Charles and Emilie Briggs summarized the contents of Psalm 31 in the International Critical Commentary series: "Ps. 31 is a prayer: (1) importunate plea for deliverance of the people from national enemies (v.2-5); (2) confidence in the deliverance already accomplished (v.6-9); (3) petition based on complain of abandonment (v.10-13); (4) confidence, with prayer for salvation (v.14-17); (5) praise of Yahweh for the salvation (v.20-21, 22-24a). There are liturgical glosses (v.22, 24b-25) and a gloss of imprecation (v.18-19)."
On the basis of the wording of the Psalm, they claim that "The author certainly knew Jer[emiah], Is[aiah], Ez[ekiel], and many Ps[alms] of the Persian period. We cannot put the composition earlier than the troubles of Israel preceding the reforms of Nehemiah." The Persian period began in 539 BC, and Nehemiah's reforms are dated to about 445 BC.
- Verse 6 is part of Baruch Hashem L'Olam in Maariv. It is also part of the prayers of the Bedtime Shema.
- Charles Augustus Briggs; Emilie Grace Briggs (1960) . A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Psalms. International Critical Commentary. 1. Edinburgh: T & T Clark. p. 263.
- Charles Augustus Briggs; Emilie Grace Briggs (1960) . A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Psalms. International Critical Commentary. 1. Edinburgh: T & T Clark. p. 264.
- Lisa M. Wolfe (1 November 2011). Ruth, Esther, Song of Songs, and Judith. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-60608-520-2.
. . . the Persian period, which began in 539 King Cyrus of Persia conquered ancient Babylonia.
- F. Charles Fensham (24 February 1983). The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-8028-2527-8.
Nehemiah arrived in Jerusalem in 445 as governor of Judah . . .
- p. 234, Reichwald (2008) Siegwart. Bloomington, Indiana Mendelssohn in Performance Indiana University Press
- The Complete Artscroll Siddur page 265
- The Complete Artscroll Siddur page 293