Railroad.
- Hercules (chef), head cook at George Washington's plantation Mount Vernon. Escaped and gained his freedom in 1797, but his wife Alice and his three children remained in slavery.
- Sally Hemings, mixed-race slave of Thomas Jefferson; believed by many to have had six children with him, four of whom survived to adulthood.
- Hermas, author of the text The Shepherd of Hermas and brother of Pope Pius I.
- Hernado de Escalante Fontaneda, born in Cartagena, was enslaved at the age of 13 when the ship bearing him to Spain for education sank off Florida. A Calusa chief enslaved him and used him as a translator until he was ransomed at 30.
- İbrahim Pasha (?–1536), Suleyman the Magnificent's first appointed Grand Vizier. Greek by birth, he was sold as a slave at the age of six to the Ottoman palace for future sultans. There he befriended Suleiman who was of the same age.
- Icelus Marcianus, a slave, later freedman of the emperor Galba. He was one of the three men who were said to completely control the emperor, increasing Galba's unpopularity.
- Ivan Bolotnikov (?–1608), a fugitive kholop (slave in Russia) and leader of the Bolotnikov rebellion.
- Ida B. Wells, African American activist, born a slave, who in later life campaigned against – and succeeded in abolishing – lynching
- Imma, a Northumbrian aristocrat who was knocked unconscious in battle and later pretended to have been a peasant who brought them food, so that his captors did not kill him. His manners and bearing soon betrayed him, and he was sold into slavery.
- Jackey Wright, an American slave who sued for her freedom, and won, in the famous 1806 Virginia case of Hudgins v. Wright. However, the opinion of the Virginia Supreme Court relied on Wright appearing white and native American, whereas the lower court George Wythe had tried to establish a presumption of freedom for all people, of whatever race.
- James Baugh, an American slave who sued for his freedom on the grounds that his maternal grandmother had been an Indian.
- James Leander Cathcart
- James Somersett, his escape, supported by abolitionists, led to the milestone Somersett's Case, which effectively ended slavery in Britain, though not in its colonies.
- Jean-Jacques Dessalines (1758–1806), leader of the Haitian Revolution and first leader of independent Haiti.
- Jean Saint Malo, leader of runaway slaves in colonial Louisiana and founder of the secret community that bears his name.
- Jean Parisot de la Valette (c. 1494–1568), Grand Master of the Order of St John, in 1541 he was captured and made a galley slave for a year by Barbary pirates under the command of Turgut Reis.
- "Jerry" – see William Henry
- John Ezzidio (c. 1810 – October 1872), Nigerian slave who became a successful Sierra Leonean politician and businessman.
- John Brown (fugitive slave) (c. 1810–1876), escaped and wrote of conditions in Deep South of United States
- John Casor, the first slave in what would later be the United States (Virginia, 1654).
- John Jea, African-American slave, best known for his 1811 autobiography, The Life, History, and Unparalleled Sufferings of John Jea, the African Preacher.
- John Smith, English soldier, sailor, and author, captured by Turks in 1602 while fighting in Wallachia, escaped and returned to England by 1604. As Smith described it: "we all sold for slaves, like beasts in a market-place."
- John R. Jewitt, spent three years as a captive of Maquinna of the Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka) people on the Pacific coast of what is now Canada.
- Jeffrey Hudson, English courtier, spent 25 years as a slave in North Africa.
- John White, an enslaved black boy who was captured by Creeks in 1797 and escaped back to New Orleans, where he told Spanish officials of his master's name to be returned.
- Joseph, Biblical figure (about 1600 BC).
- Joseph Antonio Emidy, violinist and composer born in Africa, died in Cornwall.
- Josephine Bakhita, (1869 – February 8, 1947), Sudanese, a Roman Catholic nun and saint.
- Joseph Knight, successfully sought to get his freedom through the courts in the 18th century Scotland.
- Juan Francisco Manzano (c.1797–1854) Cuban poet .
- Juan Gros, a free black soldiers captured near Pensacola by an Upper Creek, who sold him to a white trader who sold him to the Mitasuki chief Kinache, from whom Spaniards ransomed him.
- Juan Ortiz, a young Andalusian nobleman enslaved by Chief Ucita in Florida to avenge injuries he suffered at the hands of the expedition Ortiz belonged to.
- Julia Frances Lewis, mother of Amanda American Dickson by the son of her owner.
