||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (May 2015)|
|Founded||Stanford Shopping Center, San Francisco, California, U.S.
(June 2, 1977 )
|Headquarters||Three Limited Parkway, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.|
Number of locations
|1,017 company-owned stores
18 independently owned stores
|United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Mexico, China, Israel and Taiwan|
(CEO of Victoria's Secret Stores)
Sharen Jester Turney
(CEO and President of Victoria's Secret Megabrand and Intimate Apparel)
|Products||Underwear, women's clothing, lingerie, swimwear, footwear, fragrances and beauty products, and make up.|
Victoria's Secret is the largest American retailer of lingerie, 2012 sales were $6.12 billion. The company sells lingerie, womenswear, and beauty products through its catalogs (sending out 375 million a year), website, and its U.S. stores. Victoria's Secret is wholly owned by publicly traded L Brands company.
- 1 History
- 1.1 1977: Founding
- 1.2 1977–1980: The early years
- 1.3 1982: Sale to The Limited
- 1.4 1983: Strategy change
- 1.5 1983–1990: Expansion into malls
- 1.6 1990–1993: Persistent quality problems
- 1.7 1993–1999: Nichols resolves quality problems
- 1.8 Early 2000s: Decelerating growth leads to brand overhaul
- 1.9 2006–2008: Growth
- 2 Products and marketing
- 3 Reception
- 4 Competitors
- 5 Operating divisions
- 6 Corporate affairs
- 7 Controversies
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Eight years prior to founding Victoria's Secret, Raymond was embarrassed when purchasing lingerie for his wife at a department store. Newsweek reported him looking back on the incident from the vantage of 1981: "When I tried to buy lingerie for my wife," he recalls, "I was faced with racks of terry-cloth robes and ugly floral-print nylon nightgowns, and I always had the feeling the department-store saleswomen thought I was an unwelcome intruder."
During the 1970s and 1980s, most women in America purchased "dowdy", "pragmatic", "foundation garments" by Fruit of the Loom, Hanes, and Jockey in packs of three from department stores and saved "fancier items" for "special occasions" like honeymoons. "Lacy thongs and padded push-up bras" were niche products during this period found "alongside feathered boas and provocative pirate costumes at Frederick's of Hollywood" outside of the main stream product offerings available at department stores.
Raymond studied the lingerie market for eight years before borrowing $40,000 from his parents and $40,000 from a bank to establish Victoria's Secret: a store in which men could feel comfortable buying lingerie. The company's first store was located in Stanford Shopping Center in Palo Alto, California.
1977–1980: The early years
By 1980, Raymond had added two more San Francisco stores at 2246 Union Street and 115 Wisconsin Street.
By 1982, the fourth store (still in the San Francisco area) was added at 395 Sutter Street. Victoria's Secret stayed at that 395 Sutter Street location until 1991, when it moved to the larger Powell Street frontage of the Westin St. Francis.
The Victoria's Secret stores at this time were "a niche player" in the underwear market. The business was described as "more burlesque than Main Street."
1982: Sale to The Limited
Raymond's philosophy of focusing on selling lingerie to male customers became increasingly unprofitable and Victoria's Secret headed for bankruptcy.
In 1982, it had grown to six stores, a 42-page catalogue, and was grossing $6 million annually. Raymond sold Victoria's Secret Inc. to Leslie Wexner, creator of Limited Stores Inc of Columbus, Ohio, for $1 million. (Though the figure was not disclosed until later.)
1983: Strategy change
In 1983, Leslie Wexner revamped Victoria's Secret. He discarded the money-losing model of selling lingerie to male customers and replaced it with one that focused on women. Victoria's Secret transformed from "more burlesque than Main Street" to a mainstay that sold broadly accepted underwear. The "new colors, patterns and styles that promised sexiness packaged in a tasteful, glamorous way and with the snob appeal of European luxury" were supposed to appeal to and appease female buyers. To further this image, the Victoria's Secret catalog continued the practice that Raymond began: listing the company's headquarters on catalogs at a fake London address, with the real headquarters in Columbus, Ohio. The stores were redesigned to evoke 19th century England.
In 1986, four years after the sale, The New York Times commented, "in an industry where mark-downs have been the norm, the new emphasis is on style and service". The lingerie business was changing fast.
1983–1990: Expansion into malls
Howard Gross took over as president, from his position as vice-president, in 1985.
In October that year, the Los Angeles Times reported that Victoria's Secret was stealing market share from department stores; in 1986, Victoria's Secret was the only national chain of lingerie stores.
In 1987, Victoria's Secret was reportedly among the "best-selling catalogs". In 1990 analysts estimated that sales had quadrupled to $120 in four years, making it one of the fastest growing mail-order businesses.
The New York Times described it as a "highly visible leader", saying it used "unabashedly sexy high-fashion photography to sell middle-priced underwear."
Victoria's Secret also released their own line of fragrances in 1991.
1990–1993: Persistent quality problems
By the early 1990s, Victoria's Secret faced a gap in management that led to the "once hot lingerie chain" to be "plagued by persistent quality problems". Howard Gross, who had grown the company into a "lingerie empire" since Wexner's 1982 purchase, was moved to poorly performing L Brands subsidiary Limited Stores. Business Week reported that "both divisions have suffered".
1993–1999: Nichols resolves quality problems
Victoria's Secret introduced the Miracle Bra selling two million within the first year; but faced competition from Sara Lee's WonderBra a year later. The company responded to their rival with a TV campaign.
In 1999, the company aimed to increase its coverage with Body by Victoria.
Early 2000s: Decelerating growth leads to brand overhaul
In May 2000, Wexner installed Sharen Jester Turney, previously of Neiman Marcus Direct, as the new chief executive of Victoria's Secret Direct to turn around catalog sales that were lagging behind other divisions. Forbes reported Turney articulating, as she flipped through a Victoria's Secret catalog, "We need to quit focusing on all that cleavage."
In 2000, Turney began to redefine Victoria's Secret catalog from "breasts—spilling over the tops of black, purple and reptile-print underthings" to one that would appeal to an "upscale customer who now feels more comfortable buying La Perla or Wolford lingerie."; "dimming the hooker looks" such as "tight jeans and stilettos"; and moving from "a substitute for Playboy in some dorm rooms," to something closer to a Vogue lifestyle layout, where lingerie, sleepwear, clothes and cosmetics appear throughout the catalog.
