John Lennon, 1969
|Birth name||John Winston Lennon|
9 October 1940|
|Died||8 December 1980
New York, New York
|Genres||Rock, pop, experimental|
|Occupations||Musician, singer, songwriter, record producer, artist, writer, actor, activist|
|Instruments||Vocals, guitar, keyboards, harmonica, bass, percussion|
|Years active||1957–75, 1980|
|Labels||Parlophone, Capitol, Apple, Geffen, Polydor|
|Associated acts||The Quarrymen, the Beatles, Plastic Ono Band, the Dirty Mac, Yoko Ono, David Bowie, Elton John|
John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (born John Winston Lennon; 9 October 1940 – 8 December 1980) was an English musician, singer and songwriter who rose to worldwide fame as a founder member of rock group the Beatles, the most commercially successful band in the history of popular music. With Paul McCartney, he formed a songwriting partnership that is one of the most celebrated of the 20th century.
Born and raised in Liverpool, as a teenager Lennon became involved in the skiffle craze; his first band, the Quarrymen, evolved into the Beatles in 1960. When the group disbanded in 1970, Lennon embarked on a solo career that produced the critically acclaimed albums John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band and Imagine, and iconic songs such as "Give Peace a Chance" and "Working Class Hero". After his marriage to Yoko Ono in 1969, he changed his name to John Ono Lennon. Lennon disengaged himself from the music business in 1975 to raise his infant son Sean, but re-emerged with Ono in 1980 with the new album Double Fantasy. He was murdered three weeks after its release.
Lennon revealed a rebellious nature and acerbic wit in his music, writing, drawings, on film and in interviews. Controversial through his political and peace activism, he moved to Manhattan in 1971, where his criticism of the Vietnam War resulted in a lengthy attempt by Richard Nixon's administration to deport him, while some of his songs were adopted as anthems by the anti-war movement and the larger counterculture.
As of 2012, Lennon's solo album sales in the United States exceeded 14 million and, as writer, co-writer or performer, he is responsible for 25 number-one singles on the US Hot 100 chart. In 2002, a BBC poll on the 100 Greatest Britons voted him eighth and, in 2008, Rolling Stone ranked him the fifth-greatest singer of all time. He was posthumously inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1987 and into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994.
- 1 Biography
- 1.1 1940–57: Early years
- 1.2 1957–70: The Quarrymen to the Beatles
- 1.3 1970–80: Solo career
- 1.4 8 December 1980: Death
- 2 Personal relationships
- 3 Political activism
- 4 Writing and art
- 5 Musicianship
- 6 Legacy
- 7 Discography
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 Citations
- 12 Sources
- 13 External links
1940–57: Early years
Lennon was born in war-time England, on 9 October 1940 at Liverpool Maternity Hospital to Julia (née Stanley) and Alfred Lennon, a merchant seaman of Irish descent, who was away at the time of his son's birth. His parents named him John Winston Lennon after his paternal grandfather, John "Jack" Lennon, and then-Prime Minister Winston Churchill. His father was often away from home but sent regular pay cheques to 9 Newcastle Road, Liverpool, where Lennon lived with his mother, but the cheques stopped when he went absent without leave in February 1944. When he eventually came home six months later, he offered to look after the family, but Julia—by then pregnant with another man's child—rejected the idea. After her sister, Mimi Smith, twice complained to Liverpool's Social Services, Julia handed the care of Lennon over to her. In July 1946 Lennon's father visited Smith and took his son to Blackpool, secretly intending to emigrate to New Zealand with him. Julia followed them—with her partner at the time, 'Bobby' Dykins—and after a heated argument his father forced the five-year-old to choose between them. Lennon twice chose his father, but as his mother walked away, he began to cry and followed her. It would be 20 years before he had contact with his father again.
Throughout the rest of his childhood and adolescence he lived with his aunt and uncle, Mimi and George Smith, who had no children of their own, at Mendips, 251 Menlove Avenue, Woolton. His aunt purchased volumes of short stories for him, and his uncle, a dairyman at his family's farm, bought him a mouth organ and engaged him in solving crossword puzzles. Julia visited Mendips on a regular basis, and when John was 11 years old he often visited her at 1 Blomfield Road, Liverpool, where she played him Elvis Presley records, taught him the banjo, and showed him how to play "Ain't That a Shame" by Fats Domino. In September 1980, Lennon commented about his family and his rebellious nature:
Part of me would like to be accepted by all facets of society and not be this loudmouthed lunatic poet/musician. But I cannot be what I am not ... I was the one who all the other boys' parents—including Paul's father—would say, 'Keep away from him'... The parents instinctively recognised I was a troublemaker, meaning I did not conform and I would influence their children, which I did. I did my best to disrupt every friend's home ... Partly out of envy that I didn't have this so-called home ... but I did... There were five women that were my family. Five strong, intelligent, beautiful women, five sisters. One happened to be my mother. [She] just couldn't deal with life. She was the youngest and she had a husband who ran away to sea and the war was on and she couldn't cope with me, and I ended up living with her elder sister. Now those women were fantastic ... And that was my first feminist education ... I would infiltrate the other boys minds. I could say, "Parents are not gods because I don't live with mine and, therefore, I know.'
He regularly visited his cousin, Stanley Parkes, who lived in Fleetwood. Seven years Lennon's senior, Parkes took him on trips and to local cinemas. During the school holidays, Parkes often visited Lennon with Leila Harvey, another cousin, often travelling to Blackpool two or three times a week to watch shows. They would visit the Blackpool Tower Circus and see artists such as Dickie Valentine, Arthur Askey, Max Bygraves and Joe Loss, with Parkes recalling that Lennon particularly liked George Formby. After Parkes's family moved to Scotland, the three cousins often spent their school holidays together there. Parkes recalled, "John, cousin Leila and I were very close. From Edinburgh we would drive up to the family croft at Durness, which was from about the time John was nine years old until he was about 16." He was 14 years old when his uncle George died of a liver haemorrhage on 5 June 1955 (aged 52).
Lennon was raised as an Anglican and attended Dovedale Primary School. From September 1952 to 1957, after passing his Eleven-Plus exam, he attended Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool, and was described by Harvey at the time as, "A happy-go-lucky, good-humoured, easy going, lively lad." He often drew comical cartoons which appeared in his own self-made school magazine called The Daily Howl, but despite his artistic talent, his school reports were damning: "Certainly on the road to failure ... hopeless ... rather a clown in class ... wasting other pupils' time."
His mother bought him his first guitar in 1956, an inexpensive Gallotone Champion acoustic for which she "lent" her son five pounds and ten shillings on the condition that the guitar be delivered to her own house, and not Mimi's, knowing well that her sister was not supportive of her son's musical aspirations. As Mimi was sceptical of his claim that he would be famous one day, she hoped he would grow bored with music, often telling him, "The guitar's all very well, John, but you'll never make a living out of it". On 15 July 1958, when Lennon was 17 years old, his mother, walking home after visiting the Smiths' house, was struck by a car and killed.
Lennon failed all his GCE O-level examinations, and was accepted into the Liverpool College of Art only after his aunt and headmaster intervened. Once at the college, he started wearing Teddy Boy clothes and acquired a reputation for disrupting classes and ridiculing teachers. As a result, he was excluded from the painting class, then the graphic arts course, and was threatened with expulsion for his behaviour, which included sitting on a nude model's lap during a life drawing class. He failed an annual exam, despite help from fellow student and future wife Cynthia Powell, and was "thrown out of the college before his final year."
1957–70: The Quarrymen to the Beatles
1957–66: Formation, commercial break-out and touring years
At age 15, Lennon formed the skiffle group, the Quarrymen. Named after Quarry Bank High School, the group was established by him in September 1956. By the summer of 1957, the Quarrymen played a "spirited set of songs" made up of half skiffle and half rock and roll. Lennon first met Paul McCartney at the Quarrymen's second performance, held in Woolton on 6 July at the St. Peter's Church garden fête, after which he asked McCartney to join the band.
