Engineers during World War Two test a model of a model of a Halifax bomber in a
, an invention that dates back to 1871
The following is a list and timeline of
innovations as well as inventions and discoveries that involved British people or the United Kingdom including predecessor states in the history of the formation of the United Kingdom. This list covers innovation and invention in the mechanical, electronic, and industrial fields, as well as medicine, military devices and theory, artistic and scientific discovery and innovation, and ideas in religion and ethics.
scientific revolution in 17th century Europe stimulated innovation and discovery in Britain. Experimentation was considered central to innovation by groups such as the [1 ] Royal Society. The English patent system evolved from its medieval origins into a system that recognized intellectual property; this encouraged invention and spurred on the Industrial Revolution from the late 18th century. During the 19th century, innovation in Britain led to revolutionary changes in manufacturing, the development of factory systems, and growth of transportation by railway and steam ship that spread around the world. [2 ] In the 20th century, Britain's rate of innovation, measured by patents registered, [3 ] slowed in comparison to other leading economies, although science and technology continued to develop rapidly in absolute terms. [4 ]
17th century [ edit ]
18th century [ edit ]
plough, the first plough to be widely built in factories and commercially successful, is patented by Joseph Foljambe. [12 ]
Invention of hollow-pipe
drainage is credited to Sir Hugh Dalrymple who died in 1753. [14 ]
Adam Smith, often known as 'The father of modern economics', publishes his seminal text [17 ] . The Wealth of Nations [18 ] [19 ] The
Watt steam engine, conceived in 1765, goes into production. It is the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric.
19th century [ edit ]
SS Great Britain, the world's first steam-powered, screw propeller-driven passenger liner with an iron hull is launched. Designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, it was at the time the largest ship afloat.
Alexander Wood develops a medical hypodermic syringe with a needle fine enough to pierce the skin. [39 ]
The first commercially successful safety bicycle, called the
Rover, is designed by John Kemp Starley. The following year Dan Albone produces a derivative of this called the Ivel Safety cycle.
20th century [ edit ]
Sorbonne, France, Englishman Edwin Belin demonstrates a mechanical scanning device, an early precursor to modern television.
Anglepoise lamp is patented by George Carwardine, a design consultant specialising in vehicle suspension systems.
The concept of
microprogramming is developed by Maurice Wilkes from the realisation that the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of a computer could be controlled by a miniature, highly specialised computer program in high-speed ROM.
LEO is the first business application (a payroll system) on an electronic computer.
Autocode, regarded as the first compiled programming language, is developed for the Manchester Mark 1 by Alick Glennie.
The first accurate atomic clock, a caesium standard based on a certain transition of the caesium-133 atom, is built by
Louis Essen at the National Physical Laboratory. This clock enabled further development of general relativity, and started a basis for an enhanced SI unit system. [55 ]
SMS message in the world is sent over the UK's GSM network.
21st century [ edit ]
Beagle 2, a British landing spacecraft that forms part of the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express mission lands on the surface of Mars but fails to communicate. It is located twelve years later in a series of images from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter that suggest two of Beagle's four solar panels failed to deploy, blocking the spacecraft's communications antenna.
Raspberry Pi, a single-board computer, is launched and quickly becomes popular for education in programming and computer science. [69 ]
European Space Agency's Philae lander leaves the Rosetta spacecraft and makes the first ever landing on a comet. The Philae lander was built with significant British expertise and technology, alongside that of several other countries. [70 ] [71 ]
Clock making [ edit ]
Clothing manufacturing [ edit ]
Communications [ edit ]
Computing [ edit ]
ACE and Pilot ACE - [53 ] Alan Turing
ARM architecture The ARM CPU design is the microprocessor architecture of 98% of mobile phones and every smartphone. [94 ] First
programmer - Ada Lovelace First Programming Language
Analytical Engine ordercode - Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace
Argo system the world's first electrically powered mechanical analogue computer (also called at the Argo Clock) - Arthur Pollen
Sumlock ANITA calculator the world's first all-electronic desktop calculator - Bell Punch Co The world's first 'slimline'
pocket calculator, the Sinclair Executive amongst other electrical/electronic innovations - Sir Clive Sinclair
Osborne 1 The first commercially successful portable computer, the precursor to the Laptop computer - Adam Osborne Heavily involved in the development of the
Linux kernel - Andrew Morton & Alan Cox
Flip-flop circuit, which became the basis of electronic memory ( Random-access memory) in computers - William Eccles and F. W. Jordan
Universal Turing machine - The UTM model is considered to be the origin of the "stored program computer" used by John von Neumann in 1946 for his "Electronic Computing Instrument" that now bears von Neumann's name: the von Neumann architecture, also UTM is considered the first operating system - Alan Turing The development of