- Kösem Sultan
- Kunta Kinte (1750–1810), fictional Gambian slave and Mandinka tribesman, who tried unsuccessfully to escape to freedom four times. "Ancestor" of the author of Roots: The Saga of an American Family, Alex Haley (refuted by experts).
- Kurtis Moore, well known slave.
- Lamhatty, a Tawasa Indian captured and enslaved by Creek; he escaped.
- La Mulâtresse Solitude, slave on Guadeloupe: freed in 1794 by the abolition of slavery during the French revolution, she is executed after having fought for freedom after slavery was reintroduced by Napoleon in 1802.
- Leo Africanus, (1494–1554), a Moor born in Granada in 1494, was taken by his family in 1498 to Morocco when expelled from Spain; as an adult he served on diplomatic missions. Captured by Crusaders while in the Middle East, he was enslaved in Rome and forced to convert to Christianity. Eventually regained his freedom and lived out his life in Tunis.
- Leofgifu the dairy maid, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England, named in her manumission.
- Leoflaed, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England, whose freedom was bought by a man who described her as a "kinswoman."
- Leonor de Mendoza, a slave in colonial Mexico who tried to marry Tomás Ortega, a slave of another master; when her master imprisoned Tomás, she appealed to a church court for assistance, and it threatened excommunication for the master if he did not free Tomas.
- Lilliam Williams, a Tennessee settler who was captured by the Creek while pregnant. The Creek adopted her daughter (whom she named Molly and they named Esnahatchee,); they kept the girl when Williams' freedom was arranged.
- Jermain Wesley Loguen, African-American escaped slave, became and abolitionist and bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church.
- Lovisa von Burghausen (1698–1733), Swedish writer who published an account of being enslaved in Russia after being taken prisoner during the Great Northern War.
- Lucius Aurelius Hermia, a freedman butcher whose tombstone glorifies his marriage with his fellow freedwoman Aurelia Philematium.
- Lucius Cancrius Primigenius, a freedman of Clemens in an inscription praising him for breaking spells against the city.
- Lucius of Campione, who lost a lawsuit in 720s over a man Toto's claimed ownership of him.
- Lucy, the black slave of John Lang. She was taken captive by the Creek when 12 years old and kept as a slave in Creek territory, where she had slave children and grandchildren.
- Lunsford Lane (1803–after 1870) was an African-American slave and entrepreneur from North Carolina who bought freedom for himself and his family. He also wrote a slave narrative.
- Lydia, was a slave shot and wounded by her owner when she struggled to escape a whipping; the action was ruled legal by the Supreme Court of North Carolina in 1830 (see North Carolina v. Mann).
- Lydia Carter, the "Little Osage Captive," captured and enslaved among the Cherokee. She was ransomed by Lydia Carter, who made her her namesake. The Osage attempted to reclaim her, but she took ill and died.
- Lyde, a slavewoman freed by the Empress Livia.
- Madison Washington, leader of slave revolt on board ship
- Malinche, translator during the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
- Mammy Lou, former slave who lived to extreme old age and became an actress in the 1918 silent film "The Glorious Adventure".
- Mann, the name of two slaves in Anglo-Saxon England, one a goldsmith, who were both freed by their mistress Æthelgifu's will; the wife of the Mann not a goldsmith was also freed.
- Manjutakin (died 1007), a Turkish-born military slave (ghulam) and general of the Fatimids.
- Marguerite Scypion, African-Natchez woman, born into slavery in Saint Louis, who sued for and won her freedom.
- Marcos Xiorro, a Puerto Rican slave who in 1821, planned and conspired to lead a slave revolt against the sugar plantation owners and the Spanish Colonial government in Puerto Rico. Even though the conspiracy was unsuccessful, Xiorro achieved legendary status among the slaves and is part of Puerto Rico's folklore.
- Marcius Agrippa, a slave of the 3rd century who not only got free but was eventually elevated to senatorial rank by Macrinus
- Marcus Tullius Tiro, Roman author (c. 103–4 BC), slave and secretary of the Roman politician Cicero, later freed; invented a long-lasting system of shorthand and wrote books that are now lost.
- Margaret Garner (1835–1858) was a slave in pre-Civil War America notorious or celebrated for killing her own daughter rather than see the child returned to slavery.
