Help:IPA/Punjabi

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Punjabi pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see Template:IPA and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Punjabi phonology, Gurmukhi, and Shahmukhi for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Punjabi.

Consonants
IPA Examples English Approximation
Gurmukhi Shahmukhi ISO 15919
b ਬਿਸਤਰਾ بِستَرا bistarā butter
d ਦਿੱਤਾ دِتّا dittā duck[1]

then

d͡ʒ ਜਦੋਂ جدوں jadōṁ jug
ɖ ਡੰਗਰ ڈنگَر aṅgar guard[1]

(Rhotic dialects)

ɡ ਗੱਡੀ گڈّی gaḍḍī gut
ɦ ਹਾਏ ہائے hāē ahead
j ਯਾਰੀ یاری yārī yuck
k ਕਿੱਥੇ
کِتّھے
گھر
kitthē
ghar
scab
ਖੰਡ کھنڈ khaṇḍ cab
l ਉਲਾਂਭਾ الانبھا ulāṉbhā leaf
ɭ[a] ਰੌਲ਼ਾ رَوࣇا rauā garlic

(Rhotic dialects)

m ਮਸੀਤ مسِیت masīt much
n ਨੂਹ نُوہ nūh panther
ɳ[a] ਸੋਹਣਾ سوہݨا sōhā burn
ɲ ਉਂਜ اُنج uñj canyon
ŋ ਕੰਗਣ کنگݨ kagaṇ bang
p ਸੁਪਨਾ
ਭਰਿਆ
سُپنا
بھریا
sup
bhariyā
spot
ਫੁੱਲ پُھلّ‎ phull pot
ɾ ਵਾਰੀ واری rī American atom[2]
ɽ ਕੂੜ کُوڑ garter (Rhotic dialects)
s ਸਾਡਾ ساڈا sāḍā sun
t ਤਿੱਲੜ تِلّڑ tillaṛ stub but dental[1]
ਓਥੇ اوتھے ōthē tub but dental[1]
ਚੜ੍ਹਦਾ
ਝੂਠ
چڑھدا
جُھوٹھ
caṛhdā
jhūṭh
catch
tʃʰ ਛੱਡ چھڈّ‎ chaḍḍ choose
ʈ ਸੱਟ
ਢੀਠ
سٹّ
ڈِھیٹھ
saṭṭa
ḍhīṭh
carts[1]
ʈʰ ਕਾਠ کاٹھ ṭh trip[1]
ʋ ਵਹੁਟੀ وَہُٹی vahuṭī vat[3]
Marginal consonants
f[b] ਫ਼ੇਰ فیر fēr fuss
ɣ[c] ਕਾਗ਼ਜ਼ کاغَذ ġaz similar to a French r
q[c] ਕ਼ਲਮ قلَم qalam somewhat like caught
r[d] ਮੁਕ਼ੱਰਰ مُقرّر muqarrar trilled r, like in Castillian Spanish
ʃ ਹੋਸ਼ ہوش ś shoe
x[b] ਖ਼ਾਲਿਸ خالِص k͟hālis Scottish Loch
z[c] ਹਜ਼ਾਰ ہزار hazār zoo
Vowels
IPA Examples English Approximation
Gurmukhi Shahmukhi ISO 15919
ə ਕਮ کم kam about
ਨਾਲ਼ ناࣇ nā father
e ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂ واہِگرو wāhiguru say (shortened ē)
ਜੇਬ جیب jēb say
ɛ ਮੈਨੂੰ مینوں mainū̃ pen[5]
ɛː ਪੈਂਦਾ پَیندا painda fairy
ɪ ਇਮਲੀ اِملی imalī sit[6]
ਈਖ اِیکھ īkh seat[6]
i ਕੀਤੀ کِیتی kītī happy[5][6]
o ਉਹਨਾਂ اوہناں uhnā̃ gold (Received Pronunciation) go (General American)[5][7][5]
ਕਰੋੜ کروڑ karō border (Received Pronunciation) goal (General American)
ɔ ਔਖਾ اَوکھا aukkhā dog (Received Pronunciation) horse (General American)[5]
ɔː ਕੌਣ کَوݨ kau roar (Received Pronunciation) horse (General American)
ʊ ਤੁਕ تُک tuk book
ਸੂਤ سُوت sūt moon[6]
u ਦੂਜਾ دُوجا dūjjā moon[5]
◌̃ ਹੰਸ ہن٘س has nasal vowel faun
([ãː, õː], etc.)
ਮੈਂ مَیں mai
Suprasegmentals
IPA Example Notes
ˈ◌ [pənˈdʒaːb] stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
◌ː [ˈʊtːəɾ pɾəˈdeːʃ] doubled consonant
(placed after doubled consonant)
á, é, ... ਕੋੜ੍ਹਾ کوڑھا kohṛā 'leper' high, or high-falling tone
à, è, ... ਘੋੜਾ گھوڑا ghoṛā 'horse' low, or low-rising tone

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Punjabi contrast dental [t] and [d] with apical postalveolar [ʈ] and [ɖ] (as well as aspirated variants). Both sets sound like /t/ and /d/ to most English speakers although the dental [t] and [d] are used in place of the English /θ/ and /ð/ for some speakers with th-stopping.
  2. ^ /ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r] in word-initial and syllable-final positions. Geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill (/rː/).
  3. ^ [w] occurs as an allophone of [ʋ] when / و/ is in an onglide position between an onset consonant and a following vowel while [ʋ], which may phonetically be [v], occurs otherwise.
  4. ^ Bhardwaj, Mangat (25 August 2016). Panjabi: A Comprehensive Grammar. Routledge. p. 390. ISBN 978-1-317-64326-5. Almost all Panjabi speakers (and many Urdu speakers as well) pronounce the first two of these words with k instead of q.
  5. ^ a b c d e f [äː, , , , , ɛː, ɔː] are shortened in closed syllables.
  6. ^ a b c d /iː/ and /uː/ are neutralised to [i, u] at the end of a word.
  7. ^ /óː/ (ō with rising tone) is written as uh rather than oh word-initially.
  1. ^ a b Considered an allophone of l and n in the Shahmukhi alphabet, though pronounced.
  2. ^ a b f and x are not considered native sounds and are present only in loanwords. f they can be considered as tonal sounds of for Indian dialects, though in Pakistani dialects and in the Shahmukhi alphabet, it is not considered a tonal sound, and some words are natively derived such as فیر 'fer' (ਫ਼ੇਰ 'pher' ~ ਫਿਰ 'phir'). x may, however, be considered a tonal sound for in Pakistani dialects but not written as such.
  3. ^ a b c Not considered a native sound (nor a native letter in Gurmukhi, hence are represented with Gurmukhi characters paired with the Nuqta - unlike Shahmukhi, for which the original letter from Persian (which is derived from the Arabic script) is used). The phonology is, however, retained in Pakistani dialects except for /q/ for which only the spelling is retained, but it is pronounced interchangeably with /k/.[4] In Indian dialects, /ɣ/ is sometimes substituted with /g/; /z/ with /d͡ʒ/, and /x/ with //.
  4. ^ /ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r] in word-initial and syllable-final positions. Geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill [rː].

See also[edit]