packet switching co-invented by British engineer Donald Davies and American Paul Baran - National Physical Laboratory, London England The first person to conceptualise the
Integrated Circuit - Geoffrey W.A. Dummer The first modern computer
Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine - (SSEM), nicknamed Baby. Was the world's first stored-program computer. Developed by Frederic Calland Williams & Tom Kilburn [95 ]
Williams tube - a cathode ray tube used to electronically store binary data (Can store roughly 500 to 1,000 bits of data) - Freddie Williams & Tom Kilburn
Ferranti Mark 1 - Also known as the Manchester Electronic Computer was the first computer to use the principles of early CPU design (Central processing unit) - Freddie Williams and Tom Kilburn - Also the world's first successful commercially available general-purpose electronic computer. The oldest known recordings of
computer generated music were played by the Ferranti Mark 1 computer - Christopher Strachey
EDSAC was the first complete, fully functional computer to use the von Neumann architecture, the basis of every modern computer - Maurice Wilkes
EDSAC 2 the successor to the Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator or EDSAC. It was the first computer to have a microprogrammed ( Microcode) control unit and a bit slice hardware architecture - Team headed by Maurice Wilkes The first graphical computer game
OXO on the EDSAC at Cambridge University - A.S. Douglas
Atlas Computer, it was arguably the world's first supercomputer and was the fastest computer in the world until the release of the American CDC 6600 Also This machine introduced many modern architectural concepts: spooling, interrupts, pipelining, interleaved memory, virtual memory and paging - Team headed by Tom Kilburn
Digital audio player (MP3 Player) - Kane Kramer Co-Inventor of the world's first
trackball device - developed by Tom Cranston, Fred Longstaff and Kenyon Taylor The world's first handheld computer (
Psion Organiser) - Psion PLC The first
rugged computer - Husky (computer) First PC-compatible
palmtop computer ( Atari Portfolio) - Ian Cullimore
Denotational semantics - Christopher Strachey pioneer in programming language design
Wolfram's 2-state 3-symbol Turing machine - Stephen Wolfram
Engineering [ edit ]
Household appliances [ edit ]
Ideas, Religion and Ethics [ edit ]
Industrial processes [ edit ]
Medicine [ edit ]
Military [ edit ]
Musical instruments [ edit ]
Photography [ edit ]
Publishing firsts [ edit ]
Science [ edit ]
atomic theory - Considered the father of modern chemistry, John Dalton's experiments with gases led to the development of what is called the modern atomic theory. [9 ] [172 ]
Equals sign Robert Recorde, Welshman
Cell biology - Credit for the discovery of the first cells is given to Robert Hooke who described the microscopic compartments of cork cells in 1665 [172 ] Compound
microscope with 30x magnification - Robert Hooke
Universal joint - Robert Hooke
Coggeshall slide rule - Henry Coggeshall The
Iris diaphragm - Robert Hooke Correct theory of
combustion - Robert Hooke Partition
chromatography - Richard Laurence Millington Synge and Archer J.P. Martin [173 ]
Arnold Frederic Wilkins - pioneer in the development of Radar
Atwood machine used for illustrating the law of uniformly accelerated motion - George Atwood Marine
Barometer - Robert Hooke [73 ]
Hooke's Law (equation describing elasticity) - Robert Hooke [73 ]
Electrical generator (dynamo) - Michael Faraday [98 ]
Faraday cage - Michael Faraday [98 ]
Magneto-optical effect - Michael Faraday [98 ]
Calculus - Sir Isaac Newton
Infrared radiation - discovery commonly attributed to William Herschel.
Holography - First developed by Dennis Gabor in Rugby, England. Improved by Nicholas J. Phillips who made it possible to record multi-colour reflection holograms Discovery of the
pion (pi- meson) - Cecil Frank Powell
Wheatstone bridge - Samuel Hunter Christie Triple
achromatic lens - Peter Dollond
Newtonian telescope - Sir Isaac Newton
Hawking radiation - Stephen Hawking Demonstrated that
electric circuits obey the law of the conservation of energy and that electricity is a form of energy First Law of Thermodynamics. Also the unit of energy, the Joule is named after him - James Prescott Joule
Micrometer - William Gascoigne
the first bench micrometer that was capable of measuring to one ten thousandth of an inch -
Sinclair Executive, the world's first small electronic pocket calculator - Sir Clive Sinclair Discovered the element
argon - John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh with Scotsman William Ramsay
Standard deviation - Francis Galton
Slide rule - William Oughtred [174 ] Synthesis of
coumarin, one of the first synthetic perfumes, and cinnamic acid via the Perkin reaction- William Henry Perkin The Law of Gravity - Sir
Newton's laws of motion - Sir Isaac Newton
Pre-empting elements of General Relativity theory - William Kingdon Clifford
Geological Timescale - Arthur Holmes [175 ]
Electromagnet - William Sturgeon in 1823. [172 ]
Helium - Norman Lockyer
Weather map - [176 ] Sir Francis Galton Introduced the symbol for "is less than" and "is greater than" -
Thomas Harriot 1630 Introduced the "×" symbol for
multiplication as well as the abbreviations "sin" and "cos" for the sine and cosine functions - William Oughtred Dew Point Hygrometer -
John Frederic Daniell
Periodic Table - John Alexander Reina Newlands
Splitting the atom - John Cockcroft and Irish physicist Ernest Walton First full-scale commercial Nuclear Reactor at Calder Hall, opened in 1956.
