|Founded||1956 (as Vietnam Civil Aviation)|
|Secondary hubs||Da Nang International Airport|
|Frequent-flyer program||Golden Lotus Plus|
|Airport lounge||Golden Lotus Lounge|
|Destinations||51 (20 domestic; 28 international; 3 seasonal)|
|Company slogan||Bringing Vietnamese Culture to the World|
|Parent company||Vietnam Airlines Corporation|
|Headquarters||Long Bien, Hanoi, Vietnam|
Vietnam Airlines Company Limited, trading as Vietnam Airlines (Vietnamese: Hãng Hàng không Quốc gia Việt Nam), is the national flag carrier of Vietnam. Founded in 1956 under the name Vietnam Civil Aviation, the airline was established as a state enterprise in April 1989. Vietnam Airlines is headquartered in Long Bien, Hanoi, with hubs at Noi Bai International Airport and Tan Son Nhat International Airport. The airline flies to 51 destinations in 17 countries, excluding codeshared services.
Vietnam Airlines was officially formed in 1996, after bringing together several service companies. The company is overseen by a seven-seat management board, members of which are appointed by the Vietnamese Prime Minister.
With the core activity of the airline being passenger transportation, Vietnam Airlines also earns revenue from catering and the maintenance and overhauling of aircraft through a number of its subsidiaries. The maintenance and overhauling of aircraft is handled by Vietnam Airlines Engineering Company (VAECO), while the former is performed by Noibai Catering Services Join-Stock Company and Vietnam Air Caterer, who cater airlines that use Vietnam Airlines’ hubs. The airline also controls and operates its cargo division, Vietnam Airlines Cargo, using the airline’s luggage hold on its passenger fleet, as well as a number of dedicated aircraft.[nb 1] Vietnam Airlines owns 100% of Vietnam Air Service Company (VASCO) —a regional airline in southern Vietnam—, 70% of the low-cost carrier Jetstar Pacific Airlines, and 49% of the Cambodian national airline Cambodia Angkor Air.
Vietnam Airlines can trace its roots back to January 1956 when it was established by the North Vietnamese government under the name "Vietnam Civil Aviation" following the nationalisation of Gia Lam Airport. It was instituted after the government signed the Decree. 666/TTg. The airline was created as part of the air force for civilian purposes with support from both the Soviet Union and China; initially, its fleet consisted of two Lisunov Li-2s that were later replaced by two Ilyushin Il-14 and three Aero Ae-45s. This was because there was an embargo that prohibited the airline leasing and/or buying American technology or components.,
The airline's development and expansion was seriously hampered by the Vietnam War (1954–1975). Following the war, its first international destination was Beijing, followed by Vientiane in 1976. During that year, the airline was known as General Department of Civil Aviation in Vietnam, and began full operations, carrying around 21,000 passengers, one-third of which were on international flights and 3,000 tonnes (6,600,000 lb) of cargo. In 1978, another important destination of Vietnam Airlines was added, with flights offered to Bangkok. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the expansion of the network to Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Manila and Singapore.
In 1990, the company initiated discussions regarding the incorporation of Western-built aircraft into the fleet. Late that year, however, the carrier had to cancel the acquisition of two Airbus A310s due to these aircraft using US-manufactured engines. By July 1991 , the airline struck a wet-lease agreement with Dutch lessor TransAvia. The aircraft involved was a Boeing 737-300, that arrived in Vietnam Airlines' livery. However, the aircraft was returned after the U.S. State Department pressured the Dutch lessor to remove the aircraft from Vietnam. Subsequently, Vietnam Airlines organized a similar but more complicated deal with Swiss charter flights provider TEA Basle, who spent the rest of 1991 negotiating a deal with US authorities. Eventually, a solution stating that "[the Boeing 737] must be positioned outside Vietnam, with no logo or lettering of Vietnam Airlines. On these conditions, it could operate on behalf of Vietnam Airlines" was reached. In December 1991 , Cathay Pacific and Vietnam Airlines agreed on a 50–50 joint venture to operate between Hong Kong and Vietnam; this was because the airline's Tupolev Tu-134 fleet did not meet Kai Tak Airport's noise restrictions.