Beginning in 2000, Grace Nichols, CEO of Victoria's Secret Direct, led a similar change at Victoria's Secret's stores - moving away from an evocation of 1800s England (or a Victorian bordello).
By 2006, Victoria's Secret's 1,000 stores across the United States accounted for one third of all purchases in the intimate apparel industry.
In May 2006, Wexner promoted Sharen Jester Turney from the Victoria's Secret catalog and online units to lead the whole company. In 2008, she acknowledged "product quality that doesn't equal the brand's hype".
Products and marketing
In 1989, FCB/Leber Katz Partners and Victoria's Secret executed a national advertising campaign featuring for the first time in the company history a ten-page glossy insert that appeared in the November issues of Elle, Vogue, Vanity Fair, Victoria, House Beautiful, Bon Appetit, New Woman, and People magazines. Victoria's Secret used the insert to announce their expansion into the toiletries and fragrance business. Up through to the ten page insert, Victoria's Secret growth had been driven by their catalog, sporadic ads in fashion publications, and word of mouth.
In 2002, swimwear was introduced and available via the web site and catalog; in the last three years, the swimwear has become more readily available in stores.
Recent product history
In 2010, Victoria's Secret launched the Incredible bra.
In 2012, Victoria's Secret launched the The Victoria's Secret Designer Collection described by Vogue as the company's "first high end lingerie line."
Over the course of Victoria's Secret's evolution, the company "has gone from being value-driven to creating a luxury-shopping experience and an aura of fashion associated with its product" which has been driven by marketing.
The Victoria's Secret Fashion Show is an annual "elaborate marketing tool for Limited Brands". The show is a mix of "beautiful models scantily clad in lingerie" and A-list entertainers "And every year, it becomes less about fashion and more about show".
The company gained notoriety in the early 1990s after it began to use supermodels in its advertising and fashion shows. Throughout the 2000s, Victoria's Secret has turned down celebrity models and endorsements.
In 1999, Victoria's Secret's 30 second Super Bowl advertisement led to one million visits to the company's website within an hour of airing.
In 2004, Victoria's Secret featured Bob Dylan in an advertisement to test new marketing possibilities while Victoria's Secret dropped their fashion show for 2004 as a result of the fallout from the Janet Jackson/Super Bowl incident that caused complaints from women's groups.
The brand turned to social networking in 2009, opening an official Facebook page and later on official Twitter and Pinterest accounts. It also expanded its website to feature behind-the-scenes content about its catalog and commercial shoots, as well as its fashion show.
Victoria's Secret Fashion Show
Beginning in 1995, Victoria's Secret began holding their annual Victoria's Secret Fashion Show, which is broadcast on primetime American television. Starting with the 1995 fashion show they are "a combination of self-assured strutting for women and voyeuristic pleasures for men—and lingerie becomes mainstream entertainment."
Ken Weil, vice president at Victoria's Secret, and Tim Plzak, responsible for IT at Victoria's Secret's parent company Intimate Brands, led Victoria's Secret's first ever online streaming of their fashion show in 1999. The 18 minutes webcast streamed February 2, 1999, was at the time the Internet's "biggest event" since inception. The 1999 webcast was reported as a failure by a number of newspapers on account of some user's inability to watch the show featuring Tyra Banks, Heidi Klum, and Stephanie Seymour as a result of Victoria's Secret's technology falling short being able to meet the online user demand resulting in network congestion and users who could see the webcast receiving jerky frames. In all, the company's website saw over 1.5 million visits while the Broadcast.com's computer's were designed to handle between 250,000 and 500,000 simultaneous viewers. In total, 1.5 million viewers either attempted or viewed the webcast.
The 1999 webcast served to create a database for Victoria's Secret of over 500,000 current and potential customers by requiring users to submit their contact details to view the webcast. The next spring Victoria's Secret avoided technical issues by partnering with Broadcast.com, America Online and Microsoft. The 2000 webcast attracted more than two million viewers.
By 2011, the budget for the fashion show was $12 million up from the first show's budget of $120,000.
Victoria's Secret Angels
Victoria's Secret started working with renowned models in the early 1990s, with the hiring of Stephanie Seymour, Karen Mulder, Yasmeen Ghauri, Elaine Irwin and Frederique van der Wal. These models helped the brand gain notice and soon enough were featured in televised commercials.
Angels is one of Victoria's Secret's lingerie lines, which was launched in 1997, with a commercial featuring Helena Christensen, Karen Mulder, Daniela Peštová, Stephanie Seymour, and Tyra Banks as well as rock star Tom Jones. The commercial was a major success and the Angels began to be featured in various commercials, alongside other contract models for the brand such as Yasmeen Ghauri, Inés Rivero and Laetitia Casta. From then onwards, the term Angel started to become synonymous with being a contracted spokesmodel for the brand and in February 1998, the Angels made their runway debut at Victoria's Secret's 4th annual fashion show, with Chandra North filling in for Christensen.
Seymour, Mulder, Pestova, Banks, Casta and Heidi Klum were all featured in both of Victoria's Secret webcast and took part in the promotion as the brand's contract models. Starting in 2001, the show has been televised and usually features the year's Angel line-up at the start of the show, starting with Pestova, Banks, Klum and Gisele Bundchen[nb 1]. In 2004 due the Super Bowl controversy, instead of a televised show, Victoria's Secret sent its five contract models (Banks, Klum, Bundchen, Adriana Lima and Alessandra Ambrosio) on a tour called Angels Across America, as by then, the word had become synonymous with Victoria's Secret spokesmodels. The last original Angel, Tyra Banks, departed the following year, as Karolina Kurkova, Selita Ebanks and Izabel Goulart were hired.