McCartney says that Aunt Mimi "was very aware that John's friends were lower class", and would often patronise him when he arrived to visit Lennon. According to Paul's brother Mike, McCartney's father was also disapproving, declaring Lennon would get his son "into trouble", although he later allowed the fledgling band to rehearse in the McCartneys' front room at 20 Forthlin Road. During this time, the 18-year-old Lennon wrote his first song, "Hello Little Girl", a UK top 10 hit for The Fourmost nearly five years later.
George Harrison joined the band as lead guitarist. Lennon thought Harrison (at 14 years old) was too young, so McCartney engineered a second audition on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, where Harrison played "Raunchy" for Lennon. Stuart Sutcliffe, Lennon's friend from art school, later joined as bassist. Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Sutcliffe became "The Beatles" in early 1960. In August that year, the Beatles engaged for a 48-night residency in Hamburg, Germany, and desperately in need of a drummer, asked Pete Best to join them. Lennon was now 19, and his aunt, horrified when he told her about the trip, pleaded with him to continue his art studies instead. After the first Hamburg residency, the band accepted another in April 1961, and a third in April 1962. Like the other band members, Lennon was introduced to Preludin while in Hamburg, and regularly took the drug, as well as amphetamines, as a stimulant during their long, overnight performances.
Brian Epstein, the Beatles' manager from 1962, had no prior experience of artist management, but had a strong influence on their early dress code and attitude on stage. Lennon initially resisted his attempts to encourage the band to present a professional appearance, but eventually complied, saying, "I'll wear a bloody balloon if somebody's going to pay me". McCartney took over on bass after Sutcliffe decided to stay in Hamburg, and drummer Ringo Starr replaced Best, completing the four-piece line-up that would endure until the group's break-up in 1970. The band's first single, "Love Me Do", was released in October 1962 and reached No. 17 on the British charts. They recorded their debut album, Please Please Me, in under 10 hours on 11 February 1963, a day when Lennon was suffering the effects of a cold, which is evident in the vocal on the last song to be recorded that day, "Twist and Shout". The Lennon–McCartney songwriting partnership yielded eight of its fourteen tracks. With few exceptions—one being the album title itself—Lennon had yet to bring his love of wordplay to bear on his song lyrics, saying: "We were just writing songs ... pop songs with no more thought of them than that—to create a sound. And the words were almost irrelevant". In a 1987 interview, McCartney said that the other Beatles idolised John: "He was like our own little Elvis ... We all looked up to John. He was older and he was very much the leader; he was the quickest wit and the smartest".
The Beatles achieved mainstream success in the UK during the beginning of 1963. Lennon was on tour when his first son, Julian, was born in April. During their Royal Variety Show performance, attended by the Queen Mother and other British royalty, Lennon poked fun at his audience: "For our next song, I'd like to ask for your help. For the people in the cheaper seats, clap your hands ... and the rest of you, if you'll just rattle your jewellery." After a year of Beatlemania in the UK, the group's historic February 1964 US debut appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show marked their breakthrough to international stardom. A two-year period of constant touring, moviemaking, and songwriting followed, during which Lennon wrote two books, In His Own Write and A Spaniard in the Works. The Beatles received recognition from the British Establishment when they were appointed Members of the Order of the British Empire in the Queen's Birthday Honours of 1965.
Lennon grew concerned that fans attending Beatles concerts were unable to hear the music above the screaming of fans, and that the band's musicianship was beginning to suffer as a result. Lennon's "Help!" expressed his own feelings in 1965: "I meant it ... It was me singing 'help'". He had put on weight (he would later refer to this as his "Fat Elvis" period), and felt he was subconsciously seeking change. The following January he was unknowingly introduced to LSD when a dentist, hosting a dinner party attended by Lennon, Harrison and their wives, spiked the guests' coffee with the drug. When they wanted to leave, their host revealed what they had taken, and strongly advised them not to leave the house because of the likely effects. Later, in an elevator at a nightclub, they all believed it was on fire: "We were all screaming ... hot and hysterical." A few months later in March, during an interview with Evening Standard reporter Maureen Cleave, Lennon remarked, "Christianity will go. It will vanish and shrink ... We're more popular than Jesus now—I don't know which will go first, rock and roll or Christianity." The comment went virtually unnoticed in England but caused great offence in the US when quoted by a magazine there five months later. The furore that followed—burning of Beatles records, Ku Klux Klan activity and threats against Lennon—contributed to the band's decision to stop touring.
1967–70: Studio years, break-up and solo work
Deprived of the routine of live performances after their final commercial concert on 29 August 1966, Lennon felt lost and considered leaving the band. Since his involuntary introduction to LSD in January, he had made increasing use of the drug, and was almost constantly under its influence for much of the year. According to biographer Ian MacDonald, Lennon's continuous experience with LSD during the year brought him "close to erasing his identity". 1967 saw the release of "Strawberry Fields Forever", hailed by Time magazine for its "astonishing inventiveness", and the group's landmark album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, which revealed Lennon's lyrics contrasting strongly with the simple love songs of the Lennon–McCartney's early years.
In August, after having been introduced to the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the group attended a weekend of personal instruction at his Transcendental Meditation seminar in Bangor, Wales, and were informed of Epstein's death during the seminar. "I knew we were in trouble then", Lennon said later. "I didn't have any misconceptions about our ability to do anything other than play music, and I was scared". They later travelled to Maharishi's ashram in India for further guidance, where they composed most of the songs for The Beatles and Abbey Road.
The anti-war, black comedy How I Won the War, featuring Lennon's only appearance in a non–Beatles full-length film, was shown in cinemas in October 1967. McCartney organised the group's first post-Epstein project, the self-written, -produced and -directed television film Magical Mystery Tour, released in December that year. While the film itself proved to be their first critical flop, its soundtrack release, featuring Lennon's acclaimed, Lewis Carroll-inspired "I Am the Walrus", was a success. With Epstein gone, the band members became increasingly involved in business activities, and in February 1968 they formed Apple Corps, a multimedia corporation composed of Apple Records and several other subsidiary companies. Lennon described the venture as an attempt to achieve, "artistic freedom within a business structure", but his increased drug experimentation and growing preoccupation with Yoko Ono, and McCartney's own marriage plans, left Apple in need of professional management. Lennon asked Lord Beeching to take on the role, but he declined, advising Lennon to go back to making records. Lennon approached Allen Klein, who had managed The Rolling Stones and other bands during the British Invasion. Klein was appointed as Apple's chief executive by Lennon, Harrison and Starr, but McCartney never signed the management contract.
Sample of "Give Peace a Chance", recorded in 1969 during Lennon and Ono's second Bed-In for Peace. As described by biographer Bill Harry, Lennon wanted to "write a peace anthem that would take over from the song 'We Shall Overcome'—and he succeeded ... it became the main anti-Vietnam protest song."
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
At the end of 1968, Lennon featured in the film The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus (not released until 1996) in the role of a Dirty Mac band member. The supergroup, composed of Lennon, Eric Clapton, Keith Richards and Mitch Mitchell, also backed a vocal performance by Ono in the film. Lennon and Ono were married on 20 March 1969, and soon released a series of 14 lithographs called "Bag One" depicting scenes from their honeymoon, eight of which were deemed indecent and most of which were banned and confiscated. Lennon's creative focus continued to move beyond the Beatles and between 1968 and 1969 he and Ono recorded three albums of experimental music together: Unfinished Music No.1: Two Virgins (known more for its cover than for its music), Unfinished Music No.2: Life with the Lions and Wedding Album. In 1969, they formed the Plastic Ono Band, releasing Live Peace in Toronto 1969. Between 1969 and 1970, Lennon released the singles "Give Peace a Chance" (widely adopted as an anti-Vietnam-War anthem in 1969), "Cold Turkey" (documenting his withdrawal symptoms after he became addicted to heroin) and "Instant Karma!". In protest at Britain's involvement in the Nigerian Civil War, its support of America in the Vietnam war and (perhaps jokingly) against "Cold Turkey" slipping down the charts, Lennon returned his MBE medal to the Queen, though this had no effect on his MBE status, which could not be renounced.