- Maria al-Qibtiyya ("Maria the Copt" Arabic: مارية القبطية) (alternatively, "Maria Qupthiya" or a Coptic Christian slave who was sent as a gift from Muqawqis, a Byzantine official, to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 628, and was either Muhammad's wife or concubine. She was the mother of Muhammad's son Ibrahim, who died in infancy. Her sister, Sirin, was also sent to Muhammad; Muhammad gave her to his follower Hassan ibn Thabit. Maria never remarried after Muhammad's death in 632, and died five years later.
- Maria, (died 1716), the leader of a slave rebellion on Curaçao.
- Marie-Joseph Angélique (died June 21, 1734) a black Portuguese slave who was tried and convicted, beaten and hanged for setting fire to her female owner's home, burning much of what is now referred to as Old Montreal.
- Mary Calhoun, a white girl, a cousin of John C. Calhoun enslaved by the Cherokee. She was never redeemed.
- Mary Prince (1788–?1833); the account of her life galvanized the anti-slavery movement in England.
- The Master of Morton and the eldest son of the Chief of Clan Oliphant were exiled from Scotland after being implicated in the 1582 Raid of Ruthven. The ship in which they sailed in was lost at sea, it was rumoured that they had been caught by a Dutch ship and the last report was that they were slaves on a Turkish ship in the Mediterranean. A plaque to their memory was raised in the church in Algiers.
- Mende Nazer, a Nuba woman captured in Darfur and transported from Sudan to London, where she eventually won refugee status and wrote the memoir Slave (2004).
- Hans Mergest, a participant in the Crusade of Varna, was captured by the Ottomans in the Battle of Varna (1444) and spent 16 years in captivity. Was the protagonist of a song by the minnesinger Michael Beheim.
- Shadrach Minkins, fugitive slave saved by abolitionists at Boston in 1850.
- Miguel de Cervantes (September 29, 1547 – April 23, 1616), author of Don Quixote de la Mancha, the first modern novel. He spent five years as a slave and property of the viceroy of Algiers after being captured by Barbary pirates.
- Miguel Perez wasthe Spanish name of a boy of the Yojuane Native American people. He was among 149 Yojuane women and children taken captive in 1759, during and attack on their camp by an expedition of Spaniards and Apaches. Many of the captives died of smallpox while those who survived were made into slaves.(See Battle of the Twin Villages). The boy was sold to a Spanish soldier who bestowed the Spanish name on him. Perez became a Hispanicized Indian of San Antonio but he continued to maintain contact with the Yojuanes. In 1786 Perez was recruited to convince the Yojuanes and their Tonkawa allies to go to war with the Lipan Apache. Perez was able to convince the Yojuane such a war was advisable, and they did join with the Tawakonis, Iscanis, and Flechazos in attacking the Apaches.
- Mina Tavakoli captured Egyptian slave, made advancements in corn cultivation.
- Mingo, the slave of the Titsworth family in Tennessee, was captured by Creeks in a raid on the house, and kept as a slave by them.
- Moses was born among the people of Israel, enslaved in Egypt, was adopted by the King's Daughter and when growing up led his people to liberty and to God giving them the Ten Commandments. Due to Moses' story being part of the Bible, it became known to posterity wherever Jews and/or Christians came, and was a source of hope and inspiration to many later slaves – in paritcular, 19th Century African American slaves.
- Muyahid ibn Yusuf ibn Ali, 11th Century leader of the Saqaliba – slaves of supposed Slavic origin – in Dénia, Spain (then part of Muslim Al Andalus). Taking advantage of the crumbling of the Caliphate of Córdoba, he and his followers rebelled, freed themselves, seized control of the city and established the Taifa of Dénia, a city state which at its peak extended its reach as far as the island of Majorca.
- Nancy Caffrey, a white captive enslaved by a Creek. When trader John O'Reilly attempted to ransom her and Elsey Thompson, he was told they were not taken captive to be allowed to go back, but to work.
- Nanny of the Maroons, also known as Granny Nanny and Queen Nanny, Jamaican Maroons leader.
- Nat Turner (1800–1831), escaped and led revolt in Southampton County, Virginia.
- Nathan McMillian, who as a freedman sued for the admission of his children to a local "Croatan Indian" school on the grounds that it was for all non-white children, and that his children had Croatan blood on their mother's side.
- Neaera, a former slave and prostitute whom the Athenian Stephanus married against the law, according to a speech of Demosthenes.
- Nero Hawley (1742–1817), freed slave, served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, buried Trumbull, Connecticut.