Among other recognitions, the Victoria's Secret Angels were chosen to be part of People magazine's annual "100 Most Beautiful People in the World" issue in 2007 and became the first trademark awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on November 13, 2007, with Klum, Lima, Ambrosio, Kurkova, Goulart, Ebanks, Marisa Miller and Miranda Kerr at hand. Alongside new Angel Doutzen Kroes, they also took part in the grand reopening of the Fontainebleau in Miami in 2008. In 2009, it was widely reported that Candice Swanepoel, Rosie Huntington-Whiteley, Chanel Iman, Emanuela de Paula and Lindsay Ellingson had been hired by the brand. However, De Paula was absent from the fashion show and Erin Heatherton was credited in her place, alongside the Angels (Klum, Ambrosio, Kerr, Miller, Kroes and Behati Prinsloo, with Lima being on maternity leave). The brand also held a nationwide competition to hire a new "runway Angel" (as are dubbed all the models who walk in the show), Kylie Bisutti was crowned as the winner but soon parted ways with the brand. In the following year-and-a-half Swanepoel, Huntington-Whiteley, Iman, Heatherton and Ellingson all were revealed as Angels.
Various tours have been held featuring the Angels, such as the Bombshell Tour in 2010 (featuring Lima, Swanepoel and new recruit Lily Aldridge), a VSX tour in 2013 (featuring Swanepoel, Ambrosio, Ellingson and Aldridge) and a Swim Tour in 2013 (featuring Swanepoel, Ellingson and Heatherton). The Angels have been heavily featured on the brand's social media, including on a short-lived Facebook application in 2013-2014 highlighting the Angels (then including Lima, Ambrosio, Kerr, Kroes, Prinsloo, Swanepoel, Heatherton, Ellingson, Aldridge and Karlie Kloss) as well as Lais Ribeiro, Toni Garrn and Barbara Palvin.
Ellingson, Kroes and Kloss all departed soon after the 2014 fashion show, leaving the brand with only 5 Angels. In 2015, the Angels as well as models Elsa Hosk, Joan Smalls, Lais Ribeiro, Martha Hunt, Jasmine Tookes, Stella Maxwell and Monika 'Jac' Jagaciak were featured on the brand's first ever Swim Special. Soon after, in the brand's biggest group hiring ever, all but Smalls were revealed as Angels, along with long time catalog regulars Lais Ribeiro and Sara Sampaio as well as Kate Grigorieva, Taylor Marie Hill and Romee Strijd.
Other notable spokesmodels for the brand have included: Claudia Schiffer, Eva Herzigová, Oluchi Onweagba, Jessica Stam, Ana Beatriz Barros, and Bregje Heinen as well as a handful of celebrities such as Taylor Momsen.
|United States||Stephanie Seymour||1997–2000||1992||1995–2000||[nb 3]|
|Czech Republic||Daniela Peštová||1997–2002||1996||1998–2001|
|United States||Tyra Banks||1997–2005||1996||1996–2005|
|United States||Chandra North||1998 Fashion Show||1998||1998||[nb 4]|
|Germany/ USA||Heidi Klum||1999–2010||1997||1997–2009 (host only in 2006)||[nb 5]|
|Brazil||Adriana Lima||2000–present||1999||1999–2008, 2010–present|
|Czech Republic||Karolína Kurková||2005–2008||2000||2000–2008, 2010|
|Cayman Islands||Selita Ebanks||2005–2009||2004||2005–2010|
|United States||Marisa Miller||2007–2010||2002||2007–2009|
|Australia||Miranda Kerr||2007–2013||2005||2006–2009, 2011–2012|
|Netherlands||Doutzen Kroes||2008–2014||2004||2005–2006, 2008–2009, 2011–present|
|United Kingdom||Rosie Huntington-Whiteley||2010–2011||2005||2006–2010|
|South Africa||Candice Swanepoel||2010–present||2007||2007–present|
|United States||Chanel Iman||2010–2012||2008||2009–2011|
|United States||Erin Heatherton||2010–2013||2008||2008–2013|
|United States||Lily Aldridge||2010–present||2008||2009–present|
|United States||Lindsay Ellingson||2011–2014||2006||2007–present||[nb 6]|
|United States||Karlie Kloss||2013–2015||2011||2011–present|
|Russia||Kate Grigorieva||2015–present||2014||2014–present||[nb 7]|
|United States||Taylor Marie Hill||2015–present||2014||2014–present|
|United States||Martha Hunt||2015–present||2012||2013–present|
|Brazilian||Lais Ribeiro||2015–present||2010||2010-2011 ; 2013–present|
|United States||Jasmine Tookes||2015–present||2012||2012–present|
- There have been various instances where the fashion show credits included models who weren't Angels but were prominently featured by the brand, such as Selita Ebanks and Izabel Goulart in 2005, Candice Swanepoel, Lindsay Ellingson, Rosie Huntington-Whiteley, Erin Heatherton and Behati Prinsloo in 2009, Lais Ribeiro in 2011, PINK model Elsa Hosk in 2013 and Hosk, Ribeiro, Jasmine Tookes, Martha Hunt and Stella Maxwell in 2014. All of them later went on to become Angels
- Most Angels started working with the company years prior to signing an Angel contract. Listed above are the dates of first published or aired campaigns or, by default, first runway show or event.
- Stephanie Seymour was a Fashion Show host in 1995
- Chandra North was featured as an Angel solely during the 1998 fashion show due to Christensen's absence
- Heidi Klum was a Fashion Show host in 2002, 2006–2009
- Lindsay Ellingson was first featured on VS All Access in 2010 but was only credited as an Angel for the fashion show from the following year onward.
- 10 Angels were added at the same time
Victoria's Secret is known for its catalogs and its annual fashion show, the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show, and has been credited with single-handedly transforming "America's conception of lingerie" by pioneering "sexy underwear as fashion" and "lingerie mainstream entertainment." The societal manifestation is "the increased cultural acceptance of shopping for undies" in the United States.
Victoria's Secret is credited with "transforming lingerie from a slightly embarrassing taboo into an accessible, even routine accessory." In 2006 The New York Times reported that traditional fashion was influenced by intimate apparel "in part because of the influence of Victoria's Secret – and ubiquitous, sexually charged come-hither marketing."
In 2008 Women's Wear Daily reported that while "Victoria's Secret dominates" in the lingerie market "the competition is intensifying".
Victoria Secret's operations are organized into three divisions: Victoria's Secret Stores (stores), Victoria's Secret Direct (online and catalog operations), and Victoria's Secret Beauty (their bath and cosmetics line). The company does business in the following retail formats: general merchandise stores, apparel stores.