Lennon left the Beatles in September 1969, and agreed not to inform the media while the group renegotiated their recording contract, but he was outraged that McCartney publicised his own departure on releasing his debut solo album in April 1970. Lennon's reaction was, "Jesus Christ! He gets all the credit for it!" He later wrote, "I started the band. I disbanded it. It's as simple as that." In later interviews with Rolling Stone magazine, he revealed his bitterness towards McCartney, saying, "I was a fool not to do what Paul did, which was use it to sell a record." He spoke too of the hostility he perceived the other members had towards Ono, and of how he, Harrison, and Starr "got fed up with being sidemen for Paul ... After Brian Epstein died we collapsed. Paul took over and supposedly led us. But what is leading us when we went round in circles?"
1970–80: Solo career
1970–72: Initial solo success and activism
In 1970, Lennon and Ono went through primal therapy with Dr. Arthur Janov in Los Angeles, California. Designed to release emotional pain from early childhood, the therapy entailed two half-days a week with Janov for four months; he had wanted to treat the couple for longer, but they felt no need to continue and returned to London. Lennon's emotional debut solo album, John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band (1970), was received with high praise. Critic Greil Marcus remarked, "John's singing in the last verse of 'God' may be the finest in all of rock." The album featured the songs "Mother", in which Lennon confronted his feelings of childhood rejection, and the Dylanesque "Working Class Hero", a bitter attack against the bourgeois social system which, due to the lyric "you're still fucking peasants", fell foul of broadcasters. The same year, Tariq Ali's revolutionary political views, expressed when he interviewed Lennon, inspired the singer to write "Power to the People". Lennon also became involved with Ali during a protest against Oz magazine's prosecution for alleged obscenity. Lennon denounced the proceedings as "disgusting fascism", and he and Ono (as Elastic Oz Band) released the single "God Save Us/Do the Oz" and joined marches in support of the magazine.
Sample of "Imagine", Lennon's "most famous post-Beatles track." Like "Give Peace a Chance", the song became an anti-war anthem, but its lyrics offended religious groups. Lennon's explanation was, "If you can imagine a world at peace, with no denominations of religion—not without religion, but without this 'my god is bigger than your god' thing—then it can be true."
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
With Lennon's next album, Imagine (1971), critical response was more guarded. Rolling Stone reported that "it contains a substantial portion of good music" but warned of the possibility that "his posturings will soon seem not merely dull but irrelevant". The album's title track would become an anthem for anti-war movements, while another, "How Do You Sleep?", was a musical attack on McCartney in response to lyrics from Ram that Lennon felt, and McCartney later confirmed, were directed at him and Ono. However, Lennon softened his stance in the mid-1970s and said he had written "How Do You Sleep?" about himself. He said in 1980: "I used my resentment against Paul … to create a song … not a terrible vicious horrible vendetta […] I used my resentment and withdrawing from Paul and the Beatles, and the relationship with Paul, to write 'How Do You Sleep'. I don't really go 'round with those thoughts in my head all the time."
Lennon and Ono moved to New York in August 1971, and in December released "Happy Xmas (War Is Over)". The new year saw the Nixon administration take what it called a "strategic counter-measure" against Lennon's anti-war and anti-Nixon propaganda, embarking on what would be a four-year attempt to deport him. In 1972, Lennon and Ono attended a post-election wake held in the New York home of activist Jerry Rubin after McGovern lost to Nixon. Embroiled in a continuing legal battle with the immigration authorities, Lennon was denied permanent residency in the US (which wouldn't be resolved until 1976). Depressed, Lennon got intoxicated and had sex with a female guest, leaving Ono embarrassed. Her song "Death of Samantha" was inspired by the incident.
Recorded as a collaboration with Ono and with backing from the New York band Elephant's Memory, Some Time in New York City was released in 1972. Containing songs about women's rights, race relations, Britain's role in Northern Ireland and Lennon's problems obtaining a green card, the album was poorly received—unlistenable, according to one critic. "Woman Is the Nigger of the World", released as a US single from the album the same year, was televised on 11 May, on The Dick Cavett Show. Many radio stations refused to broadcast the song because of the word "nigger". Lennon and Ono gave two benefit concerts with Elephant's Memory and guests in New York in aid of patients at the Willowbrook State School mental facility. Staged at Madison Square Garden on 30 August 1972, they were his last full-length concert appearances.
1973–75: "Lost weekend"
While Lennon was recording Mind Games (1973), he and Ono decided to separate. The ensuing 18-month period apart, which he later called his "lost weekend", was spent in Los Angeles and New York in the company of May Pang. Mind Games, credited to the "Plastic U.F.Ono Band", was released in November 1973. Lennon also contributed "I'm the Greatest", to Starr's album Ringo (1973), released the same month (an alternate take, from the same 1973 Ringo sessions, with Lennon providing a guide vocal, appears on John Lennon Anthology).
In early 1974, Lennon was drinking heavily and his alcohol-fuelled antics with Harry Nilsson made headlines. Two widely publicised incidents occurred at The Troubadour club in March, the first when Lennon placed a menstruation "towel" on his forehead and scuffled with a waitress, and the second, two weeks later, when Lennon and Nilsson were ejected from the same club after heckling the Smothers Brothers. Lennon decided to produce Nilsson's album Pussy Cats and Pang rented a Los Angeles beach house for all the musicians but after a month of further debauchery, with the recording sessions in chaos, Lennon moved to New York with Pang to finish work on the album. In April, Lennon had produced the Mick Jagger song "Too Many Cooks (Spoil the Soup)" which was, for contractual reasons, to remain unreleased for more than 30 years. Pang supplied the recording for its eventual inclusion on The Very Best of Mick Jagger (2007).
Settled back in New York, Lennon recorded the album Walls and Bridges. Released in October 1974, it yielded his only number-one non-Beatles single in his lifetime, "Whatever Gets You Thru the Night", featuring Elton John on backing vocals and piano. A second single from the album, "#9 Dream", followed before the end of the year. Starr's Goodnight Vienna (1974) again saw assistance from Lennon, who wrote the title track and played piano. On 28 November, Lennon made a surprise guest appearance at Elton John's Thanksgiving concert at Madison Square Garden, in fulfilment of his promise to join the singer in a live show if "Whatever Gets You Thru the Night"—a song whose commercial potential Lennon had doubted—reached number one. Lennon performed the song along with "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" and "I Saw Her Standing There", which he introduced as "a song by an old estranged fiancée of mine called Paul".
Lennon co-wrote "Fame", David Bowie's first US number one, and provided guitar and backing vocals for the January 1975 recording. The same month, Elton John topped the charts with his cover of "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds", featuring Lennon on guitar and back-up vocals (Lennon is credited on the single under the moniker of "Dr. Winston O'Boogie"). He and Ono were reunited shortly afterwards. Lennon released Rock 'n' Roll (1975), an album of cover songs, in February. "Stand by Me", taken from the album and a US and UK hit, became his last single for five years. He made what would be his final stage appearance in the ATV special A Salute to Lew Grade, recorded on 18 April and televised in June. Playing acoustic guitar and backed by an eight-piece band, Lennon performed two songs from Rock 'n' Roll ("Stand By Me", which was not broadcast, and "Slippin' and Slidin'") followed by "Imagine". The band, known as Etc., wore masks behind their heads, a dig by Lennon who thought Grade was two-faced.