Seismograph - John Milne Discovery of
oxygen gas (O2) - Joseph Priestley Discovery of the
Atom(nuclear model of) - Ernest Rutherford Discovery of the
Proton - Ernest Rutherford Discovery of the
Electron, isotopes and the inventor of the Mass spectrometer - J. J. Thomson Discovery of the
Neutron - James Chadwick
Nuclear transfer - Is a form of cloning first put into practice by Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell to clone Dolly the Sheep Theory of Evolution -
Astronomy [ edit ]
Discovery of the "White Spot" on Saturn - Will Hay
Proxima Centauri, the closest known star to the Sun, by Robert Innes (1861–1933) [178 ] Discovery of the planet
Uranus and the moons [179 ] Titania, Oberon, Enceladus, Mimas by Sir [180 ] William Herschel (German born astronom, later in life British) Discovery of
Triton and the moons [181 ] Hyperion, Ariel and Umbriel - William Lassell [182 ]
Planetarium - John Theophilus Desaguliers Predicts the existence and location of
Neptune from irregularities in the orbit of Uranus - John Couch Adams [183 ] Important contributions to the development of
radio astronomy - Bernard Lovell [184 ]
Newtonian telescope - Sir Isaac Newton [185 ]
Achromatic doublet lens - John Dollond [186 ] Coining the phrase '
Big Bang' - Fred Hoyle [187 ] First theorised existence of
black holes, binary stars; invented torsion balance - John Michell [188 ]
Stephen Hawking - World-renowned theoretical physicist made many important contributions to the fields of cosmology and quantum gravity, especially in the context of black holes
Spiral galaxies - William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse [189 ] Discovery of
Halley's Comet - Edmond Halley [190 ] Discovery of
pulsars - Antony Hewish [191 ] Discovery of
Sunspots and was the first person to make a drawing of the Moon through a telescope - Thomas Harriot [192 ] The
Eddington limit, the natural limit to the luminosity of stars, or the radiation generated by accretion onto a compact object - Arthur Stanley Eddington [193 ]
Aperture synthesis, used for accurate location and imaging of weak radio sources in the field of Radio astronomy - Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish [194 ]
Chemistry [ edit ]
Dalton's law and Law of multiple proportions - John Dalton [195 ] The structure of
DNA and pioneering the field of molecular biology - co-developed by Francis Crick and the American [196 ] James Watson
DNA sequencing by chain termination - Frederick Sanger [197 ] Discovery of
introns in eukaryotic DNA and the mechanism of gene-splicing - Richard J. Roberts [198 ] Discovey of
Buckminsterfullerene - Sir Harry Kroto [199 ] Discovery of
thallium - William Crookes [9 ] Discovered the structure of
ferrocene - Geoffrey Wilkinson & others [200 ] Discovers
hydrogen as a colorless, odourless gas that burns and can form an explosive mixture with air - Henry Cavendish [201 ] Proposes the law of octaves, a precursor to the
Periodic Law - John Newlands [202 ]
Bragg's law and establish the field of X-ray crystallography, an important tool for elucidating the crystal structure of substances - William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg [203 ] Introduces concept of
atomic number to fix inadequacies of Mendeleev's periodic table, which had been based on atomic weight - Henry Moseley [204 ] First isolation of
sodium - Humphry Davy [205 ] First isolation of
potassium - Humphry Davy [9 ] First isolation of
boron - Humphry Davy [9 ] First isolation of
benzene, the first known aromatic hydrocarbon - Michael Faraday [206 ] Publishes Opus Maius, which among other things, proposes an early form of the
scientific method, and contains results of his experiments with gunpowder - Roger Bacon [207 ] Publishes several Aristotelian commentaries, an early framework for the
scientific method - Robert Grosseteste [208 ]
Baconian method, an early forerunner of the scientific method - Sir Francis Bacon [209 ] The first discovery of
aluminium - Sir Humphry Davy Pioneer in early Solar Power -
Weston cell - Edward Weston (chemist) Proposes the concept of
isotopes, elements with the same chemical properties may have differing atomic weights - Frederick Soddy [9 ] The synthesising of
xenon hexafluoroplatinate the first time to show that noble gases can form chemical compounds - Neil Bartlett
Callendar effect the theory that linked rising carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere to global temperature ( Global warming) - Guy Stewart Callendar Pioneer of the
fuel cell - Francis Thomas Bacon [210 ] Pioneer of
meteorology by developing a nomenclature system for clouds in 1802 - Luke Howard [211 ]
Rayleigh scattering explains why the sky is blue, and predicted the existence of the surface waves - John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh [212 ]
Transport [ edit ]
Aviation [ edit ]
Railways [ edit ]
Locomotives [ edit ]
Other railway developments [ edit ]
Scientific innovations [ edit ]
Miscellaneous [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Jacob, Margaret C. (1997). . New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 9–11. Scientific culture and the making of the industrial west ISBN 0195082206.
^ Leaffer, Marshall A. (1990). "Book Review. Inventing the Industrial Revolution: The English Patent System, 1660-1800". Articles by Maurer Faculty (666) ; MacLeod, Christine (1988). . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Inventing the industrial revolution : The English patent system, 1660-1800 ISBN 9780521893992.
^ Walker 1993, pp. 187-8.
^ Walker 1993, pp. 160.