Victoria's Secret stores
|Year||# of stores||Store sales in millions of U.S. dollars|
Throughout the 1980s Victoria's Secret took over the market using "faux-British veneer, romantic styling and soft classical music." In 2000 the Los Angeles Times reported that Victoria's Secret continued the practice of putting "on a British air—or what the Ohio-based chain thinks Americans believe is British. Boudoirish. Tony. Upscale."
During the 1990s Victoria's Secret saw a 30% increase in store sales after the use of analyzing in their data warehouse in which specific store the styles, sizes and color of which bras were selling.
As of 2010 there are 1,000 Victoria's Secret lingerie stores and 100 independent Victoria's Secret Beauty Stores in the US, mostly in shopping centers. They sell a range of brassieres, panties, hosiery, cosmetics, sleepwear, and other products. Victoria's Secret mails more than 400 million of its catalogs per year.
During the 1990s store sizes grew from the average 1,400 square feet to between 4,000 and 5,000 square feet. By 1989 50 stores had been updated to reflect "an English feel". In 2002 the average Victoria's Secret store was 6,000 square feet.
|Year||# of stores||Store sales in millions of U.S. dollars|
Up until the early 2000 management at Victoria's Secret actively decided to not expand outside the United States. The drive to continue growing coupled with facing a maturing of the American retail market led to a change in that decision and to expand Victoria's Secret outside the United States. Victoria's Secret announced the company's plan to expand into Canada in 2010. The company opened 23 stores stores in Canada with locations in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia.
In November 2005, the company opened its first boutique in the UK at Heathrow Airport, Terminal 5 with the help of World Duty Free. This was followed in 2009 with several Victoria's Secret Travel and Tourism stores residing within airports outside the United States. These include locations in Schiphol International Airport, The Netherlands.
Victoria's Secret opened their first store located at the Westfield Shopping Centre, Stratford, London on July 24, 2012. Their flagship 40,386 square-foot store on New Bond Street, London opened on August 29, 2012, and there will be further nationwide expansion across the UK. Victoria's Secret executive vice president and chief administrative officer Martyn R Redgrave told Women's Wear Daily "That's what we're looking to do as we expand, in the U.K. in particular, and those will be company-owned and operated". Through 2013 and 2014 stores opened across the UK, in Leeds, Manchester, Sheffield, Birmingham and stores in Westfield London , Bluewater and Brent Cross across London.
In 2010 Victoria Secret's expanded with franchises internationally.
The first franchise store in Latin America opened in Isla Margarita, Venezuela on June 25, 2010 followed by other stores in the country, and in Bogota, Colombia, in July 2012 selling beauty products and accessories. Angel's Group, the Colombian company operating the franchise, is planning to open 10 stores in Colombia. Victoria's Secret is also planning on opening a store in the exclusive Multiplaza Mall in San Salvador, El Salvador.
In 2010 M.H. Alshaya Co. opened the first Victoria's Secret store in the Middle East region in Kuwait. M.H. Alshaya Co. operates the Victoria's Secret franchise located in the Marina Mall selling products including "cosmetic and branded accessories, but it has left out the brand's infamous lingerie line".
The Brand's first Caribbean store opened in November 2011 at Plaza Las Americas in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Two stores also opened in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic at the Agora, (mainly selling beauty products and accessories) and Sambil Santo Domingo malls in August 2012 and October 2012, respectively.
The first Polish store is opening its doors in July 2012 at Złote Tarasy in Warsaw and will be operated by M.H. Alshaya Co. New Victoria's Secrets shop open in July 24, 2012. This will be the first Victoria's Secret franchise store in Europe, just a day before the new store in the United Kingdom. However, as this is a franchise store it sells just beauty and accessories, whereas the London stores are the first company owned European stores and sell Victoria's Secret clothing.
Victoria's Secret Direct
|Year||Millions mailed||Sales in millions of U.S. dollars|
Prior to the emergence of e-commerce, the Victoria's Secret's catalogs provided both an informative and exciting experience in the comfort of the consumer's home.
The catalog under Raymond's leadership took the form of an upmarket version of Frederick's of Hollywood lingerie catalog being more sensuous than the catalog published under the future leadership of The Limited. In 1982 the Victoria's Secret catalog cost $3.
The New York Times reported that the Victoria's Secret's financial success catalogues' influenced other catalogues who changed to present lingerie as "romantic and sensual but tasteful" "in which models are photographed in ladylike poses against elegant backgrounds."
This led to Victoria's Secret dominating the catalog field for "lingerie and sexy nightwear." The catalogs allowed for consumers to review the entire spectrum of product offerings, along the axes of style, color and fabric. Victoria's Secret accepted catalog orders via telephone 24 hours a day.
Catalog mailing rose for twenty years from 1978 peaking at 400 million mailings annually in 1998. From 1998 through to 2002 mailings declined to 350 million annually.
Victoria's Secret's catalog offers a more diverse range of merchandise.
The Los Angeles Times described the catalog in 2000 as having achieved "an almost cult-like following."
In 1995 Victoria's Secret began building its e-commerce website which the company launched after three years of development at 6 p.m. December 4, 1998, using the domain VictoriasSecret.com. Twenty minutes later the first order was placed on the website from a Littleton, Colorado, customer at 6:20 p.m.
It was reported that the three year development was a result of the company's concern of rolling out a half-baked website that could "discourage return visits".
Viewers who logged onto the Victoria's Secret's website to view the company's first webcast of their fashion show on February 3, 1999, were unable to view the webcast due to the Internet infrastructure Victoria Secret's selected was unable to meet user demand causing some users to be unable to view the webcast.
A decade later in 2008 Victoria's Secret launched their website in Spanish.
Launch of VS All Access website.
Victoria's Secret Beauty
The Limited, Inc in 1998 creates Intimate Beauty Corporation with a mandate to establish a group of beauty businesses with Victoria's Secret Beauty being the first company in the firm's portfolio.
In November 2012 Susie Coulter became president of Victoria's Secret Beauty; the company's beauty division located in New York City
Prior to the 1982 sale the company's business name was Victoria's Secret, Inc. then afterwards the name was changed to Victoria's Secret Stores, Inc. In 2005 the company changed to Victoria's Secret Stores, LLC.