1975–80: Retirement and return
With the birth of his second son Sean on 9 October 1975, Lennon took on the role of househusband, beginning what would be a five-year hiatus from the music industry during which he gave all his attention to his family. Within the month, he fulfilled his contractual obligation to EMI/Capitol for one more album by releasing Shaved Fish, a compilation album of previously recorded tracks. He devoted himself to Sean, rising at 6 am daily to plan and prepare his meals and to spend time with him. He wrote "Cookin' (In the Kitchen of Love)" for Starr's Ringo's Rotogravure (1976), performing on the track in June in what would be his last recording session until 1980. He formally announced his break from music in Tokyo in 1977, saying, "we have basically decided, without any great decision, to be with our baby as much as we can until we feel we can take time off to indulge ourselves in creating things outside of the family." During his career break he created several series of drawings, and drafted a book containing a mix of autobiographical material and what he termed "mad stuff", all of which would be published posthumously.
Lennon emerged from retirement in October 1980 with the single "(Just Like) Starting Over", followed the next month by the album Double Fantasy, which contained songs written during a journey to Bermuda on a 43-foot sailing boat the previous June, that reflected his fulfilment in his new-found stable family life. Sufficient additional material was recorded for a planned follow-up album Milk and Honey (released posthumously in 1984). Released jointly by Lennon and Ono, Double Fantasy was not well received, drawing comments such as Melody Maker's "indulgent sterility ... a godawful yawn".
8 December 1980: Death
At around 10:50 pm on 8 December 1980, as Lennon and Ono returned to their New York apartment in the Dakota, Mark David Chapman shot Lennon in the back four times at the entrance to the building. Lennon was taken to the emergency room of nearby Roosevelt Hospital and was pronounced dead on arrival at 11:07 pm. Earlier that evening, Lennon had autographed a copy of Double Fantasy for Chapman.
Ono issued a statement the next day, saying "There is no funeral for John", ending it with the words, "John loved and prayed for the human race. Please pray the same for him." His body was cremated at Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York. Ono scattered his ashes in New York's Central Park, where the Strawberry Fields memorial was later created. Chapman pleaded guilty to second-degree murder and was sentenced to 20 years to life. As of 2014[update], he remains in prison, having been denied parole seven times.
Lennon and Cynthia Powell met in 1957 as fellow students at the Liverpool College of Art. Although being scared of Lennon's attitude and appearance, she heard that he was obsessed with French actress Brigitte Bardot, so she dyed her hair blonde. Lennon asked her out, but when she said that she was engaged, he screamed out, "I didn't ask you to fuckin' marry me, did I?" She often accompanied him to Quarrymen gigs and travelled to Hamburg with McCartney's girlfriend at the time to visit him. Lennon, jealous by nature, eventually grew possessive and often terrified Powell with his anger and physical violence. Lennon later said that until he met Ono, he had never questioned his chauvinistic attitude to women. The Beatles song "Getting Better", he said, told his own story, "I used to be cruel to my woman, and physically—any woman. I was a hitter. I couldn't express myself and I hit. I fought men and I hit women. That is why I am always on about peace".
Recalling his reaction in July 1962 on learning that Cynthia was pregnant, Lennon said, "There's only one thing for it Cyn. We'll have to get married." The couple were married on 23 August at the Mount Pleasant Register Office in Liverpool. His marriage began just as Beatlemania took hold across the UK. He performed on the evening of his wedding day, and would continue to do so almost daily from then on. Epstein, fearing that fans would be alienated by the idea of a married Beatle, asked the Lennons to keep their marriage secret. Julian was born on 8 April 1963; Lennon was on tour at the time and did not see his son until three days later.
Cynthia attributes the start of the marriage breakdown to LSD, and as a result, she felt that he slowly lost interest in her. When the group travelled by train to Bangor, Wales, in 1967, for the Maharishi Yogi's Transcendental Meditation seminar, a policeman did not recognise her and stopped her from boarding. She later recalled how the incident seemed to symbolise the ending of their marriage. After arriving home at Kenwood, and finding Lennon with Ono, Cynthia left the house to stay with friends. Alexis Mardas later claimed to have slept with her that night, and a few weeks later he informed her that Lennon was seeking a divorce and custody of Julian on grounds of her adultery with him. After negotiations, Lennon capitulated and agreed to her divorcing him on the same grounds. The case was settled out of court, with Lennon giving her £100,000 and custody of Julian.
The Beatles were performing at Liverpool's Cavern Club in 1962, when they were introduced to Epstein after a midday concert. Epstein was homosexual. According to biographer Philip Norman, one of his reasons for wanting to manage the group was that he was physically attracted to Lennon. Almost as soon as Julian was born, Lennon went on holiday to Spain with Epstein, leading to speculation about their relationship. Questioned about it later, Lennon said, "Well, it was almost a love affair, but not quite. It was never consummated. But it was a pretty intense relationship. It was my first experience with a homosexual that I was conscious was homosexual. We used to sit in a café in Torremolinos looking at all the boys and I'd say, 'Do you like that one? Do you like this one?' I was rather enjoying the experience, thinking like a writer all the time: I am experiencing this." Soon after their return from Spain, at McCartney's twenty-first birthday party in June 1963, Lennon physically attacked Cavern Club MC Bob Wooler for saying "How was your honeymoon, John?" The MC, known for his wordplay and affectionate but cutting remarks, was making a joke, but ten months had passed since Lennon's marriage, and the honeymoon, deferred, was still two months in the future. To Lennon, who was intoxicated with alcohol at the time, the matter was simple: "He called me a queer so I battered his bloody ribs in".
Lennon delighted in mocking Epstein for his homosexuality and for the fact that he was Jewish. When Epstein invited suggestions for the title of his autobiography, Lennon offered Queer Jew; on learning of the eventual title, A Cellarful of Noise, he parodied, "More like A Cellarful of Boys". He demanded of a visitor to Epstein's flat, "Have you come to blackmail him? If not, you're the only bugger in London who hasn't." During the recording of "Baby, You're a Rich Man", he sang altered choruses of "Baby, you're a rich fag Jew".
Lennon's first son, Julian, was born as his commitments with the Beatles intensified at the height of Beatlemania during his marriage to Cynthia. Lennon was touring with the Beatles when Julian was born on 8 April 1963. Julian's birth, like his mother Cynthia's marriage to Lennon, was kept secret because Epstein was convinced public knowledge of such things would threaten the Beatles' commercial success. Julian recalls how some four years later, as a small child in Weybridge, "I was trundled home from school and came walking up with one of my watercolour paintings. It was just a bunch of stars and this blonde girl I knew at school. And Dad said, 'What's this?' I said, 'It's Lucy in the sky with diamonds.'" Lennon used it as the title of a Beatles song, and though it was later reported to have been derived from the initials LSD, Lennon insisted, "It's not an acid song." McCartney corroborated Lennon's explanation that Julian innocently came up with the name. Lennon was distant from Julian, who felt closer to McCartney than to his father. During a car journey to visit Cynthia and Julian during Lennon's divorce, McCartney composed a song, "Hey Jules", to comfort him. It would evolve into the Beatles song "Hey Jude". Lennon later said, "That's his best song. It started off as a song about my son Julian ... he turned it into 'Hey Jude'. I always thought it was about me and Yoko but he said it wasn't."
Lennon's relationship with Julian was already strained, and after Lennon and Ono's 1971 move to New York, Julian would not see his father again until 1973. With Pang's encouragement, it was arranged for him (and his mother) to visit Lennon in Los Angeles, where they went to Disneyland. Julian started to see his father regularly, and Lennon gave him a drumming part on a Walls and Bridges track. He bought Julian a Gibson Les Paul guitar and other instruments, and encouraged his interest in music by demonstrating guitar chord techniques. Julian recalls that he and his father "got on a great deal better" during the time he spent in New York: "We had a lot of fun, laughed a lot and had a great time in general."
In a Playboy interview with David Sheff shortly before his death, Lennon said, "Sean was a planned child, and therein lies the difference. I don't love Julian any less as a child. He's still my son, whether he came from a bottle of whiskey or because they didn't have pills in those days. He's here, he belongs to me, and he always will." He said he was trying to re-establish a connection with the then 17-year-old, and confidently predicted, "Julian and I will have a relationship in the future." After his death it was revealed that he had left Julian very little in his will.