^ "Ciphers of Francis Bacon". The Francis Bacon Research Trust . Retrieved . 25 April 2015
^ Enzler MSc, S.M. "History of water treatment". Lenntech.com . Retrieved . 22 January 2011
^ "The Origin and Evolution of the Anchor Clock Escapement". Archived from the original on 2009-10-25.
^ "Micrographia - Extracts From The Preface".
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Elizabeth H. Oakes (2002). A to Z of STS scientists. Facts on File Inc. ISBN 978-0-8160-4606-5.
^ "Historic Figures* Jethro Tull (1674 - 1741)". BBC . Retrieved . 4 April 2015
^ "Historic Figures:Thomas Newcomen (1663 - 1729)". BBC . Retrieved . 6 December 2010
^ "The Rotherham Plough". Rotherhamweb.co.uk . Retrieved . 5 April 2015
^ McInally, Tom (2011). . BRILL. p. 115. The Sixth Scottish University: The Scots Colleges Abroad: 1575 to 1799 ISBN 9789004214262.
^ "Broadside eulogy dedicated to Patrick, Earl of Marchmount, Sir Hugh Dalrymple, and others". National Library of Scotland . Retrieved . 5 April 2015
^ Wilson, Rick (2015). . Birlinn. Scots Who Made America ISBN 9780857908827 . Retrieved . 5 April 2015
^ Willcox, William Bradford; Arnstein, Walter L. (1966). The Age of Aristocracy, 1688 to 1830. Volume III of A History of England, edited by Lacey Baldwin Smith (Sixth Edition, 1992 ed.). Lexington, Massachusetts. p. 133. ISBN 0-669-24459-7.
^ Davis, William L; Figgins, Bob; Hedengren, David; Klein, Daniel B. (2011). "Economic Professors' Favorite Economic Thinkers, Journals, and Blogs". Econ Journal Watch 8 (2): 126–146.
^ M Skousen (2007). The Big Three in Economics: Adam Smith, Karl Marx, And John Maynard Keynes p3,5,6.
^ E. K. Hunt (2002). History of Economic Thought: A Critical Perspective, p.3. ISBN 0-7656-0606-2
^ "Robert Bakewell* 1725-1795". Animal Science Department at Iowa State University . Retrieved . 4 April 2015
^ "Historic Figures* Robert Bakewell (1725 - 1795)". BBC . Retrieved . 4 April 2015
^ "Andrew Meikle (1719-1811) engineer and inventor of the threshing machine, the predecessor of the combine harvester". Scottish Engineering Hall of Fame . Retrieved . 5 April 2015
^ "Trevithick the railway pioneer". BBC. 29 April 2009 . Retrieved . 2010-12-07
^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F. (1998). "Charles Babbage". MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland . Retrieved . 2006-06-14
^ Russell, Edward J. (2011). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. p. 78. Fertility of the soil. ISBN 9781107401761 . Retrieved . 5 April 2015
^ Journal of the Society of Arts, Volume 6 By Society of Arts (Great Britain)
^ Challoner, Jack; et al. (2009). . Hauppauge NY: Barrons Educational Series. p. 305. 1001 Inventions That Changed The World
^ Victoria King. "Arsenic". History Magazine.
^ "From the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 70, 517-526, 645 (Errata) (1910) By Major-General H. P. Babbage".
^ "The development of the electric telegraph". University of Salford . Retrieved . 11 May 2015
^ a b Shelley de Kock. "Sir Charles Wheatstone and the Wheatstone Collection". King's College London . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ a b c d e Brian Bowers (2002). Sir Charles Wheatstone FRS: 1802-1875. Institution of Engineering and Technology. ISBN 978-0-85296-103-2.
^ "BBC - History - Kirkpatrick Macmillan" . Retrieved . 2008-12-31
^ The British Postal Museum & Archive — Rowland Hill’s Postal Reforms
^ "Lawes, Sir John Bennet (1814–1900) English Agriculturist (Scientist)" . Retrieved . 22 May 2014
^ Boole, George (2003) . An Investigation of the Laws of Thought. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-59102-089-9.
^ "Scientists born on October 21st" . Retrieved . 31 October 2007
^ "History of Steam Ploughing". Steam Plough Club. 1998 . Retrieved . 4 April 2015
^ Huth, Edward J.; Murray, T. J., eds. (2006). Medicine in Quotations: Views of Health and Disease Through the Ages. American College of Physic. p. 130.
^ "Scottish Science Hall of Fame - Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)" . Retrieved . 2010-02-20
^ Charlotte Fiell; Peter Fiell (eds.). 1000 Lights: 1878-1959. Taschen GmbH. ISBN 978-3-8228-1606-6.
^ Luigi Palombi (2009). Gene cartels: biotech patents in the age of free trade. Edward Elgar Pub. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-84720-836-1.
^ "Fresno Scraper". American Society of Mechanical Engineers . Retrieved . 5 April 2015
^ "Who Is Sir Francis Galton?". Galton Institute . Retrieved . 6 December 2010
^ Lee, Eric (2005). . New York: iUniversr, Inc. How internet radio can change the world : an activist's handbook ISBN 9780595349654 . Retrieved . 22 March 2015
^ "The origins of radio". Connected Earth . Retrieved . 22 March 2015
^ "Dan Albone". Biggleswade History Society . Retrieved . 30 August 2013
^ "Dan Albone, English inventor, 1902". The Science and Society Picture Library.