Victoria's Secret was originally owned by "The Limited". In 2002 Wexner reincorporated Victoria's Secret into the Limited; previously Victoria's Secret's parent company was Intimate Brands, a separately traded entity whose President was Ed Razek.
By 2006, 72% of Limited Brands' revenue—and almost all of their profits—came from their Victoria's Secret and Bath & Body Works units.
On July 10, 2007, the Victoria's Secret parent company, Limited Brands, sold a 75% interest in their apparel brands, Limited Stores and Express to Sun Capital Partners, to focus on expanding their Victoria's Secret and Bath & Body Works units. The immediate impact of the sale resulted in Limited Brands taking a $42 million after-tax loss.
Victoria's Secret stores
In 1985, Howard Gross was promoted to president from vice president. In 1991 Grace Nichols replaced Gross as president of Victoria's Secret Stores. Nichols previously had been "executive vice president and general merchandise manager of Limited's lingerie division."
Victoria's Secret Direct
Victoria's Secret Beauty
In May 2006, Christine Beauchamp was named president and CEO of Victoria's Secret Beauty. Beauchamp was succeeded by Shashi Batra in 2009, who became president of Victoria's Secret Beauty.
Robin Burns was CEO of Victoria's Secret Beauty.
After two years of pressure from environmentalist groups, Victoria's Secret's parent firm and a conservation group reached an agreement to make the lingerie retailer's catalog more environmentally friendly in 2006. The catalog would no longer be made of pulp supplied from any woodland caribou habitat range in Canada, unless it has been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council. The catalogs will also be made of 10 percent recycled paper.
In 2006 it was reported that Victoria's Secret paid workers $7 per day to make bras for them in Thai factories.
One-tenth of all Victoria's Secret's brassieres are sourced via Intimate Fashions, a manufacturer with factories in the South Indian city of Guduvanchery.
Victoria's Secret was sued several times during 2009. The suits alleged that defective underwear contained formaldehyde that caused severe rashes on women who wore them. Six cases were filed in Ohio and two in Florida. At least 17 other suits were filed in six other states after January 2008.
The plaintiff refused to submit to a simple patch test to determine the precise cause of her reaction and her case was later withdrawn. The Formaldehyde Council issued a statement that formaldehyde quickly dissipates in air, water and sunlight.
- 2012 - A Victoria's Secret supplier was investigated for use of child labor in harvesting cotton used to make its products.
- 2012 - Sued by Zephyrs; "has been accused of breaching a 2001 agreement and selling cheap 'knockoffs' of the company's stockings."
- 2012 - Drew criticism for a newly released lingerie collection titled "Go East" whose tagline pledged to women the capacity to "indulge in touches of eastern delight with lingerie inspired by the exquisite beauty of secret Japanese gardens." The collection included a mesh teddy "Sexy Little Geisha" featuring "flirty cutouts and Eastern-inspired florals". The WSJ reported that the collection was "accessorized with a miniature fan and a kimono-esque obi sash." Victoria's Secret removed the Asian-themed collection "that traded in sexualized, generic pan-Asian ethnic stereotypes."
- 2014 - A petition against the newly released lingerie collection called "Body" was created when the poster ads displayed the words 'THE PERFECT "BODY"' over well-known VS Angels. The petition, while becoming popular across social media, demanded that Victoria's Secret "apologise and take responsibility for the unhealthy and damaging message that their ‘Perfect Body’ campaign sends out about women’s bodies and how they should be judged." and further added "change the wording on their advertisements for their bra range Body, to something that does not promote unhealthy and unrealistic standards of beauty, as well as pledge to not use such harmful marketing in the future." and created the hashtag "#iamperfect", which trended on Twitter for body shaming women. The petition had over 30,000 signatures. Although there was never a formal apology released, Victoria's Secret took note of the petition and changed the words on their ad campaign to 'A BODY FOR EVERY BODY.'
- List of swimwear brands
- List of Victoria's Secret models
- Victoria's Secret Fashion Show
- Victoria's Secret Swim Special
- Melise R. Blakeslee (January 15, 2010). Internet crimes, torts and scams: investigation and remedies. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537351-6. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "About Limited Brands". October 10, 2012. Limited Brands. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Yang, Jeff (September 17, 2012). "Why the Rise of Asia In Fashion Isn't As Beautiful As It Seems". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- "Victoria's Secret". Fashion Model Directory. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "Secret success". Forbes. May 9, 1983.
- Yang, Jeff (September 17, 2012). "Why the Rise of Asia In Fashion Isn't As Beautiful As It Seems". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Menken, Dacid (March 24, 2003). "Victoria's Secret decision is good for small businesses". Viewpoint.
- Bishop, Katherine (December 27, 1986). "An Elegant Kid's Store Fails". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- "Roy Raymond, 47; Began Victoria's Secret". The New York Times. September 2, 1993. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- Newhall, Emily (November 16, 1981). "A Catalog-Business Boom". Newsweek.
- Adler, Carlye (June 9, 2010). "Victoria's Secret's Secret – The man behind the company that made lingerie mainstream and mall-friendly". Newsweek. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- Peter J. Rea; Harold Kerzner (September 19, 1997). Strategic Planning: A Practical Guide. Wiley. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-471-29197-8. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- Richard Alan Nelson; Abbass Alkhafaji (April 3, 2003). Strategic Management: Formulation, Implementation, and Control in a Dynamic Environment. Psychology Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-7890-1810-6. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Peter J. Rea; Harold Kerzner (September 19, 1997). Strategic Planning: A Practical Guide. Wiley. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-471-29197-8. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Pimentel, Benjamin (September 1, 1993). "Lingerie Firm Founder Dies – Body in Bay Former Victoria's Secret owner left car at bridge". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Tom Pendergast; Sara Pendergast (2000). St. James encyclopedia of popular culture. St. James Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-1-55862-403-0. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Schiro, Anne-Marie (May 15, 1982). "Luxury Lingerie: A Mail-Order Success". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Watson, Lloyd (June 3, 1991). "Union Square Area Draws Five Big-Name Retailers". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Palmeri, Christopher (December 4, 2006). "Victoria's Secret Is Sexy Again". BloombergBusinessweek. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
- "Briefs". The New York Times. July 15, 1982.
- "Victoria's Secret". The Globe and Mail. August 5, 1982.