In October 1992Boeing 737 was complemented by an Airbus A310. However, a dispute with Bulgarian Jes Air over who should pay for the repairs after the aircraft sustained an engine failure led to its replacement with another A310 from GATX, also operated by Jes Air. A similar dispute with United Technologies encouraged the airline to switch from Airbus to Boeing. Hence, a Boeing 767-200ER, leased from Ansett Worldwide Aviation Services (AWAS), arrived in January 1993, and a Royal Brunei Airlines Boeing 767-300ER, arrived the following year. In October 1993, the first Airbus A320-200 was incorporated over a two-year wet-lease contract with Air France. By that time, Air France and Vietnam Airlines had started discussions about working together, and the French carrier agreed to lease its Airbuses to Vietnam Airlines, and also to provide customer support and pilot/crew training.:31 Also by that time the route network expanded internationally, seeing the incorporation of Paris, Tokyo, Seoul, Taipei, Sydney, and Melbourne, among others., the
New enterprise: 1993 and onwards
In 1993 the airline completed its restructuring programme which had been started four years earlier. In that year, the airline split from the Civil Aviation Administration of Vietnam (CAAV) and became a state enterprise.:30 The move was similar to the reorganization of the Civil Aviation Administration of China into several regional airlines in 1987. Despite the fact that the airline gained some independence from the CAAV, it was still known as Civil Aviation Administration of Vietnam within the 1993–1996 period.
In February 1994US president Bill Clinton lifted the trade embargo to allow Vietnam Airlines the ability to freely acquire Western-built aircraft. Consequently, Vietnam Airlines announced in April of the same year that it would be phasing out its inefficient Soviet planes. In 1996, the airline, along with a number of other aviation-related businesses, were incorporated to establish the present Vietnam Airlines Corporation. In September, Vietnam Airlines started offering business class services and in 1999, the airline launched its frequent-flyer program, Golden Lotus Plus. During 1996, Vietnam Airlines looked for aircraft which would substitute the A320s wet-leased from Air France when the deal is over. Apart from acquiring further A320s, the airline considered Boeing 737s and McDonnell Douglas MD-90s. With its freedom to operate Western-built aircraft, Vietnam Airlines considered the acquisition of long-haul aircraft to better service Vietnamese living overseas. The Airbus A340, Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 were topics of discussion. Meanwhile, two Fokker 70s were acquired in May and July to replace the twelve Tupolev Tu-134s, as well as to serve as VIP transport.:31,
In December 2001Boeing 777-200ERs, which were delivered in 2003. These four aircraft, along with six others of the same type that are leased from International Lease Finance Corporation (ILFC), are the flagships of the airline, and are deployed mainly on long-haul flights to Australia and Europe, as well as flights between the airline's hubs., Vietnam Airlines signed a historic agreement with Boeing. It ordered its first ever US-built aircraft, signalling the start of trade under the Bilateral Trade Agreement between the two countries. The airline actually ordered four
During 2002, Vietnam Airlines considered a lease offer from Airbus for two Airbus A340-300s. However, the airline later settled on a four-aircraft direct order from Boeing for the Boeing 777-200ER. On 4 September 2003, a landmark ceremony celebrated VNA's receipt of its first Boeing 777-200ER purchased outright from Boeing. The aircraft was the first of four 777s ordered by the airline. On 28 October, the airline decided to move its operations in Moscow from Sheremetyevo International Airport to Domodedovo International Airport.
In June 2005Boeing 787-8s. Twelve additional 787-8s were ordered in late 2007, some of them to be directly acquired from the company, and the rest to be purchased by the carrier's subsidiary Vietnam Aircraft Leasing Company (VALC). These new aircraft were to allow Vietnam Airlines to expand its network and replace some leased aircraft. However, owing to delays in the 787 program, Vietnam Airlines has only received the A321s. Regarding the delays from Boeing, Vietnam Airlines CEO Pham Ngoc Minh noted in September 2009, Vietnam Airlines ordered four
We are not happy about the constant delays. It affects our business plan. We expected to get our planes in 2009, then 2010, and now nobody can confirm to us which is the exact delivery date. I can be patient but it gives us a lot of headaches.
In 2010 the airline switched its Boeing 787 order from the –8 to the –9 model, stating that 787-8s did not meet all the requirements Boeing initially promised; it is expected the airline will receive its first aircraft of the type in 2015.