^ Williams, David (2010-08-19). "100 Years Of The Driving Lesson". The Daily Telegraph (London).
^ "BBC - History - John Logie Baird" . Retrieved . 2008-12-31
^ The World's First High Definition Colour Television System. McLean, p. 196.
^ "Frank Whittle (1907 - 1996)". BBC . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ a b "Turing biography".
^ "Annals of the History of Computing, Volume 5, Number 3, July 1983 . p239, . The Design of Colossus, THOMAS H. FLOWERS"
^ L. Essen, J.V.L. Parry (1955). "An Atomic Standard of Frequency and Time Interval - A Caesium Resonator". Nature 176 (4476): 280–282. Bibcode: 1955Natur.176..280E. doi: 10.1038/176280a0.
^ "The history and uses of carbon fibre". BBC. 9 January 2013 . Retrieved . 3 May 2015
^ Peter Higgs: Behind the scenes at the Universe
^ Peter Higgs and the Higgs Boson | School of Physics and Astronomy
^ Grant, Oliver (December 1998). "The Diffusion Of The Herringbone Parlour* A Case Study In The History Of Agricultural Technology" (PDF). University of Oxford Discussion Papers in Economic and Social History (27): 8 . Retrieved . 4 April 2015
^ "Who Invented the ATM? The James Goodfellow Story" . Retrieved . 2011-08-26
^ "About Us". Carr Reinforcements . Retrieved . 3 May 2015
^ Simon Singh (2000). . Fourth Estate. The Code Book ISBN 0-385-49531-5.
^ Lantagne, D. O. (May 1997). "Using Tree Shelters To Establish Northern Red Oak And Other Hardwoods" (PDF). Michigan State University Extension Bulletin: 2 . Retrieved . 5 April 2015
^ "Frequently asked questions". Tim Berners-Lee . Retrieved . 3 May 2015
^ "Biometric personal identification system based on iris analysis" . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ "Research Excellence Framework". Research Excellence Framework. Iris Recognition . Retrieved . 25 April 2015
^ "DNA: timeline of the national DNA database". The Telegraph. 7 May 2009 . Retrieved . 25 April 2015
^ "The Story of Graphene". University of Manchester . Retrieved . 5 April 2015
^ "Raspberry Pi becomes best selling British computer". The Guardian. 18 February 2015 . Retrieved . 22 March 2015
^ "UK space industry behind Rosetta comet mission". The Telegraph. 11 November 2014 . Retrieved . 4 May 2015
^ "Europe makes history with first ever comet landing". UK Space Agency. 12 November 2014 . Retrieved . 4 May 2015
^ A. R. Hall, "Horology and criticism: Robert Hooke", Studia Copernicana, XVI, Ossolineum, 1978, 261-81
^ a b c d e f g h Hall, Carl (2008). A Biographical Dictionary of People in Engineering: From the Earliest Records to 2000. Purdue University Press. ISBN 978-1-55753-459-0.
^ Daniels, George. "About George Daniels". Daniels London . Retrieved . 2008-06-12
^ "Longitude clock comes alive". BBC News. 2002-03-11 . Retrieved . 2010-01-03
^ Moore, N. Hudson Moore (1903). . New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company. p. 205. The Old Furniture Book
^ Catherine O'Reilly (2008). Did Thomas Crapper Really Invent the Toilet?: The Inventions That Changed Our Homes and Our Lives. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60239-347-9.
^ Earnshaw, Iris (November 2003). "The History of Christmas Cards". Inverloch Historical Society Inc. Retrieved . 2008-07-25
^ The History of Valentine's Day Cards ~ Valentine History ~ History of the Valentine ~ The Valentine Gallery Page One - Emotions Greeting Cards Museum
^ Joe Nickell (2000). Pen, ink, & evidence: a study of writing and writing materials for the penman, collector, and document detective. Oak Knoll Press. ISBN 978-1-58456-017-3.
^ "About TREVOR BAYLIS the inventor of the windup technology".
^ "Archives Biographies: Michael Faraday", The Institution of Engineering and Technology".
^ "RSC Historic Chemical Landmark Award - Liquid Crystals".
^ "Alan Blumlein - the man who invented stereo".
^ Phil Baines; Andrew Haslam (2005). Type and typography. Laurence King. ISBN 978-1-85669-437-7.
^ "William Ged (Scottish goldsmith)" . Retrieved . 2010-06-13
^ "roller printing (textile industry)" . Retrieved . 2010-06-13
^ "Arbroath & District Stamp & Postcard Club" . Retrieved . 2010-06-19
^ Communication and empire: media, markets, and globalization, 1860-1930 By Dwayne Roy Winseck, Robert M. Pike
^ Military communications: from ancient times to the 21st century By Christopher H. Sterling
^ The worldwide history of telecommunications By Anton A. Huurdeman
^ "Radar Personalities: Sir Robert Watson-Watt" . Retrieved . 2008-12-31
^ Radiolocation in Ubiquitous Wireless Communication By Danko Antolovic
^ Tom Krazit (April 3, 2006). "ARMed for the living room". CNET News . Retrieved . 2010-12-07
^ Jonathan Fildes (20 June 2008). "One tonne 'Baby' marks its birth". BBC News . Retrieved . 2010-12-07
^ "GEC Wembley Laboratories and the Cavity Magnetron". The Institution of Engineering and Technology.