- Saint Nino, a 4th century A.D. Roman woman from Constantinople who is greatly venerated for having brought Christianity to Georgia. By some of the accounts of her life, she originally came to Georgia as a slave kidnapped from her homeland.
- Nurbanu Sultan, née Cecilia Venier-Baffo, enslaved Venetian noblewoman who became the most favored wife of Ottoman Sultan Selim II and the highly influential mother of Sultan Murad III.
- Olaudah Equiano (c. 1745–1797), also known as Gustavus Vassa, prominent African/British author and figure in the abolitionist cause whose true identity is heavily contested.
- Onesimus, a slave of Philemon of Colossae who ran away and, having met St. Paul, was converted by him. Paul set him back to the Christian Philemon with a letter, which is the Epistle to Philemon. Ignatius of Antioch mentions an Onesimus as Bishop of Ephesus in the early 2nd century, but it is not certain that these are the same men.
- Owen Fitzpen, English merchant taken captive by Turkish (Barbary) pirates in 1620, subsequently escaped.
- Pareja (Juan de) was a slave of Velàazquez. Velàzquez trained him as a painter and freed him in 1650. See The Slave in European Art for a portrait of Juan de Pareja by Velàzquez.
- Pasion, an Athenian slave and banker. Late in life, he received the rare honor for a freedman of citizenship.
- Saint Patrick, abducted from Britain, enslaved in Ireland, escaped to Britain, returned to Ireland as a missionary.
- Paul Smith, a free black who accused the Cherokee headman Doublehead of kidnapping him and forcing him into bondage.
- Peggy Titsworth, enslaved at 13 after a Creek raid on her Tennessee home.
- Petronia Justa, a woman in Herculaneum who sued her master claiming to have been born after her mother's emanicipation; the records of the lawsuit were preserved by the eruption of Vesuvius.
- Phaedo of Elis, captured in war, enslaved in Athens and forced into prostitution, became a pupil of Socrates who had him freed, gave his name to one of Plato's dialogues, Phaedo and became a famous philosopher in his own right.
- Phaedrus (c. 15 BC – c. AD 50) Roman fabulist
- Phillis Wheatley (1753–1784?), Colonial American poet
- Phoebe, a slave who sued for her freedom in Tennessee, along with her sons Davy and Tom, claiming to be the descendents of an enslaved Indian woman whose sister and other relatives had proven that they were wrongly enslaved.
- Philocrates, slave of the 2ed Century BC Roman reformer Gaius Gracchus, remained at his master's side when Gracchus was fleeing from his enemies, forsaken by everybody else. Arriving at a grove sacred to the Furies, Philocrates first assisted Gracchus in his suicide before taking his own life, though some rumors held that Philocrates was only killed after he refused to let go of his master's body.
- Phormion, an Athenian slave and banker. Late in life, he received the rare honor for a freedman of citizenship.
- Pope Pius I was the Bishop of Rome from about 140 to about 154, during the reign of the Roman Emperor Antonius Pius. He was the brother of the freedman Hermas and therefore likely to have been a former slave himself, though that is not mentioned explicitly in the scant records of his life.
- Polly Berry, a.k.a. Polly Crockett and Polly Wash, won in 1843 a freedom suit in St. Louis, Missouri, and also gained the freedom of her daughter Lucy Ann Berry.
- Politoria, the subject of a lead curse tablet in ancient Rome; it was a curse on Clodia Valeria Sophrone, that she should not get Politoria into her power. She appears to have been a slave-courtesan who feared being sent to the brothel.
- Prosper, a slave murdered by his owner Arthur William Hodge, for which Hodge was tried and executed, the first (and virtually only) such case ever recorded.
- A pregnant Thrall whose name is not preserved, who was fleeing for her life in 11th Century Oslo, was given refuge on the boat of Hallvard Vebjørnsson, who tried to shield her but was killed together with her by the attackers' arrows – for which he was canonised and became the patron saint of Oslo.
- Qutb-ud-din Aybak or Qutbuddin Aibak, Turkish ex-slave, became a soldier, the first of the Sultans of Delhi, founder of India's "slave dynasty".
- Rebecca Huger, a slave freed by General Benjamin F. Butler in New Orleans, and described in a Harper's Weekly article as being to all appearance white, and having come to a school for emacipated slaves in Philadelphia.