On 20 June 2005, the airline launched services to Frankfurt after having discontinued services to Berlin. It came after the 2004–2005 period when travel between the two countries soared 70 percent. The following year, Vietnam Airlines was admitted into IATA. As part of the move, Vietnam Airlines had to meet the association’s IOSA safety standards.
According to a number of newspaper reports in 2007, the Vietnamese government planned to partly privatize Vietnam Airlines. In the plan, the government considered selling 20 to 30 percent of the airline’s stake to outsiders, with the government holding the balance. This was a small part of a bigger proposal by the government to privatize its state-owned companies, due to be completed by 2010. Vietnam authorized the plan the following year; however, the plan was not carried out as the airline missed its deadline scheduled by the government, which was arranged for 2010, due to the Global Financial Crisis.
On 1 October 2007, the airline and VALC signed an memorandum of understanding (MOU) for the purchase of ten Airbus A350s, and 20 additional Airbus A321s. The Airbus A350s will supplement the Boeing 787s already ordered by the airline. This single order will result in Vietnam Airlines becoming one of the largest Airbus operators in Asia. The two companies also ordered 5 extra ATR 72–500s in December 2007 .
Vietnam was chosen as the host of Miss World's 60th contest in 2008. As the country's national airline, Vietnam Airlines was selected as the sponsoring airline for the contest. As the official airline of the beauty pageant, the airline was tasked the job of managing all the transportation for the contest, to be carried out during September and October, just before the beginning of the competition. However, it was later decided to carry out the event in Sanya, China, following speculations of Vietnam withdrawing.
In 2009, Vietnam Airlines and the Government of Cambodia established a joint-venture, having 49% and 51% stockholding, respectively, with the goal of boosting tourism in Cambodia. The joint-venture was a new Cambodian national airline named Cambodia Angkor Air, which started flying in July the same year, using ATR72 equipment. An Airbus A321 joined the fleet in September. Also in 2009, the carrier signed a deal for another 16 Airbus A321s plus two Airbus A350s, during the Paris Air Show, and a new bilingual website was launched in October to make bookings easier.
On 26 August 2010, the airline teamed up with Boeing during the unveiling of its interior modernization programme in order to increase passenger comfort. From late September to early October, Vietnam Airlines discounted up to 85% of its 90,000 fares to celebrate Thang Long-Hanoi's 1000th anniversary. In November 2010, the airline awarded Honeywell a US$100 million contract to retrofit the Airbus A321s' aircraft flight systems, which is calculated to save Vietnam Airlines US$10,000 per aircraft per year.
In February 2012Jetstar Pacific Airlines to 70%, with Qantas holding the balance. The Vietnamese flag carrier was the major shareholder in Vietnam's second largest airline, but its stake had been transferred to the Ministry of Finance, and subsequently to the Vietnamese State Capital Investment Corporation (SCIC). VNA's takeover of SCIC's stake in Jetstar Pacific will capitalise the low-cost carrier with US$27 million, an amount that will be directed towards fleet renewal. In late April 2012 , the aircraft lessor ALC announced the placement of an order for eight Boeing 787-9s, which will be leased to Vietnam Airlines; deliveries are expected to start in 2017. In late May 2012 , the carrier signed an agreement with Vietnam's ExIm Bank for a loan worth US$100 million, which the carrier will use to finance the acquisition of four Airbus A321s., Vietnam Airlines boosted its stake in the low-cost carrier
The company is planning an IPO in 2013. The Vietnam government will reduce its stake in the airline from currently 80 per cent to 65 - 70 per cent after the company issues its IPO. 
With the expected arrival of seventy aircraft during the next ten years, Vietnam Airlines is considering significantly expanding its route map. The airline is particularly interested in launching services to the United States, where more than 1.2 million Vietnamese currently reside. Such plans have been confirmed in December 2003, but have since been postponed because Vietnam is not yet part of Federal Aviation Administration's aviation safety assessment programme. The airline, however, is expected to launch the service in early 2011. Vietnam Airlines also "considering opening new routes such as Ho Chi Minh City/Hanoi, Vietnam–London; Ho Chi Minh City/Hanoi–Shanghai/Beijing, China; Ho Chi Minh City–Mumbai, India; Ho Chi Minh City–Brisbane, Australia; and Ho Chi Minh City–Doha, Qatar", according to CEO Pham Ngoc Minh.