- Anna Tomasino (2007). Discovering popular culture. Pearson Longman. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-321-35596-6. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Susan Faludi (August 15, 2006). Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-307-34542-4. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Greenberg, Cara (14 February 1993). "Where Strong Men Fear to Tread". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Belkin, Lisa (December 20, 1985). "Now, Sexy Briefs for Men". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Belkin, Lisa (August 24, 1986). "Lingerie's Great Leap Forward". The New York Times. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Lerner Stores' New President". The New York Times. May 21, 1985. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Groves, Martha (November 5, 1985). "Frederick's Tries to Update Its Image as Rivals Get Tougher". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Hochswender, Woody (June 7, 1988). "Patterns". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Asinof, Lynn (April 16, 1987). "Mail-Order Catalog". The Wall Street Journal.
- Hirsch, James (May 29, 1990). "Victoria's Secret? Keep Earnings Up With Garter Belts". The Wall Street Journal.
- Gross, Michael (April 26, 1987). "Lingerie Catalogues: Changing Images". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Agins, Teri (January 23, 1991). "Specialty Shops Chase Sweet Scent Of Success". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Did Leslie Wexner Take His Eye Off The Ball?". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. May 23, 1993. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- Storm, Stephanie (7 July 1992). "Gap Is Reportedly Adding Women's Underwear Brand". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Strom, Stephanie (November 21, 1993). "Profile: Grace Nichols; When Victoria's Secret Faltered, She Was Quick to Fix It". The New York Times. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Grace Nichols Profile". Forbes. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Underwood, Elaine (September 19, 1994). "Bust-Boosting Bra Battle Begins; Victoria's Secret Launches Rare TV Campaign to Fight Wonderbra Barrage". AdWeek.
- Goldman, Abigail (April 10, 1999). "Amid Wear and Tear, Firm Seeks to Rework Image". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Ono, Yumiko (September 14, 1998). "Victoria's Secret Launches Cosmetics Line". The Wall Street Journal.
- Ellison, Sarah (May 20, 2002). "Is Less Risque Risky?—Victoria's Secret Wants A Larger 'Share of Drawer'; Only Way to Grow: Plain". The Wall Street Journal.
- Wells, Melanie (November 13, 2000). "Cosmetic Improvement". Forbes.
- Lieberman, Allyson (June 6, 2000). "Change at the Top: Victoria's Secret Turns Page at Catalog". New York Post. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Barbaro, Michael (July 15, 2006). "What Women Want; Underwear That Fits So Well It Can Be Outerwear". The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- Seckler, Valerie (19 March 2008). "Advice on Staying Ahead of the Trends". Women's Wear Daily (WWD). p. 8. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- Tang, Syl (September 2, 2006). "Catalogue shopping for the discerning crowd". Financial Times. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- Dougherty, Philip H. (June 9, 1988). "Advertising; Victoria's Secret Goes To FCB/Leber Katz". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Groves, Martha (September 18, 1989). "Victoria's Secret Won't Keep Secret Anymore". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Branch, Shelly (October 25, 2002). "A New Secret From Victoria: The Bikini Show". The Wall Street Journal.
- Angwin, Julia (September 17, 1996). "Retail Hit Parade Stores Across The Nation Are Putting Out Their Own CDs To Build Brand Loyalty". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
- Rao, Priya (August 11, 2010). "In SoHo, 'Incredible' Launch". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
- Alexander, Ella (January 25, 2012). "Lingerie Secret". Vogue. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Marvin Traub; Lisa Marsh (September 15, 2008). Marvin Traub: Like No Other Career. Assouline Publishing Corporation. pp. 145–173. ISBN 978-2-7594-0272-4. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Holmes, Elizabeth (November 29, 2011). "Heard & Scene: Show Time on Victoria's Runway". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
- Leonard M. Lodish; Howard L. Morgan; Shellye Archambeau (March 21, 2007). Marketing That Works: How Entrepreneurial Marketing Can Add Sustainable Value to Any Sized Company. Pearson Education. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-13-271632-1. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Goldman, Abigail (February 3, 1999). "Victoria's Secret Ad a Hit for Web Site". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Stevenson, Seth (April 12, 2004). "Tangled Up in Boobs – What's Bob Dylan doing in a Victoria's Secret ad?". Slate. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Winters, Rebecca (April 12, 2004). "Hey, Mr. Lingerie Man". Time. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Smith, Lynn (April 13, 2004). "Lingerie is back in the drawer". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Bernd Schmitt; David L. Rogers; Karen Vrotsos (2004). There's No Business That's Not Show Business: Marketing in an Experience Culture. FT Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-13-047119-2. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Givhan, Robin (April 2, 2012). "Ob-la-di, Ob-la-da, Bras Go On". Newsweek. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- Tim Sanders (July 22, 2003). Love Is the Killer App: How to Win Business and Influence Friends. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 34–37. ISBN 978-1-4000-4683-6. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
- "It's No Secret: A Bust-See Web Site". Newsweek. February 15, 1999. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "Flood of Viewers Jams Lingerie Webcast". Los Angeles Times. February 5, 1999. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Quick, Rebecca (February 5, 1999). "Victoria's Secret Has Lesson for the Web: Lingerie Exerts Pull—'Cybercast' of Underwear Was Such a Smash That Many Were Left Out in Cold". The Wall Street Journal.
- Monget, Karyn (November 8, 2011). "A Look Behind The Curtain". Women's Wear Daily (WWD). Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "Herb Ritts Commercials Chronology". HerbRitts.com. 1996. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
- "Victoria's Secret Video – Where do Angels Come From?". CBS. 10 October 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
- "Victoria's Secret Special". E!TV. 1998.
- "The Models of Victoria's Secret". People. 1998. Retrieved 11 May 2007.
- 2009 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show opening https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gf1btN49zuI&list=UUKdUC2iih3lBtPnSJXl7FDg
- Victoria's SecretAll About AngelsTijdlijnInfo. "Victoria's Secret - All About Angels". Facebook. Retrieved 2013-10-20.