^ "The Physics Collection". University College London . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ a b c d "Faraday and his successors". The Royal Institution of Great Britain . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ "Founder of the modern oil industry to be honoured". BBC News. 2011-11-08.
^ a b Robertson, Patrick (1974). The book of firsts. Crown Publishers. ISBN 978-0-517-51577-8.
^ espacenet — Bibliographic data
^ "James Dyson: Business whirlwind". BBC News. 5 February 2002 . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ "Sucking up to the vacuum cleaner". BBC News. 2001-08-30 . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ Curt Wohleber (Spring 2006). "The Vacuum Cleaner". Invention & Technology Magazine. American Heritage Publishing . Retrieved . 2010-12-08
^ Cole, David; Browning, Eve; E. H. Schroeder, Fred (2003). Encyclopedia of modern everyday inventions. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-31345-5.
^ "Gardening - Design - Georgian and Regency".
^ Loadman, John; James, Francis; MacLeod, Christine (2009). "The Hancocks of Marlborough: Rubber, Art and the Industrial Revolution - A Family of Inventive Genius". Physics Today 63 (9): 89. Bibcode: 2010PhT....63i..58L. doi: 10.1063/1.3490505. ISBN 978-0-19-957355-4
^ James B. Calvert. "The Electromagnetic Telegraph" . Retrieved . 2010-07-30
^ "Toilet museum flush with lottery cash". BBC News. 16 January 2001 . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ Case Studies in Superconducting Magnets: Design and Operational Issues By Yukikazu Iwasa
^ "The history of the refrigerator and freezer about.com:inventors" . Retrieved . 2010-06-13
^ Did Thomas Crapper Really Invent the Toilet?: The Inventions That Changed Our Homes and Our Lives Catherine O'Reilly
^ The Picture History of Great Inventors By Gillian Clements
^ The kaleidoscope, its history, theory and construction with its application By Sir David Brewster
^ US RE 8560, Passmore, Everett G., "Improvement in Lawn-Mowers", published 23 February 1869, issued 28 January 1879; see pg 1, col 2. For a copy, see Google Patents copy. This source indicates the patent number as "6,080". According to "British patent numbers 1617 - 1852 (old series)", the patent number was assigned sometime after 1852 and took the form of "6080/1830".
^ Wonders of the nineteenth century: a panoramic review of the inventions and discoveries of the past hundred years John Wesley Hanson W. B. Conkey, 1900
^ Pen Portraits: Alexandria Virginia 1739-1900 By T. Michael Miller
^ the commercial directory and shipers guide 1875
^ The lancet London: a journal of British and foreign medicine, surgery, obstetrics, physiology, chemistry, pharmacology, public health and news Elsevier, 1870
^ Thompson, William Phillips (1920). Handbook of patent law of all countries. London: Stevens. pp. 42
^ An account of some remarkable applications of the electric fluid to the useful arts by Alexander Bain
^ Alexander Bain of Watten: genius of the North Robert P. Gunn Caithness Field Club, 1976
^ Locke, John. A Letter Concerning Toleration Routledge, New York, 1991. p. 5 (Introduction)
^ Delaney, Tim. The march of unreason: science, democracy, and the new fundamentalism Oxford University Press, New York, 2005. p. 18
^ "William Harvey (1578 - 1657)". BBC . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ Saunders, Paul (1982). Edward Jenner, the Cheltenham years, 1795-1823. University Press of New England. ISBN 978-0-87451-215-1.
^ Levine, Israel E. (1960). Conqueror of smallpox: Dr. Edward Jenner. Messner. ISBN 978-0-671-63888-7.
^ White, Fred (2009). Physical Signs in Medicine and Surgery: An Atlas of Rare, Lost and Forgotten Physical Signs. Xlibris Corp. ISBN 978-1-4415-0829-4.
^ Scientific American inventions and discoveries By Rodney P. Carlisle
^ "Sir Harold Ridley". London: The Independent . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ "1866." The People's Chronology. Ed. Jason M. Everett. Thomson Gale, 2006. eNotes.com. 2006. 13 May 2007 < http://history.enotes.com/peoples-chronology/year-1866/medicine>
^ "Stephen Hales: neglected respiratory physiologist". National Center for Biotechnology Information . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ a b "John Snow (1813 - 1858)". BBC . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ "The outstanding British surgeon Percivall Pott (1714-1789) and the first description of an occupational cancer.". J BUON (National Center for Biotechnology Information) 11: 533–9. PMID 17309190.
^ Professor Harold Ellis (August 2007). "James Blundell, pioneer of blood transfusion". British Journal of Hospital Medicine . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ Hobbs J.R.., Letter to British Medical journal., 7 December 1998: Bone marrow stem cell transplants (from alternative donors) and Leukaemia.