While the airline had launched flights to London, Beijing and Shanghai, there are currently no flights to Mumbai, Qatar, and Brisbane. The Ho Chi Minh City–London-Gatwick route, however, is planned to commence on 10 December 2011, with preparations underway to accommodate the airline's aircraft at one of the UK's airport. In April, the airline announced it would start direct flights to London before the year's end. The airline also plans to open flights to the United States in 2012.
By 2020, VNA plans to increase its revenue to US$7 billion—up from $1.86 billion in 2010—by carrying 620,000 tonnes of cargo and 35 million passengers, using a fleet of 163 aircraft. It aims to capture a market share of 45% of Vietnam's aviation market. During its first 15 years of operation, from 1996 to 2010, Vietnam Airlines carried a total of 82 million passengers on board 678,550 flights. Furthermore, Vietnam Airlines plans to transfer most of its international operations from its current hub, Tan Son Nhat International Airport, to the now-under construction Long Thanh International Airport. With a cost of approximately US$6 billion, the airport will, according to Vietnamese authorities, be a major gateway into Southeast Asia, at the same time helping Vietnam Airlines boost its operations internationally.
Corporate affairs and identity
|Industry||Aircraft maintenace and overhaul, catering, cargo and passenger transport|
|Founded||1996 (with roots tracing back to 1954)|
|Headquarters||Long Bien, Hanoi, Vietnam|
|Area served||Asia, Europe, North America and Oceania|
Vietnam Airlines is wholly owned by the government of Vietnam.:5 In 2005, it had a workforce of over 14,000 employees, of whom 9,000 worked for the airline. The airline is headed and overseen by a seven-seat management team, members of which are selected by the Prime Minister of Vietnam. Currently, Nguyen Sy Hung is the chairman of the company, with Pham Ngoc Minh being the President and CEO. As of June 2012[update], the airline branch of the corporation had 11,108 employees. Currently the airline is headquartered in the Long Bien district of Hanoi. although its headquarters were previously at Gia Lam Airport in Gia Lam, Hanoi.
Transportation of dangerous goods, cabin crew training, crew-resource management (CRM) and pilot training are all safety enhancing programs taught to airline personnel. New Vietnamese pilots are assigned as Western-type aircraft co-pilots. All pilots—both national and foreign—receive biannual simulator training and periodic line checks by Western pilots. A Hanoi-based Airbus cabin mock-up is specifically used for smoke and evacuation training.
In October 2010, the airline and Bay Viet Flight Training Joint-Stock Company agreed to train 60 pilots in Vietnam during the 2011–2012 period. As of 2010, Vietnam Airlines needed 636 pilots, 60% of which are Vietnamese. By 2015, Vietnam Airlines plans to raise that figure it by 75%, meaning there will be at least 100 new recruits each year from 2010 until 2015.
Vietnam Airlines has enjoyed an average of 37 percent increase in passengers flown per year until 1997, when the Asian Financial Crisis and other contributing causes led to a loss in profits for the airline. Nevertheless, the airline remained profitable throughout the crisis. In 1996, the airline carried 2.5 million passengers, up 18% from 1995. The airline carried more than 4 million passengers in 2002, which is an 18% increase over the previous year. Its cargo traffic also climbed 20 percent during the same period, resulting in a 2002 profit of US$35.77 million.
Despite the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, the airline posted a US$26.2 million profit for 2003. In 2006, it carried 6.8 million passengers (3.7 million international) and earned revenue of nearly US$1.37 billion (first 11 months). Vietnam Airlines carried more than 8 million passengers, of which 3.3 million were international travellers in 2007, the year which saw the airline earning a gross profit of US$23 million. It also transported 115,100 tonnes of cargo. In 2009, the airline's revenue was US$1.3 billion, compared to US$1.56 billion it earned the previous year. During this period, Vietnam Airlines carried 9.3 million passengers. According to Anna.Aero, Vietnam Airlines’ passenger capacity for 2010 has risen 30 percent over the same period of the previous year. This also coincides with the increase in capacity at Vietnamese airports, at 21%.