- Bailey, Alyssa (February 23, 2015). "KARLIE KLOSS AND DOUTZEN KROES ARE LEAVING VICTORIA'S SECRET". elle. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- Alyssa Toomey (April 28, 2015). "Heavenly News! 2015 Victoria's Secret Angels Announced: Martha Hunt, Stella Maxwell and More!". eonline.com. E!. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- Scarlett Kilcooley-O'Halloran (April 28, 2015). "Victoria's Secret Announces 10 New Angels". vogue.co.uk. Vogue UK. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- "Forbes Thought Of The Day". Forbes. 1998-08-24.
- Marsh, Lisa (February 11, 2004). "Show Buzz". New York Post.
- "No hiding it". New York Post. December 12, 2010.
- Toni Jones (12 January 2011). "Meet the girl who everyone wants in their pants". the Sun. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
- Taylor Momsen Joins Victoria's Secret to Launch Love Rocks
- "Helena Christensen's Career Highlights". New York magazine. October 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Karen Mulder's Career Highlights". New York magazine. October 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Daniela Pestova's Career Highlights". New York magazine. October 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "CBS Specials: Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2005". CBS. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
yaswas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
Cite error: The named reference
- "Diablo VS Victoria Secret Special – the STORY". Lambocars.com. 18 April 2007. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "Heidi Klum Becomes a Citizen For Her Children". People. March 9, 2009.
- "Heidi Hangs Up Her Secret Wings". New York Post. September 30, 2010. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- "Gisele Bundchen Bids Adieu". Dailyfrontrow.com. May 1, 2007. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- "What it really takes to become a Victoria’s Secret Angel". nypost.com. December 6, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- "Adriana Lima's Career Highlights". New York magazine. October 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- Moraski, Lauren (October 3, 2012). "Rihanna, Justin Bieber to play Victoria's Secret Fashion Show". CBS News. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- Parket, Eloise (August 12, 2007). "It's a Beautiful Day in the Secret City". Daily News (New York). Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Streib, Lauren (May 27, 2009). "The World's Top-Earning Models". Forbes. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Newman, Eric (January 14, 2008). "Victoria's Secret Super Bowl Ad Kicks Off Valentine's Marketing". Brandweek.
- "Marisa Miller out at Victoria's Secret". New York Post. January 20, 2010.
- "Marisa Miller Hangs Up Wings, Focuses on the Troops". Fox News. November 11, 2011.
- Moss, Hilary (November 11, 2011). "Marisa Miller Splits". The Huffington Post.
- Critchell, Samantha (November 20, 2009). "Heidi Klum wows crowd at Victoria's Secret show". Associated Press. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- Miranda Kerr Stripped Of Her Angel Wings! Victoria's Secret Will NOT Renew Her Contract!. perezhilton.com. Retrieved 2013-04-13.
- Cardace, Sara (November 26, 2008). "Supermodel Miranda Kerr". New York Post.
- "World's Top-Earning Models". Forbes. May 13, 2010.
- "Doutzen Kroes has left Victoria's Secret". vogue. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- https://instagram.com/p/zV4nZLI0qZ/. Retrieved 28 February 2015. Missing or empty
- . askmen.com. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- Rosie Huntington's Career Highlights. nymag.com. Retrieved 2013-10-04.
- "Chanel Iman's Career Highlights". New York magazine. October 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- Lily Aldridge. tatler.com. Retrieved 2013-11-25.
- "Victoria's Secret Fashion Show: Three Newest "Angels" Stretch Their Wings on the Runway". CBS News. November 30, 2010. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- "Karlie Kloss is a Victoria's Secret Angel". ElleUK. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "Karlie Kloss Is Leaving Victoria's Secret! (PEOPLE Exclusive)". people. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- "Victoria's Secret Targets College Women". MSNBC. 2004-07-29. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "Miranda Kerr Launches Victoria's Secret New Pink Bdy Organic and Natural Body Care Collection". Zimbio.com. March 10, 2009.
- Barnett, Leisa (May 27, 2008). "Victoria's Pick". Vogue (UK). Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- Kaunitz, Kate (March 15, 2010). "Behati Prinsloo Opens PINK". Fashionista. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Lewis, Casey (November 3, 2012). "Supermodel Elsa Hosk on Her Favorite Sports, Style Essentials, and Advice For Breaking Into The Business". teenvogue.com.
- La Ferla, Ruth (October 25, 2007). "Now It's Nobody's Secret". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Webley, Kayla (April 2, 2012). "All-TIME 100 Fashion Icons: Roy Raymond". Time. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- Bradsher, Keith (February 4, 1990). "A Job for Real Men: Buying Lingerie". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Coleman, Calmetta Y. (October 1, 1998). "The Gap Plots Panty Raid on Victoria's Secret". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
- Zimmerman, Ann (June 20, 2007). "Retailers' Panty Raid On Victoria's Secret; New Lines, Shop Openings Target Hot Fashion Lingerie; 'Inner-wear as Outerwear'". The Wall Street Journal.
- Moin, David (December 3, 2008). "Pussycat Dolls Lingerie Comes to Bebe". Women's Wear Daily.
- Hochswender, Woody (January 17, 1989). "FASHION: Patterns; Risks and Hard Work". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Goldman, Beth (April 8, 1991). "Now, Her Dreams Are of Innerwear;Anintimate industry has a firm foundation". Newsday (New York).
- The Limited 1994 Annual Filing
- "The Limited, Inc 1995 Annual Report". TheLimited1995AnnualFiling.
- Machan, Dyan (June 5, 1995). "Knowing your limits".
- Machan, Dylan (June 5, 1995). "Sharing Victoria's Secrets". Forbes.
- The Limited 1996 Annual Filing
- The Limited 1998 Annual Filing
- Cohen, Scott Lyle (February 6, 1997). "Pssst. Two Words. Victoria's Secret". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Wedlan, Candace A. (August 11, 2000). "The Pillar of Panties". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Eaton, Dan (May 7, 2007). "Retailers debuting at Tuttle Crossing as Limited, others shuffle space". Columbus Business First (Ohio). Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "2011 Annual Report and 2012 Proxy Statement" (PDF). LimitedBrands. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Retailers on Parade at ICR". Women's Wear Daily (WWD). January 13, 2012.