Two versions exist of how Lennon met Ono. According to the first, told by the Lennons, on 9 November 1966 Lennon went to the Indica Gallery in London, where Ono was preparing her conceptual art exhibit, and they were introduced by gallery owner John Dunbar. Lennon was intrigued by Ono's "Hammer A Nail": patrons hammered a nail into a wooden board, creating the art piece. Although the exhibition had not yet begun, Lennon wanted to hammer a nail into the clean board, but Ono stopped him. Dunbar asked her, "Don't you know who this is? He's a millionaire! He might buy it." Ono had supposedly not heard of the Beatles, but relented on condition that Lennon pay her five shillings, to which Lennon replied, "I'll give you an imaginary five shillings and hammer an imaginary nail in." The second version, told by McCartney, is that in late 1965, Ono was in London compiling original musical scores for a book John Cage was working on, Notations, but McCartney declined to give her any of his own manuscripts for the book, suggesting that Lennon might oblige. When asked, Lennon gave Ono the original handwritten lyrics to "The Word".
Ono began telephoning and calling at Lennon's home, and when his wife asked for an explanation, he explained that Ono was only trying to obtain money for her "avant-garde bullshit". In May 1968, while his wife was on holiday in Greece, Lennon invited Ono to visit. They spent the night recording what would become the Two Virgins album, after which, he said, they "made love at dawn." When Lennon's wife returned home she found Ono wearing her bathrobe and drinking tea with Lennon who simply said, "Oh, hi." Ono became pregnant in 1968 and miscarried a male child they named John Ono Lennon II on 21 November 1968, a few weeks after Lennon's divorce from Cynthia was granted.
During Lennon's last two years in the Beatles, he and Ono began public protests against the Vietnam War. They were married in Gibraltar on 20 March 1969, and spent their honeymoon at the Hilton Amsterdam campaigning with a week-long Bed-In for Peace. They planned another Bed-In in the United States, but were denied entry, so held one instead at the Queen Elizabeth Hotel in Montreal, where they recorded "Give Peace a Chance". They often combined advocacy with performance art, as in their "Bagism", first introduced during a Vienna press conference. Lennon detailed this period in the Beatles song "The Ballad of John and Yoko". Lennon changed his name by deed poll on 22 April 1969, adding "Ono" as a middle name. The brief ceremony took place on the roof of the Apple Corps building, made famous three months earlier by the Beatles' Let It Be rooftop concert. Although he used the name John Ono Lennon thereafter, official documents referred to him as John Winston Ono Lennon, since he was not permitted to revoke a name given at birth. The couple settled at Tittenhurst Park at Sunninghill in Berkshire. After Ono was injured in a car accident, Lennon arranged for a king-sized bed to be brought to the recording studio as he worked on the Beatles' last album, Abbey Road. To escape the acrimony of the band's break-up, Ono suggested they move permanently to New York, which they did on 31 August 1971.
They first lived in The St. Regis Hotel on 5th Avenue, East 55th Street, then moved to a street-level flat at 105 Bank Street, Greenwich Village, on 16 October 1971. After a robbery, they relocated to the more secure Dakota at 1 West 72nd Street, in May 1973.
ABKCO Industries, formed in 1968 by Allen Klein as an umbrella company to ABKCO Records, recruited May Pang as a receptionist in 1969. Through involvement in a project with ABKCO, Lennon and Ono met her the following year. She became their personal assistant. After she had been working with the couple for three years, Ono confided that she and Lennon were becoming estranged from one another. She went on to suggest that Pang should begin a physical relationship with Lennon, telling her, "He likes you a lot." Pang, 22, astounded by Ono's proposition, eventually agreed to become Lennon's companion. The pair soon moved to California, beginning an 18-month period he later called his "lost weekend". In Los Angeles, Pang encouraged Lennon to develop regular contact with Julian, whom he had not seen for two years. He also rekindled friendships with Starr, McCartney, Beatles roadie Mal Evans, and Harry Nilsson. Whilst drinking with Nilsson, after misunderstanding something Pang said, Lennon attempted to strangle her, relenting only when physically restrained by Nilsson.
On moving to New York, they prepared a spare room in their newly rented apartment for Julian to visit. Lennon, hitherto inhibited by Ono in this regard, began to reestablish contact with other relatives and friends. By December he and Pang were considering a house purchase, and he was refusing to accept Ono's telephone calls. In January 1975, he agreed to meet Ono—who said she had found a cure for smoking. But after the meeting he failed to return home or call Pang. When Pang telephoned the next day, Ono told her Lennon was unavailable, being exhausted after a hypnotherapy session. Two days later, Lennon reappeared at a joint dental appointment, stupefied and confused to such an extent that Pang believed he had been brainwashed. He told her his separation from Ono was now over, though Ono would allow him to continue seeing her as his mistress.
When Lennon and Ono were reunited, she became pregnant, but having previously suffered three miscarriages in her attempt to have a child with Lennon, she said she wanted an abortion. She agreed to allow the pregnancy to continue on condition that Lennon adopt the role of househusband; this he agreed to do. Sean was born on 9 October 1975, Lennon's 35th birthday, delivered by Caesarean section. Lennon's subsequent career break would span five years. He had a photographer take pictures of Sean every day of his first year, and created numerous drawings for him, posthumously published as Real Love: The Drawings for Sean. Lennon later proudly declared, "He didn't come out of my belly but, by God, I made his bones, because I've attended to every meal, and to how he sleeps, and to the fact that he swims like a fish."
Although his friendship with Starr remained consistently friendly during the years following the Beatles' break-up in 1970, Lennon's relationships with McCartney and Harrison varied. He was close to Harrison initially, but the two drifted apart after Lennon moved to America. When Harrison was in New York for his December 1974 Dark Horse tour, Lennon agreed to join him on stage, but failed to appear after an argument over Lennon's refusal to sign an agreement that would finally dissolve the Beatles' legal partnership. (Lennon eventually signed the papers while holidaying in Florida with Pang and Julian.) Harrison incensed Lennon in 1980, when he published an autobiography that made little mention of him. Lennon told Playboy, "I was hurt by it. By glaring omission ... my influence on his life is absolutely zilch ... he remembers every two-bit sax player or guitarist he met in subsequent years. I'm not in the book."
Lennon's most intense feelings were reserved for McCartney. In addition to attacking him through the lyrics of "How Do You Sleep?", Lennon argued with him through the press for three years after the group split. The two later began to reestablish something of the close friendship they had once known, and in 1974, they even played music together again before eventually growing apart once more. Lennon said that during McCartney's final visit, in April 1976, they watched the episode of Saturday Night Live in which Lorne Michaels made a $3,000 cash offer to get the Beatles to reunite on the show. The pair considered going to the studio to make a joke appearance, attempting to claim their share of the money, but were too tired. Lennon summarised his feelings towards McCartney in an interview three days before his death: "Throughout my career, I've selected to work with ... only two people: Paul McCartney and Yoko Ono ... That ain't bad picking."
Along with his estrangement from McCartney, Lennon always felt a musical competitiveness with him and kept an ear on his music. During his five-year career break he was content to sit back so long as McCartney was producing what Lennon saw as mediocre material. When McCartney released "Coming Up", in 1980, the year Lennon returned to the studio and the last year of his life, he took notice. "It's driving me crackers!" he jokingly complained, because he could not get the tune out of his head. Asked the same year whether the group were dreaded enemies or the best of friends, he replied that they were neither, and that he had not seen any of them in a long time. But he also said, "I still love those guys. The Beatles are over, but John, Paul, George and Ringo go on."