Vietnam Airlines holds about 40 percent of the market share of international tourists flying to and from Vietnam. This is significant because Vietnam Airlines receives two-thirds of its profits from international passengers. Domestically, Vietnam Airlines and its subsidiary Vietnam Air Service Company (VASCO) has an 80% share of the aviation market, with the rest covered by Jetstar Pacific.
|Company||Type||Principal activities||Incorporated in||Group's equity shareholding|
|Cambodia Angkor Air||Joint venture||Passenger transport||Cambodia||49%|
|Jetstar Pacific Airlines||Subsidiary||Passenger transport||Vietnam||70%|
|Noibai Catering Services Join-Stock Company||Subsidiary||Catering||Vietnam||100%|
|Vietnam Air Service Company (VASCO)||Subsidiary||Passenger transport||Vietnam||100%|
|Vietnam Airlines Engineering Company (VAECO)||Subsidiary||Aircraft maintenance||Vietnam||100%|
|Vietnam Air Caterer||Joint venture||Catering||Vietnam||65%|
|Vietnam Air Leasing Company (VALC)||Joint venture||Aircraft leasing||Vietnam||20%|
Aircraft maintenance and production
Vietnam Airlines is increasingly becoming involved in the maintenance, overhauling, and production of aircraft. Current maintenance works are carried out by Vietnam Airlines Engineering Company (VAECO), that was established on 1 January 2009. VAECO was organized upon the amalgamation of the A75, A76 aircraft maintenance bases and Da Nang technical department. VAECO carries out maintenance and technical services for Vietnam Airlines as well as for other airlines. The establishment of this company opens a new era to the aircraft maintenance field in Vietnam. At present, VAECO is capable of performing a wide range of maintenance on many different aircraft types, including line maintenance on the A300; A-checks for the Boeing 767 and Airbus A330; C-checks on the ATR 72, Airbus A310/A320/A321 and Boeing 777; D-checks, the most thorough of all maintenance procedures, are carried out on the Fokker 70.
In addition to its self maintenance facilities, Vietnam Airlines also has maintenance contracts with Air France, AMECO of China, China Airlines, Evergreen Aviation Technologies, GAMECO, Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Co, Lufthansa AERO, MTU Maintenance Hanover, Royal Brunei Airlines, Safe Air of New Zealand, and TAT Industries of France.
There are currently no production facilities in Vietnam for aircraft and spare parts. However, Boeing has managed to obtain 35 per cent of the distribution market in Vietnam, and GE Aviation, in turn, supplies jet engines for the Boeing aircraft. For the future, conversely, Vietnam Airlines is planning to build a maintenance factory in conjunction with Rolls Royce and other companies. It has also signed an memorandum of understanding with European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS), which would let the corporation assemble and manufacture plane components in the future.
Vietnam Airlines has a network within East Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe and Oceania. With about 300 daily flights, the airline flies to 20 destinations domestically, and to 28 internationally. In addition, it has codeshare agreements with a number of airlines for 16 other routes, some of which span to North America. In 2010, the airline opened new routes to Can Tho and to Shanghai, China. Direct services to the Americas are contingent on the arrival of Vietnam Airlines' state-of-the-art Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner.
Vietnam Airlines traditionally increase flights between Vietnamese cities to cater for the heavy demands brought by the annual Tết celebration. This busy period, which could fall anywhere from late-January to mid-February, is Vietnam's most important celebration; hundreds of extra flights are scheduled by domestic airlines during this period to allow Vietnamese to return to their families, often in the rural ares, to celebrate the occasion. In 2010, the 562 extra flights of the Ho Chi Minh City–Hanoi trunk route increased capacity by 45% to 85%. The 288 extra flights between the Ho Chi Minh City and Da Nang increase capacity by 65% to 120%. From 18 January to 20 February 2011, Vietnam Airlines increased additional flights on 10 routes, adding more than 100,000 seats. More than half of these seats, about 63,000 (307 flights), were between the country's capital and Ho Chi Minh City. This represents a remarkable 41% increase against normal days.
As a SkyTeam member, Vietnam Airlines codeshares with most of the alliance members. The carrier also has codeshare agreements with four Oneworld members (American Airlines, Cathay Pacific, Japan Airlines and Qantas) and is part of Cathay Pacific's Asia Miles program. In April 2010, the airline struck a deal with the Air France division of Air France-KLM Group, which will see Vietnam Airlines flying to Paris using the Air France's AF flight code.