- Rubin, Sylvia (October 27, 2007). "Bras — a century of suspension". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
- Roger D. Blackwell (November 12, 1997). From Mind to Market: Reinventing the Retail Supply Chain. HarperCollins. pp. 188–189. ISBN 978-0-88730-833-8. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Marianne M. Jennings (December 13, 2010). Business: Its Legal, Ethical, and Global Environment. Cengage Learning. pp. 510–. ISBN 978-0-538-47054-4. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Rozhon, Tracie (October 25, 2002). "A Lingerie Maker Returns To Its Racier Past". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Holmes, Elizabeth (March 29, 2010). "U.S. Apparel Retailers Map an Expansion to the North". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Kelsey, Sarah (May 3, 2012). "Victoria's Secret To Open First Quebec Store". The Huffington Post Canada. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- "Victoria's Secret, the intimate apparel retailer and catalogue company". Fashionunited.co.uk. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- "Victoria’s Secret Opens Its First Store In Schiphol Aitport Lounge 3". Design Curial. June 14, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Mezzasalma, Nicole (November 13, 2012). "Victoria’s Secret opens second Schiphol store". DFNI Online. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "Victoria's Secret set date for UK debut". The Daily Telegraph. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- "Victoria's Secret Angel Barbara Palvin looks Parisian chic as Britain's first ever Victoria's Secret store opens at Westfield just in time for Olympics". Daily Mail. 17 July 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- Karmali, Sarah. "Secret No More". August 28, 2012. Vogue. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Alexander, Ella. "Angels Are Go". August 2, 2012. Vogue. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Kraul, Chris (August 7, 2012). "Optimism in Colombia Textiles". Women's Wear Daily (WWD).
- Trujillo, Daniel (May 29, 2012). "Roble inicia cambios en Multiplaza y Metrocentro". El Mundo. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- Jannarone, John (October 20, 2011). "Victoria's Overseas Secret Remains Behind Closed Doors". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Sieczkowski, Cavan (November 17, 2011). "Victoria’s Secret Puerto Rico Grand Opening Touched by Angels". International Business Times. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- "Agora Mall abre el 23 de Agosto 2012". ElMundoFemenino. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Sambil | Inicia comercializacion de Sambil Santo Domingo". Tusambil.com. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "Victoria's Secret Beauty & Accessories | Złote Tarasy". Zlotetarasy.pl. Retrieved 2013-10-20.
- TheLimited1998AnnualFiling. Missing or empty
- Quick, Rebecca (December 29, 1998). "Online: Gawkers or Shoppers? Selling Bras on the Web". The Wall Street Journal.
- Joseph Sugarman (June 19, 2012). The Adweek Copywriting Handbook: The Ultimate Guide to Writing Powerful Advertising and Marketing Copy from One of America's Top Copywriters. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 5–6, 227–231. ISBN 978-1-118-42879-5. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Durbin, Theodore (2002). "Victoria's Secret" (PDF). Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth—Glassmeyer/McNamee Center for Digital Strategies (6–0014). Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Deirdre Breakenridge; Thomas J. DeLoughry (February 1, 2003). The New Pr Toolkit: Strategies for Successful Media Relations. FT Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-13-009025-6. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
- Silva, Belisa (October 10, 2012). "Susie Coulter to Take Helm at Victoria's Secret Beauty". Women's Wear Daily (WWD). Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Workman, Nancy. "From Victorian to Victoria's Secret: The Foundations of Modern Erotic Wear". Journal of Popular Culture; Fall96, Vol. 30 Issue 2, p61-73, 13p. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- "All or nothing' for Victoria's Secret brand". Toronto Star. July 10, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "Limited Sells Majority Stake in Namesake Brand". The New York Times. July 10, 2007. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- Merrick, Amy (July 10, 2007). "Advancing Its Sharper Focus, Limited Sells Namesake Chain at Loss". The Wall Street Journal.
- "People". Los Angeles Times. January 9, 1991. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- "Executive Changes". The New York Times. January 10, 1991. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Naughton, Julie (April 3, 2009). "Victoria's Secret Beauty Takes Cue From 'Project'". Women's Wear Daily (WWD). Retrieved December 4, 2012.
- Chipello, Christopher J (14 October 2004). "As the Catalogs Pile Up, Environmental Activists Take on Attractive Target". The Wall Street Journal.
- Merrick, Amy (7 December 2006). "Victoria's Secret Goes Green on Paper for Catalogs". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Victoria's Secret Catalog No Longer in Pulp Friction". CBC News. 6 December 2006. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Andrew J. DuBrin (1 January 2012). Leadership: Research Findings, Practice, and Skills. Cengage Learning. pp. 107–. ISBN 978-1-133-43522-8. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial, and Technical Series. Blackwell. 2007. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Ashley Packard (June 25, 2012). Digital Media Law. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 210–. ISBN 978-1-118-33686-1. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Savage, David (March 5, 2003). "Court says Victor's Secret safe – Lingerie giant fails to sway justices". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Bullock, Max (October 4, 2006). "Fans of offshoring drift away from economic reality". Financial Times. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "Toxic Bras Update: Suits Won't Be Combined in Ohio". onpoint.com. 21 June 2009. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- "Victoria's Secret Bras May Contain Formaldehyde, Cause Blisters". New York. 11 November 2008.
- Andrea Canning. "Victoria's Secret: Formaldehyde in Bras?". Jen Pereira, Mariecar Frias and Imaeyen Ibanga. Good Morning America.
- "Victoria's real secrets: A brand that needs a walk-in closet for its skeletons Date=3 April 2010". Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- "Victoria's Secret: Formaldehyde in Bras?". ABC News. 11 November 2008.
- Simpson, Cam (December 15, 2011). "Victoria's Secret Revealed in Child Picking Burkina Faso Cotton". Bloomberg Markets Magazine. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Simpson, Cam (January 13, 2012). "Child Labor for Victoria's Secret Cotton Examined by U.S". Bloomberg. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Green, Matthew (September 17, 2007). "Tapping into social conscience". Financial Times. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- Alexander, Ella. "Victoria's Secret Sued". August 28, 2012. Vogue. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Victoria's Secret 'Sexy Little Geisha' Outfit Sparks Backlash". The Huffington Post. September 24, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Sauers, Jenna (September 26, 2012). "And Here We Have a 'Sexy Little Geisha' Outfit From Victoria's Secret". Jezebel. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Alexander, Ella. "Victoria's Secret Geisha Outfit Faces Criticism". September 25, 2012. Vogue. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Victoria's Secret.|