^ Riches, Pamela; Steward, Colin (5 September 2008). "John Hobbs". London: The Guardian . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ "The life and work of Sir Almroth Wright honoured in Centenary lecture". Imperial College London. 19 September 2007 . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ Morris Fishbein, M.D., ed (1976). "Anesthesia". The New Illustrated Medical and Health Encyclopedia. 1 (Home Library Edition ed.). New York, N.Y. 10016: H. S. Stuttman Co. pp. 89
^ "Dr James Parkinson". Parkinson's Disease Society of the United Kingdom . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ Walsh, Fergus (14 July 2008). "30th birthday for first IVF baby". BBC News . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ "The Old English illustrated pharmacopoeia: British Library Cotton Vitellius CIII". Medical History 44 (3): 433. PMC 1044312.
^ a b Drug discovery: a history By Walter Sneader
^ a b The Discovery of Hypnosis- The Complete Writings of James Braid, the Father of Hypnotism By James Braid, Donald Robertson (ed.)
^ Assam Branch, Indian Tea Association, 1889-1989: centenary souvenir
^ Madkour's Brucellosis M. Monir Madkour - 2001
^ Recruit Medicine edited by Bernard DeKoning
^ a b "Nobelprize.org: John Macleod - Biography" . Retrieved . 2008-12-31
^ "Fife medical firm rolls out 'skin cancer plaster. '" BBC News. 2010-12-08.
^ Research in British universities, polytechnics and colleges British Library, British Library. RBUPC Office
^ Milestones in health and medicine Anne S. Harding Oryx Press, 2000 - Medical
^ "Glasgow Coma Scale - Coma Science Group" (PDF) . Retrieved . 2010-11-12
^ Clinical Examination In Cardiology By Rao
^ Madkour's Brucellosis M. Monir Madkour - 2001
^ Recruit Medicine edited by Bernard DeKoning
^ "Nobelprize.org: Sir Alexander Fleming - Biography" . Retrieved . 2008-12-31
^ Crofton and Douglas's respiratory diseases, Volume 1 By Anthony Seaton, Douglas Seaton, Andrew Gordon Leitch, Sir John Crofton
^ Research in British universities, polytechnics and colleges British Library, British Library. RBUPC Office
^ Milestones in health and medicine Anne S. Harding Oryx Press, 2000 - Medical
^ Clinical Examination In Cardiology By Rao
^ The Use Of Gas In The Field, 1940
^ The wonders of the piano: the anatomy of the instrument Catherine C. Bielefeldt, Alfred R. Weil
^ a b Phil Coomes (27 April 2010). "Remembering Frederick Scott Archer". BBC . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ "BBC - History - Historic Figures: William Henry Fox Talbot (1800 - 1877)". BBC . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ Encyclopaedic visions: scientific dictionaries and enlightenment culture By Natasha J. Yeo
^ The Early history of surgery William John Bishop - 1995
^ Picture Postcards By C W Hill
^ a b c Windelspecht, Michael (2003). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the 19th Century. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-31969-3.
^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952". The Nobel Foundation . Retrieved . 2010-12-08
^ "The Oughtred Society: Slide Rule History".
^ Francis Galton (1822–1911) – from Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography
^ "Anzeige des Todes von Robert Thorburn Ayton Innes". Astronomische Nachrichten 249: 51–52. 1933. Bibcode: 1933AN....249...51D. doi: 10.1002/asna.19332490203.
^ Mr. Herschel and Dr. Watson (1781). "Account of a Comet. By Mr. Herschel, F. R. S.; Communicated by Dr. Watson, Jun. of Bath, F. R. S." (PDF). Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 71: 492–501. Bibcode: 1781RSPT...71..492H. doi: 10.1098/rstl.1781.0056.
^ "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature: Planet and Satellite Names and Discoverers".
^ Anderson; Hellier; Gillon; Triaud; Smalley; Hebb; Collier Cameron; Maxted; Queloz (2009). "WASP-17b: an ultra-low density planet in a probable retrograde orbit". arXiv: 0908.1553 [ astro-ph.EP]. web
^ William Lassell (1799-1880) and the discovery of Triton, 1846
^ "Adams, John Quincy encyclopaedia hutchinson". web
^ "Lovell, Bernard". web
^ "Newton, Isaac encyclopaedia hutchinson".
^ Watson, Fred (2007-10-01). . Stargazer: the life and times of the telescope ISBN 978-1-74175-383-7.
^ "Sir Fred Hoyle".
^ Ellis, Alan. "Black Holes - Part 1 - History" . Retrieved . 2011-01-20
^ "Spiral galaxies - William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse".
^ "History: Edmond Halley".
^ "Pulsars and High Density Physics". Methods Enzymol 208: 414–33. 1991. doi: 10.1016/0076-6879(91)08022-a. PMID 1779842.
^ "The Galileo Project: Thomas Harriot (1560-1621)".
^ "Continuum driven winds from super-Eddington stars. A tale of two limits". arXiv: 0708.4207. Bibcode: 2008AIPC..990..250V. doi: 10.1063/1.2905555.
^ "Antony Hewish biography".
^ "John Dalton, encyclopaedia/hutchinson".
^ "Francis Crick's 1962 Biography from the Nobel foundation".
^ "Frederick Sanger".
^ "Richard J. Roberts Biography from the Nobel foundation".