As of June 2013[update], Vietnam Airlines has a fleet of 85 aircraft. Around eight of these aircraft are leased to Cambodia Angkor Air. If the latter's fleet is not considered a part of VNA's fleet, Vietnam Airlines operated a fleet of 77 aircraft with an average age of 5.1 years as of June 2013[update].[nb 2] The carrier plans to expand its fleet to 110 aircraft by 2015.
Vietnam Airlines fleet
|Airbus A321-200||48||10||16||—||168||184||Short- to medium-haul international and domestic|
|Airbus A330-200||9||—||24||—||242||266||Medium-haul international and domestic||AVOD in-flight entertainment
VN-A371 aircraft painted in SkyTeam livery
|Airbus A350-900||—||10||TBA||2014||Long-haul international|
|ATR 72-500||16||—||—||—||66||66||Short-haul international and domestic||One aircraft stored|
|Boeing 777-200ER||10||—||25||54||228||307||Long-haul international and domestic||AVOD in-flight entertainment
|Boeing 787-9||—||8||TBA||2015||Long-haul international|
|Fokker 70||2||—||—||—||79||79||Short-haul international and domestic||Replacement aircraft: Airbus A321|
Vietnam Airlines Cargo is the air freight division of Vietnam Airlines, providing cargo service to destinations in Asia, Europe, North America and Oceania, through their own passenger planes as well as partners' planes.
Since its conception in 1956, the airline has operated a wide range of aircraft. This varies between Russia, American, and European aircraft. However, the airline currently only uses Boeing, ATR, Airbus and Fokker aircraft, having retiring Soviet-made planes. However, one Tu-134 and Ilyushin Il-18 have been retained as possible future museum exhibits, and are presently parked at the apron of Noi Bai International Airport.
Vietnam Airlines operated the following equipment all through its history:
- Aero Ae-45
- Airbus A300-600
- Airbus A300B4
- Airbus A310-200
- Airbus A310-300
- Airbus A320-200
- Airbus A321-100
- Airbus A340-200
- Airbus A330-300
- Antonov An-2
- Antonov An-24
- Boeing 707-320
- Boeing 707-320B
- Boeing 707-320C
- Boeing 727-200
- Boeing 737-300
- Boeing 767-200ER
- Boeing 767-300ER
- Douglas DC-3
- Ilyushin Il-14G
- Ilyushin Il-18D
- Tupolev Tu-134A
- Tupolev Tu-134B
- Yakovlev Yak-40
Business class is the highest of three cabin classes offered by the airline. As is the case with business class cabins in most airlines, the amenities offered in this class are substantially different from economy class, and more services and products are available. On Boeing 777s, business class seats are 61.3 centimetres (24.1 in) wide with 150 centimetres (59 in) of leg room – 69 centimetres (27 in) more than in economy class), and are able to recline with a pitch of 150°. Laid out in a 2–3–2 configuration, each seat is equipped with lumbar support and a 10.4 in. personal touch screen, capable of delivering AVOD. Hot meals are offered on flights lasting longer than two hours.
- Deluxe Economy
Deluxe economy, Vietnam Airlines’ equivalent of premium economy, has a wider seat width and legroom compared to Economy at 97 centimetres (38 in) (40 in.), and is laid out 3–3–3. This class is offered only on selected Boeing 777 flights. On flights over 90 minutes, snacks are served; on 2-hour plus flights, as in business class, hot meals are served.
Economy class is available on all flights operated by Vietnam Airlines. Seats in this cabin feature seats ranging from 20 inches (51 cm) (Airbus A330) to 20.9 inches (53 cm) (Boeing 777) in width. Seat pitch on this cabin class is 31–32 inches (79–81 cm) 31–32 in., while seat recline is from 6–13. Like Deluxe Economy, snacks are served on flights over 90 minutes, with hot meals available on flights that are 2 hours or more.
Accidents and incidents
According to Aviation Safety Network, Vietnam Airlines experienced six accidents/incidents since 1951, with two of them leading to fatalities. Both deadly accidents occurred on final approach, and both involved Soviet-built aircraft. The deadliest one took place on 3 September 1997, when a Tupolev Tu-134B-3 crashed after hitting trees on approach to Phnom Penh International Airport; the death toll rose to 65. The other fatal accident occurred on 14 November 1992, when a Yakovlev Yak-40 crashed on approach to Cam Ranh International Airport, killing 30 of 31 occupants aboard. The airline has also experienced a hijacking episode in 1992, without any recorded fatality.
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