Lennon and Ono used their honeymoon as what they termed a "Bed-In for Peace" at the Amsterdam Hilton Hotel; the March 1969 event attracted worldwide media ridicule. At a second Bed-In three months later at the Queen Elizabeth Hotel in Montreal Lennon wrote and recorded "Give Peace a Chance". Released as a single, it was quickly taken up as an anti-war anthem and sung by a quarter of a million demonstrators against the Vietnam War in Washington, DC, on 15 November, the second Vietnam Moratorium Day. In December, they paid for billboards in 10 cities around the world which declared, in the national language, "War Is Over! If You Want It".
Later that year, Lennon and Ono supported efforts by the family of James Hanratty, hanged for murder in 1962, to prove his innocence. Those who had condemned Hanratty were, according to Lennon, "the same people who are running guns to South Africa and killing blacks in the streets. ... The same bastards are in control, the same people are running everything, it's the whole bullshit bourgeois scene." In London, Lennon and Ono staged a "Britain Murdered Hanratty" banner march and a "Silent Protest For James Hanratty", and produced a 40-minute documentary on the case. At an appeal hearing years later, Hanratty's conviction was upheld after DNA evidence matched. His family continued to appeal in 2010.
Lennon and Ono showed their solidarity with the Clydeside UCS workers' work-in of 1971 by sending a bouquet of red roses and a cheque for £5,000. On moving to New York City in August that year, they befriended two of the Chicago Seven, Yippie peace activists Jerry Rubin and Abbie Hoffman. Another political activist, John Sinclair, poet and co-founder of the White Panther Party, was serving ten years in prison for selling two joints of marijuana after previous convictions for possession of the drug. In December 1971 at Ann Arbor, Michigan, 15,000 people attended the "John Sinclair Freedom Rally", a protest and benefit concert with contributions from Lennon, Stevie Wonder, Bob Seger, Bobby Seale of the Black Panther Party, and others. Lennon and Ono, backed by David Peel and Rubin, performed an acoustic set of four songs from their forthcoming Some Time in New York City album including "John Sinclair", whose lyrics called for his release. The day before the rally, the Michigan Senate passed a bill that significantly reduced the penalties for possession of marijuana and four days later Sinclair was released on an appeal bond. The performance was recorded and two of the tracks later appeared on John Lennon Anthology (1998).
Following the Bloody Sunday incident in Northern Ireland in 1972, in which 14 unarmed civil rights protesters were shot dead by the British Army, Lennon said that given the choice between the army and the IRA (who were not involved in the incident) he would side with the latter. Lennon and Ono wrote two songs protesting British presence and actions in Ireland for their Some Time in New York City album: "Luck of the Irish" and "Sunday Bloody Sunday". In 2000, David Shayler, a former member of Britain's domestic security service MI5, suggested that Lennon had given money to the IRA, though this was swiftly denied by Ono. Biographer Bill Harry records that following Bloody Sunday, Lennon and Ono financially supported the production of the film The Irish Tapes, a political documentary with a Republican slant.
According to FBI surveillance reports (and confirmed by Tariq Ali in 2006) Lennon was sympathetic to the International Marxist Group, a Trotskyist group formed in Britain in 1968. However, the FBI considered Lennon to have limited effectiveness as a revolutionary since he was "constantly under the influence of narcotics".
In 1973, Lennon contributed a limerick called "Why Make It Sad To Be Gay?" to Len Richmond's The Gay Liberation Book.
Lennon's last act of political activism was a statement in support of the striking minority sanitation workers in San Francisco on 5 December 1980. He and Ono planned to join the workers' protest on 14 December. By this time, however, Lennon had also quietly renounced the counterculture views which he had helped promote during the 1960s and 1970s and became more aligned with conservatism.
Following the impact of "Give Peace a Chance" and "Happy Xmas (War Is Over)", both strongly associated with the anti–Vietnam War movement, the Nixon administration, hearing rumours of Lennon's involvement in a concert to be held in San Diego at the same time as the Republican National Convention, tried to have him deported. Nixon believed that Lennon's anti-war activities could cost him his re-election; Republican Senator Strom Thurmond suggested in a February 1972 memo that "deportation would be a strategic counter-measure" against Lennon. The next month the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) began deportation proceedings, arguing that his 1968 misdemeanor conviction for cannabis possession in London had made him ineligible for admission to the United States. Lennon spent the next three and a half years in and out of deportation hearings until 8 October 1975, when a court of appeals barred the deportation attempt, stating "... the courts will not condone selective deportation based upon secret political grounds." While the legal battle continued, Lennon attended rallies and made television appearances. Lennon and Ono co-hosted The Mike Douglas Show for a week in February 1972, introducing guests such as Jerry Rubin and Bobby Seale to mid-America. In 1972, Bob Dylan wrote a letter to the INS defending Lennon, stating:
John and Yoko add a great voice and drive to the country's so-called art institution. They inspire and transcend and stimulate and by doing so, only help others to see pure light and in doing that, put an end to this dull taste of petty commercialism which is being passed off as Artist Art by the overpowering mass media. Hurray for John and Yoko. Let them stay and live here and breathe. The country's got plenty of room and space. Let John and Yoko stay!
On 23 March 1973, Lennon was ordered to leave the US within 60 days. Ono, meanwhile, was granted permanent residence. In response, Lennon and Ono held a press conference on 1 April 1973 at the New York City Bar Association, where they announced the formation of the state of Nutopia; a place with "no land, no boundaries, no passports, only people". Waving the white flag of Nutopia (two handkerchiefs), they asked for political asylum in the US. The press conference was filmed, and would later appear in the 2006 documentary The U.S. vs. John Lennon. Lennon's Mind Games (1973) included the track "Nutopian International Anthem", which comprised three seconds of silence. Soon after the press conference, Nixon's involvement in a political scandal came to light, and in June the Watergate hearings began in Washington, DC. They led to the president's resignation 14 months later. Nixon's successor, Gerald Ford, showed little interest in continuing the battle against Lennon, and the deportation order was overturned in 1975. The following year, his US immigration status finally resolved, Lennon received his "green card" certifying his permanent residency, and when Jimmy Carter was inaugurated as president in January 1977, Lennon and Ono attended the Inaugural Ball.
FBI surveillance and declassified documents
After Lennon's death, historian Jon Wiener filed a Freedom of Information Act request for FBI files documenting the Bureau's role in the deportation attempt. The FBI admitted it had 281 pages of files on Lennon, but refused to release most of them on the grounds that they contained national security information. In 1983, Wiener sued the FBI with the help of the American Civil Liberties Union of Southern California. It took 14 years of litigation to force the FBI to release the withheld pages. The ACLU, representing Wiener, won a favourable decision in their suit against the FBI in the Ninth Circuit in 1991. The Justice Department appealed the decision to the Supreme Court in April 1992, but the court declined to review the case. In 1997, respecting President Bill Clinton's newly instigated rule that documents should be withheld only if releasing them would involve "foreseeable harm", the Justice Department settled most of the outstanding issues outside court by releasing all but 10 of the contested documents. Wiener published the results of his 14-year campaign in January 2000. Gimme Some Truth: The John Lennon FBI Files contained facsimiles of the documents, including "lengthy reports by confidential informants detailing the daily lives of anti-war activists, memos to the White House, transcripts of TV shows on which Lennon appeared, and a proposal that Lennon be arrested by local police on drug charges". The story is told in the documentary The U.S. vs. John Lennon. The final 10 documents in Lennon's FBI file, which reported on his ties with London anti-war activists in 1971 and had been withheld as containing "national security information provided by a foreign government under an explicit promise of confidentiality", were released in December 2006. They contained no indication that the British government had regarded Lennon as a serious threat; one example of the released material was a report that two prominent British leftists had hoped Lennon would finance a left-wing bookshop and reading room.