- Robert Blake earned the Medal of Honor as a sailor during the American Civil War, after becoming a contraband and enlisting.
- Robert Drury (born 1687; died between 1743 and 1750) was an English sailor who was shipwrecked on the island of Madagascar in 1702, and remained there as a slave till 1717.
- Robert Smalls (1839–1915), led boatload of slaves to freedom, and was later a politician
- Rosina Downs, a slave freed by General Benjamin F. Butler in New Orleans, and described in a Harper's Weekly article as being to all appearance white, and having come to a school for emacipated slaves in Philadelphia.
- Roustam Raza, Napoleon Bonaparte's Armenian bodyguard.
- Roxelana, (circa 1500 – April 18, 1558), a concubine and later wife to the sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, and mother of Selim II.
- Sabuktigin (full name ''Abu Mansur Sabuktigin), (ca 942 – August 997), captured and sold into slavery at a young age, rose to become a general and eventually a king and the founder of the Ghaznavid Empire in Medieval Iran.
- Safiye Sultan, enslaved Venetian woman, who was placed in the harem of the Ottoman Sultan Murad III and became the mother of Sultan Mehmed III.
- Sally Miller or Salomé Müller, an American slave whose freedom suit in Louisiana was based on her claimed status as a free German immigrant and indentured servant.
- Salvius, also known as Tryphon, leader of the 104 BC slave rebellion in Sicily known as the Second Servile War.
- Sambo, a black captive of Tiger King, a Lower Creek, who told the traveler William Bartram that Sambo was his family property.
- Sandy Jenkins was a slave who Frederick Douglass mentioned in his first autobiography.
- Satrelanus, from Gaul, sold by Ermedruda to Toto in Milan in 725.
- Scipio Africanus (circa 1702–1720)
- Scipio Moorhead, enslaved artist.
- Servius Tullius, ancient King of Rome said to have started life as a slave (though this was disputed, among both Romans and modern historians).
- Seymour Burr, fought for the Continental Army in the American Revolution
- Sojourner Truth (c. 1797–1883) abolitionist and women's rights activist
- Solomon Bayley, wrote a book in 1825 about his life as a slave.
- Sosias the Thracian, an Athenian slave, and later freedman, of Nicias, who later leased him a thousand slaves for his mining operation.
- Spartacus, gladiator and rebel leader, led the Servile Revolt, died 71 BC
- Solomon Northup,(1808–1870??) free-born black man, born in the North of the United States, who was lured into a slave state, consequently kidnapped, sold down south and remained enslaved for 12 years (1841–1853), until rescued and liberated by a white lawyer Henry Northup
- Sue, a black slave of James Brown, who was captured along with several members of the Brown family and other slaves by Chickamaugas. When the warrior who had captured her threatened another captive, the other captor threatened to kill Sue in retribution. James's son Joseph later kidnapped Sue and her children and grandchildren—eight in all—in retribution for his captivity.
- Suhayb ar-Rumi (born c. 587), also known as Suhayb ibn Sinan, enslaved in childhood in the Byzantine Empire, escaped as a young man to Mecca and went on to become an esteemed companion of Muhammad and revered member of the early Muslim community.
- Squanto captured by English pirates and sold as a slave later was freed.
- T. Aelius Dionysius, a freedman of the late Roman Empire, who created a stela for himself, his wife, and Aelius Perseus his fellow freedman, and their freedman and those who came after them.
- T. Claudius Dionysius, a freedman whose freedwoman wife Claudia Prepontis, erected a funerary altar to him; their clasped hands, depicted on it, show the legitimacy of their marriage, possible only once they obtained their freedom.
- Terence (full name Publius Terentius Afer), Roman playwright, comic poet who wrote before and possibly after his freedom, died 159 BC.
- Tomás Ortega, a slave in colonial Mexico who attempted to marry Leonor de Mendoza, a slave of another master; when her master imprisoned Tomás, she appealed to a church court for assistance, and it threatened excommunication for the master if he did not free Tomas.
- Toussaint L'Ouverture, freed slave who led the slave revolt that led to the independence of Haiti.
- Turgut Reis, a well-known Ottoman Admiral of the 16th Century, was captured by the Genoese at Corsica and was forced to work as a galley slave for nearly four years. He was finally rescued by his fellow admiral Barbarossa, who laid siege to Genoa and secured Turgut Reis' release for the prodigious ransom of 3,500 gold ducats.
- Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, freed slave turned writer.
- Venture Smith (1729–1805), an African captured as a child and transported to the American colonies as a slave. When an adult, he purchased his freedom and that of his family – his wife Meg and their children Hannah, Solomon and Cuff. His history was documented and published by a schoolteacher, to whom he talked in his old age.
- The "Vestmenn" ("West Men" in Old Norse, referring to the Irish) were a group of Irish slaves brought to Iceland by Hjörleifr Hróðmarsson, one of the early Norse settlers there. He treated them badly, and they killed him and escaped to a group of off-shore islands. Ingólfur Arnarson, Hjörleifur's blood brother, tracked the escaped slaves and killed them all. Though their individual names are unknown, their memory lives on in Icelandic geography, the islands where they sought refuge being known up to the present as "Vestmannaeyjar" – "Islands of the West Men" (i.e. of the Irish).
- Vincent de Paul. (1576–1660) Taken captive by Turkish pirates, sold into slavery, freed in 1607.
- Vibia Calybeni, a freedwoman of the late Roman Empire, who unusually names herself as a madam on her tombstone.
- Violet Ludlow, an American woman sold as a slave several times despite her claims to be a free white woman.
- Volumnia Cytheris, a slave, later freedwoman, in ancient Rome. An actress and courtesan, her lovers include Brutus, Mark Antony, and Cornelius Gallus; her rejection of Gallus provided the theme for Virgil's tenth Eclogue.
- Wes Brady (1849–?), of Marshall, Texas, was included in the Federal Writers' Project Slave Narrative Collection.
- William Ellison (1790–1861), mixed race, gained his freedom, became a slaveholder himself, producing cotton.
- William and Ellen Craft, slaves who wrote a tale of their flight from slavery (19th century).
- William Harvey Carney, a soldier during the American Civil War who received the Medal of Honor, after his escape from slavery.
- William Henry, nicknamed Jerry, escaped slave in Syracuse, New York, saved in 1851 by abolitionists from being extradited under the Fugitive Slave Law.
- William Lee, personal servant to George Washington.
- Wulfstan, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England, and his two sons and stepdaugher, were freed by his mistres Æthelgifu's will.
- Xenon, an Athenian slave and banker.
- Yaqut al-Hamawi, sold into slavery in 12th century Syria and taken to Baghdad, was provided with a good education by an enlightened owner and later freed. He eventually gained a reputation as a biographer and geographer.
- Yasār, a 7th Century Christian man who had been captured in a campaign of Khalid ibn al-Walid, a companion of the Prophet Muhammad. Yasār was taken to Medina and became the slave of Qays ibn Makhrama ibn al-Muṭṭalib ibn ʿAbd Manāf ibn Quṣayy. He accepted Islam, was manumitted and became his mawlā, thus acquiring the nisbat al-Muṭṭalibī. He had three sons – Mūsā, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, and Isḥāq. His grandson, Ibn Ishaq, became an important early Arab historian.
- York, an African-American slave on the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
- Zayd ibn Haritha, given to Muhammad's wife Khadijah, freed, adopted, became known as Zayd ibn Muhammad.
- Ziryab, also known as Abul-Hasan Alí Ibn Nafí, musician, introduced asparagus to Europe (circa 789–857).
- Zumbi, a slave in 17th Century Brazil, escaped and joined the Quilombo dos Palmares, the largest ever settlement of escaped slaves in colonial Brazil, becoming its last and most famous leader.