^ "Harold Kroto - Autobiography from the Nobel foundation".
^ "Geoffrey Wilkinson - Autobiographyfrom the Nobel foundation".
^ "Cavendish, Henry encyclopaedia/hutchinson".
^ "History of the Development of the Periodic Table of Elements".
^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915 William Bragg, Lawrence Bragg".
^ "Brief biography of Moseley".
^ Davy, Sir Humphry (1840). Davy, Humphry (1808).
^ "Michael Faraday for beginners". The Royal Institution of Great Britain . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ Noon, Randall (1992). . Introduction to Forensic Engineering ISBN 978-0-8493-8102-7.
^ "A. C. Crombie, Robert Grosseteste and the Origins of Experimental Science, 1100-1700, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971), pp. 52-60."
^ "Baconian method". Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ Matthew Eisler. "Francis Thomas Bacon and the Fuel Cell". IEEE-USA.
^ "Luke Howard and Cloud Names". Royal Meteorological Society . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ "Lord Rayleigh: The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904". The Nobel Foundation. 1904 . Retrieved . 2010-05-05
^ Encyclopedia of British Football by Richard Cox et al., Routledge, 2002 page 5
^ From Lads to Lord's: 1300 – 1600
^ The History of Tennis
^ International Federation of Netball Associations. "History of Netball" . Retrieved . 2008-10-13
^ "Past Boat Race winners". BBC News. 2005-03-07 . Retrieved . 2010-05-02
^ Paralympic Games - The Canadian Encyclopedia
^ a b Kent News - Kent stick with tradition for Canterbury festival
^ a b Noah Shachtman (2003-12-16). "The Englishman Who Wanted to Fly". Wired Magazine . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ "High hopes for replica plane". BBC News. 10 October 2001 . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ Gordon Rayner (26 Dec 2009). "Campaign to honour Hawker Hurricane designer Sir Sydney Camm". The Telegraph (London) . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ "1952: Comet inaugurates the jet age". BBC News. 1952-05-02 . Retrieved . 2010-12-06
^ Manby, Frederic (24 August 2009). "Clunk, click – an invention that's saved lives for 50 years". Yorkshire Post (Johnston Press Digital Publishing) . Retrieved . 2010-12-04
^ Ernest William Hobson. John Napier and the invention of logarithms, 1614. The University Press, 1914.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica - James Clerk Maxwell
^ Popular Astronomy By Simon Newcomb
^ Logic, language, information and computation: 15th international workshop, WoLLIC 2008, Edinburgh, UK, July 1–4, 2008
^ Chambers's encyclopaedia: a dictionary of universal knowledge for the people Appleton 1864
^ Biology: Concepts and Applications Without Physiology By Cecie Starr, Christine A. Evers, Lisa Starr
^ The Discovery of Hypnosis- The Complete Writings of James Braid, the Father of Hypnotherapy James Braid, Donald Robertson (ed.) 2009
^ Colloid chemistry Robert James Hartman, Herman Thompson Briscoe Houghton Mifflin Co., 1947
^ Chemistry and chemical reactivity, Volume 2 By John C. Kotz, Paul Treichel, John Raymond Townsend
^ Scottish pride: 101 reasons to be proud of your Scottish heritage Heather Duncan
^ Criminalistics: Forensic Science and Crime By James Girard
^ Noble Gases By Jens Thomas
^ The world of the atom Henry Abraham Boorse, Lloyd Motz Basic Books, inc., 1966
^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Lord Boyd Orr
^ Ian Donald's Practical Obstetric Problem, 6/e By Renu Misra
^ Journal of the Chemical Society Chemical Society (Great Britain), Bureau of Chemical Abstracts (Great Britain) The Society, 1920
^ A history of neurosurgery: in its scientific and professional contexts By Samuel H. Greenblatt, T. Forcht Dagi
^ From Sea Urchins to Dolly the Sheep: Discovering Cloning Sally Morgan Heinemann/Raintree, 2007
^ Transactions of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts Royal Scottish Society of Arts Neill & Co., 1883
^ A Handbook of determinative methods in clay mineralogy Michael Jeffrey Wilson, Michael John Wilson Blackie, 1987
^ Bacon, Richard Mackenzie (1820). "The Catch and Glee Clubs". The Quarterly musical magazine and review (London) II (VII): 328ff.
^ Key Facts about Norwich
^ Frederick Walton : Oxford Biography Index entry
^ Quinn, Terry (2012). . From artefacts to atoms : the BIPM and the search for ultimate measurement standards Oxford University Press. p. xxvii. ISBN 978-0-19-530786-3. he [Wilkins] proposed essentially what became ... the French decimal metric system
^ "My Dear Home, I Love You, You’re a House for Each of Us and Home for All of Us". . 1918 World Digital Library . Retrieved . 2013-10-26
^ Raynor, Tauria (2008-10-30). "Boys' Brigade want alumni to return for a special anniversary". The Royal Gazette. http://www.royalgazette.com/siftology.royalgazette/Article/article.jsp?articleId=7d8af2f30030024§ionId=60. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
^ The Focal encyclopedia of photography By Leslie Stroebel, Richard D. Zakia
Further reading [ edit ]