Writing and art
Beatles biographer Bill Harry writes that Lennon began drawing and writing creatively at an early age with the encouragement of his uncle. He collected his stories, poetry, cartoons and caricatures in a Quarry Bank High School exercise book that he called the Daily Howl. The drawings were often of crippled people, and the writings satirical, and throughout the book was an abundance of wordplay. According to classmate Bill Turner, Lennon created the Daily Howl to amuse his best friend and later Quarrymen bandmate Pete Shotton, to whom he would show his work before he let anyone else see it. Turner said that Lennon "had an obsession for Wigan Pier. It kept cropping up", and in Lennon's story A Carrot in a Potato Mine, "the mine was at the end of Wigan Pier." Turner described how one of Lennon's cartoons depicted a bus stop sign annotated with the question, "Why?". Above was a flying pancake, and below, "a blind man wearing glasses leading along a blind dog—also wearing glasses".
Lennon's love of wordplay and nonsense with a twist found a wider audience when he was 24. Harry writes that In His Own Write (1964) was published after "Some journalist who was hanging around the Beatles came to me and I ended up showing him the stuff. They said, 'Write a book' and that's how the first one came about". Like the Daily Howl it contained a mix of formats including short stories, poetry, plays and drawings. One story, "Good Dog Nigel", tells the tale of "a happy dog, urinating on a lamp post, barking, wagging his tail—until he suddenly hears a message that he will be killed at three o'clock". The Times Literary Supplement considered the poems and stories "remarkable ... also very funny ... the nonsense runs on, words and images prompting one another in a chain of pure fantasy". Book Week reported, "This is nonsense writing, but one has only to review the literature of nonsense to see how well Lennon has brought it off. While some of his homonyms are gratuitous word play, many others have not only double meaning but a double edge." Lennon was not only surprised by the positive reception, but that the book was reviewed at all, and suggested that readers "took the book more seriously than I did myself. It just began as a laugh for me".
In combination with A Spaniard in the Works (1965), In His Own Write formed the basis of the stage play The John Lennon Play: In His Own Write, co-adapted by Victor Spinetti and Adrienne Kennedy. After negotiations between Lennon, Spinetti and the artistic director of the National Theatre, Sir Laurence Olivier, the play opened at The Old Vic in 1968. Lennon and Ono attended the opening night performance, their second public appearance together. After Lennon's death, further works were published, including Skywriting by Word of Mouth (1986); Ai: Japan Through John Lennon's Eyes: A Personal Sketchbook (1992), with Lennon's illustrations of the definitions of Japanese words; and Real Love: The Drawings for Sean (1999). The Beatles Anthology (2000) also presented examples of his writings and drawings.
Lennon's playing of a mouth organ during a bus journey to visit his cousin in Scotland caught the driver's ear. Impressed, the driver told Lennon of a harmonica he could have if he came to Edinburgh the following day, where one had been stored in the bus depot since a passenger left it on a bus. The professional instrument quickly replaced Lennon's toy. He would continue to play harmonica, often using the instrument during the Beatles' Hamburg years, and it became a signature sound in the group's early recordings. His mother taught him how to play the banjo, later buying him an acoustic guitar. At 16, he played rhythm guitar with the Quarrymen. As his career progressed, he played a variety of electric guitars, predominantly the Rickenbacker 325, Epiphone Casino and Gibson J-160E, and, from the start of his solo career, the Gibson Les Paul Junior. Double Fantasy producer Jack Douglas claimed that since his Beatle days Lennon habitually tuned his D-string slightly flat, so his Aunt Mimi could tell which guitar was his on recordings. Occasionally he played a six-string bass guitar, the Fender Bass VI, providing bass on some Beatles numbers ("Back in the U.S.S.R.", "The Long and Winding Road", "Helter Skelter") that occupied McCartney with another instrument. His other instrument of choice was the piano, on which he composed many songs, including "Imagine", described as his best-known solo work. His jamming on a piano with McCartney in 1963 led to the creation of the Beatles' first US number one, "I Want to Hold Your Hand". In 1964, he became one of the first British musicians to acquire a Mellotron keyboard, though it was not heard on a Beatles recording until "Strawberry Fields Forever" in 1967.
When the Beatles recorded "Twist and Shout", the final track during the mammoth one-day session that produced the band's 1963 debut album, Please Please Me, Lennon's voice, already compromised by a cold, came close to giving out. Lennon said, "I couldn't sing the damn thing, I was just screaming." In the words of biographer Barry Miles, "Lennon simply shredded his vocal cords in the interests of rock 'n' roll." The Beatles' producer, George Martin, tells how Lennon "had an inborn dislike of his own voice which I could never understand. He was always saying to me: 'DO something with my voice! ... put something on it ... Make it different.'" Martin obliged, often using double-tracking and other techniques. Music critic Robert Christgau says that Lennon's "greatest vocal performance ... from scream to whine, is modulated electronically ... echoed, filtered, and double tracked."
As his Beatles era segued into his solo career, his singing voice found a widening range of expression. Biographer Chris Gregory writes of Lennon "tentatively beginning to expose his insecurities in a number of acoustic-led 'confessional' ballads, so beginning the process of 'public therapy' that will eventually culminate in the primal screams of "Cold Turkey" and the cathartic John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band." David Stuart Ryan notes Lennon's vocal delivery to range from "extreme vulnerability, sensitivity and even naivety" to a hard "rasping" style. Wiener too describes contrasts, saying the singer's voice can be "at first subdued; soon it almost cracks with despair". Music historian Ben Urish recalls hearing the Beatles' Ed Sullivan Show performance of "This Boy" played on the radio a few days after Lennon's murder: "As Lennon's vocals reached their peak ... it hurt too much to hear him scream with such anguish and emotion. But it was my emotions I heard in his voice. Just like I always had."
Music historians Schinder and Schwartz, writing of the transformation in popular music styles that took place between the 1950s and the 1960s, say that the Beatles' influence cannot be overstated: having "revolutionised the sound, style, and attitude of popular music and opened rock and roll's doors to a tidal wave of British rock acts", the group then "spent the rest of the 1960s expanding rock's stylistic frontiers". Liam Gallagher, his group Oasis among the many who acknowledge the band's influence, identifies Lennon as a hero; in 1999 he named his first child Lennon Gallagher in tribute. On National Poetry Day in 1999, after conducting a poll to identify the UK's favourite song lyric, the BBC announced "Imagine" the winner.
In a 2006 Guardian article, Jon Wiener wrote: "For young people in 1972, it was thrilling to see Lennon's courage in standing up to [US President] Nixon. That willingness to take risks with his career, and his life, is one reason why people still admire him today." For music historians Urish and Bielen, Lennon's most significant effort was "the self-portraits ... in his songs [which] spoke to, for, and about, the human condition."
Lennon continues to be mourned throughout the world and has been the subject of numerous memorials and tributes. In 2002, the airport in Lennon's home town was renamed the Liverpool John Lennon Airport. In 2010, on what would have been Lennon's 70th birthday, the John Lennon Peace Monument was unveiled in Chavasse Park, Liverpool, by Cynthia and Julian Lennon. The sculpture entitled 'Peace & Harmony' exhibits peace symbols and carries the inscription "Peace on Earth for the Conservation of Life · In Honour of John Lennon 1940–1980".
Awards and sales
The Lennon–McCartney songwriting partnership is regarded as one of the most influential and successful of the 20th century. As performer, writer or co-writer Lennon has had 25 number one singles on the US Hot 100 chart.a His album sales in the US stand at 14 million units. Double Fantasy was his best-selling solo album, at three million shipments in the US; Released shortly before his death, it won the 1981 Grammy Award for Album of the Year. The following year, the BRIT Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music went to Lennon.
Participants in a 2002 BBC poll voted him eighth of "100 Greatest Britons". Between 2003 and 2008, Rolling Stone recognised Lennon in several reviews of artists and music, ranking him fifth of "100 Greatest Singers of All Time" and 38th of "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", and his albums John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band and Imagine, 22nd and 76th respectively of "Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". He was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) with the other Beatles in 1965. Lennon was posthumously inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1987 and into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994.