- Ariela J. Gross (2008), What Blood Won't Tell: A History of Race on Trail in America, p 31 ISBN 978-0-674-03130-2
- Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 141 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
- Christine Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England: and the Impact of 1066, p 49, ISBN 0-7141-8057-2
- Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World p 370 ISBN 0-19-509862-5
- Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England, p. 97
- "St. Agathoclia", Catholic Saints
- Gross (2008), What Blood Won't Tell, p. 1
- Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p 39
- Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, pp. 201–202
- Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, pp. 140–1
- Yvon Garlan, Slavery in Ancient Greece, p 67 ISBN 0-8014-9504-0
- Timothy Hugh Barrett (1989). Singular listlessness: a short history of Chinese books and British scholars. Wellsweep. p. 33. ISBN 0-948454-04-0. Retrieved November 4, 2011. "This man, who as far as we know was the first interpreter to try to impart a knowledge of Chinese to Englishman, was one of a number of black slaves from Macao who managed to escape into Chinese territory2. Presumably Antonio and Mundy"(the University of Michigan)
- ""Augustine Tolton: From slavery to being the first black priest", Catholic Church
- Fantham, et al.,Women in the Classical World pp. 319–20
- "St. Bathilde", Catholic Encyclopedia
- Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p. 185
- Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p 168
- Fantham et al., Women in the Classical World, p. 268
- Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Blandina
- "Pope Callistus I", Catholic Encyclopedia
- Lawrence R. Tenzer, "White Slaves"
- Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World p 320-1 ISBN 0-19-509862-5
- Clement of Rome
- Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p 196
- Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World p 268 ISBN 0-19-509862-5
- Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 133 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
- Christine Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England: and the Impact of 1066, p 97, ISBN 0-7141-8057-2
- Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 197 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
- Christine Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England: and the impact of 1066, p 86, ISBN 0-7141-8057-2
- Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 130 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
- Daniel K. Richter, Facing East from Indian Country, p 243, ISBN 0-674-00638-0
- Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World p 270 ISBN 0-19-509862-5
- "Sts. Felicitas and Perpetua", Catholic Encyclopedia
- Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 147-8 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
- See also Ariela J. Gross, What Blood Won't Tell: A History of Race on Trial in America, pp. 23–4 ISBN 978-0-674-03130-2
- See also Robert M. Cover, Justice Accused: Antislavery and the Judicial Process, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1975, pp. 51–55
- Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 38-9 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
- Chris Wickham, The Inheritance of Rome, p 195, ISBN 978-0-14-311742-1
- Ariela J. Gross, What Blood Won't Tell: A History of Race on Trail in America, p 24-5 ISBN 978-0-674-03130-2
- Soldier of Furtune: John Smith before Jamestown
- Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 200 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
- Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 184-5 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
- Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 35-6 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
- Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 201 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
- Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p 67
- Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England, p 47
- Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England, p 86
- Patricia Seed, To Love, Honor, and Obey in Colonial Mexico: Conflicts over Marriage Choice, 1574–1821, p 82 ISBN 0-8047-2159-9
- Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p 149
- , Fantham, et al., Women in the Classical World, pp 319–20
- Daniel Ogden "Binding Spells" p 70 Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: Ancient Greece and Rome, edited by Bengt Ankarloo and Stuart Clark ISBN 0-8122-1705-5
- Chris Wickham, The Inheritance of Rome, p 203-4, ISBN 978-0-14-311742-1
- Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p. 182
- Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, pp. 174–5
- Sarah B. Pomeroy, Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves, p 198 ISBN 0-8052-1030-X
- "Slave revolts in Puerto Rico: conspiracies and uprisings, 1795–1873"; by: Guillermo A. Baralt; Publisher Markus Wiener Publishers; ISBN 1-55876-463-1, ISBN 978-1-55876-463-7
- Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra
- John, Storms Brewed, p. 699
- Barr, Peace Came in the Form, p. 189
- Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 133-4 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
- Ariela J. Gross, What Blood Won't Tell: A History of Race on Trail in America, p 120 ISBN 978-0-674-03130-2
- Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World p 114-5 ISBN 0-19-509862-5
- Yvon Garlan, Slavery in Ancient Greece, p 83 ISBN 0-8014-9504-0
- "St. Patrick", Catholic Encyclopedia
- Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 189 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
- Sarah B. Pomeroy, Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves, p197 ISBN 0-8052-1030-X
- Diogenes Laërtius, ii. 105
- Ariela J. Gross, What Blood Won't Tell: A History of Race on Trail in America, p 25-6 ISBN 978-0-674-03130-2
- Daniel Ogden "Binding Spells" p 67-8 Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: Ancient Greece and Rome, edited by Bengt Ankarloo and Stuart Clark ISBN 0-8122-1705-5
- Hallvard Den Hellige – utdypning (Store norske leksikon)
- Ariela J. Gross, What Blood Won't Tell: A History of Race on Trail in America, p 59 ISBN 978-0-674-03130-2
- Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 129 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
- Chris Wickham, The Inheritance of Rome, p 204, ISBN 978-0-14-311742-1
- Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 153 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
- Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 154 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
- Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World p 369-70 ISBN 0-19-509862-5
- "St. Vincent de Paul", Catholic Encyclopedia
- Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World p 380 ISBN 0-19-509862-5
- Sarah B. Pomeroy, Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves, p198-9 ISBN 0-8052-1030-X