- Unfinished Music No. 1: Two Virgins (with Yoko Ono) (1968)
- Unfinished Music No. 2: Life with the Lions (with Yoko Ono) (1969)
- Wedding Album (with Yoko Ono) (1969)
- John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band (1970)
- Imagine (1971)
- Some Time in New York City (with Yoko Ono) (1972)
- Mind Games (1973)
- Walls and Bridges (1974)
- Rock 'n' Roll (1975)
- Double Fantasy (with Yoko Ono) (1980)
- Milk and Honey (with Yoko Ono) (1984)
- Solo (2): "Whatever Gets You Thru the Night", "(Just Like) Starting Over".
- With The Beatles (20): "Can't Buy Me Love", "I Feel Fine", "I Want to Hold Your Hand", "Love Me Do", "She Loves You", "A Hard Day's Night", "Eight Days a Week", "Help!", "Ticket to Ride", "Yesterday", "Paperback Writer", "We Can Work It Out", "All You Need Is Love", "Hello Goodbye", "Penny Lane", "Hey Jude", "Something/"Come Together", "Get Back", "Let It Be", "The Long and Winding Road"/"For You Blue".
- As co-writer of and performer on releases by another artist (2): "Fame" (David Bowie)., "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" (Elton John).
- As co-writer of release by other artists (1): "A World Without Love" (Peter and Gordon)
- Harry 2000b, p. 504.
- Spitz 2005, p. 24: "Julia offered the name in honour of ... Winston Churchill".
- Spitz 2005, p. 24: "The entire Stanley clan gathered nightly at Newcastle Road".
- Lennon 2005, p. 54: "Until then he had sent her money each month from his wages, but now it stopped".
- Spitz 2005, p. 26: "In February 1944 ... he was arrested and imprisoned. Freddie subsequently disappeared for six months".
- Spitz 2005, p. 27.
- Lennon 2005, p. 56: "Alf admitted to her that he had planned to take John to live in New Zealand".
- Spitz 2005, p. 30: "Julia went out of the door ... John ran after her".
- Spitz 2005, p. 497.
- Lennon 2005, p. 56: "Hard to see why Mimi wanted John, as she had always said she didn't want children".
- Spitz 2005, p. 32: "When he was old enough, taught John how to solve crossword puzzles".
- Spitz 2005, p. 48: "To get them started, she applied the triad to 'Ain't That a Shame'".
- Sheff 1981, pp. 134–136.
- Spitz 2005, p. 32: "Parkes recalled ... Leila and John to the cinema as often as three times a day".
- Harry 2009.
- Harry 2000b, p. 702.
- Harry 2000b, p. 819.
- Harry 2000b, p. 411.
- Spitz 2005, pp. 32–33.
- Spitz 2005, p. 40.
- ClassReports 2008.
- Spitz 2005, p. 45.
- Norman 2008, p. 89.
- Miles 1997, p. 48.
- Spitz 2005, p. 100.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 553–555.
- Lennon 2005, p. 50.
- Harry 2000b, p. 738.
- Spitz 2005, p. 95.
- Spitz 2005, pp. 93–99.
- Miles 1997, p. 44.
- Miles 1997, p. 32.
- Miles 1997, pp. 38–39.
- Lennon 2005, p. 47.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 337–338.
- Miles 1997, pp. 47, 50.
- Miles 1997, pp. 47.
- Lennon 2005, p. 64.
- Miles 1997, p. 57.
- Lennon 2005, p. 53.
- Miles 1997, pp. 66–67.
- Lennon 2005, p. 57.
- The Beatles 2000, p. 67.
- Frankel 2007.
- Harry 2000b, p. 721.
- Lewisohn 1988, pp. 24–26: "Twist and Shout, which had to be recorded last because John Lennon had a particularly bad cold".
- Spitz 2005, p. 376: "He had been struggling all day to reach notes, but this was different, this hurt".
- Doggett 2010, p. 33.
- Shennan 2007.
- Coleman 1984a, pp. 239–240.
- London Gazette 1965, p. 5488.
- Coleman 1984a, p. 288.
- Gould 2008, p. 268.
- Lawrence 2005, p. 62.
- The Beatles 2000, p. 171.
- Harry 2000b, p. 570.
- Cleave 2007.
- Gould 2008, pp. 5–6, 249, 281, 347.
- Brown 1983, p. 222.
- Gould 2008, p. 319.
- MacDonald 2005, p. 281.
- Time 1967.
- BBC News 2007b.
- Brown 1983, p. 276.
- Miles 1997, p. 397.
- Hoppa 2010.
- Miles 1997, p. 349-373.
- Logan 1967.
- Lewisohn 1988, p. 131.
- Harry 2000b, p. 31.
- TelegraphKlein 2010.
- Miles 1997, p. 549: "Paul never did sign the management contract".
- Harry 2000b, pp. 276–278.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 774–775.
- Fawcett 1976, p. 185.
- Coleman 1984a, p. 279.
- Coleman 1984a, pp. 48–49.
- Perone 2001, pp. 57–58.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 160–161.
- Miles and Badman 2003.
- "Beatles fans call for return of MBE medal rejected by John Lennon". The Daily Telegraph. 2 August 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 615–617.
- Edmondson 2010, pp. 129–130.
- Spitz 2005, pp. 853–54.
- Loker 2009, p. 348.
- Wenner 2000, p. 32.
- Wenner 2000, p. 24.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 408–410.
- Blaney 2005, p. 56.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 640–641.
- Riley 2002, p. 375.
- Schechter 1997, p. 106.
- Wiener 1990, p. 157.
- Harry 2000b, p. 382.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 382–383.
- Gerson 1971.
- Vigilla 2005.
- Goodman 1984.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 354–356.
- Peebles 1981, p. 44.
- Allmusic 2010f.
- Bill DeMain. "John Lennon and the FBI". Dangerous Liaisons: The FBI Files of Musicians. Performing Songwriter. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- Alan Glenn (27 December 2009). "The Day a Beatle Came to Town". The Ann Arbor Chronicle. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- Wiener 1990, p. 204.
- LennoNYC, PBS Television 2010
- BBC News 2006a.
- Landau 1974.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 979–980.
- Deming 2008.
- The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum 1994.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 698–699.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 927–929.
- Harry 2000b, p. 735.
- The Very Best of Mick Jagger liner notes
- Badman 2001, 1974.
- Harry 2000b, p. 284.
- Harry 2000b, p. 970.
- The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum 1996.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 240, 563.
- Harry 2000b, p. 758.
- Madinger, Eight Arms To Hold You, 44.1 Publishing, 2000, ISBN 0-615-11724-4
- Sheff 1981.
- Harry 2000b, p. 553.
- Harry 2000b, p. 166.
- Bennahum 1991, p. 87.
- Harry 2000b, p. 814.
- BBC News 2006b.
- Schinder & Schwartz 2007, p. 178.
- Ginell 2009.
- Badman 2001, 1980.
- Ingham 2006, p. 82.
- Harry 2000b, p. 145.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 692.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 510.
- Inmate Population Information Search, from the website of the New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
- Dan Burns et al. (23 August 2012). "John Lennon's killer denied parole for seventh time". NY. Reuters. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Lennon 2005, pp. 17–23.
- Lennon 2005, p. 21.
- Lennon 2005, pp. 89–95.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 492–493.
- Lennon 2005, p. 91.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 493–495.
- Lennon 2005, p. 113.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 496–497.
- Warner Brothers 1988.
- Lennon 2005, p. 305–306: "He had agreed that I should have custody of Julian", "He raised his offer to £100,000".
- Harry 2000a, p. 232.
- Harry 2000a, pp. 1165, 1169.
- Lennon 2005, pp. 94, 119–120.
- Harry 2000a, p. 1169.
- Harry 2000b, p. 232.
- Coleman 1992, pp. 298–299.
- Norman 2008, p. 503.
- MacDonald 2005, p. 206.
- Harry 2000b, p. 517.
- Harry 2000b, p. 574.
- Harry 2000b, p. 341.
- Pang 2008, back cover.
- Lennon 2005, pp. 252–255.
- Lennon 2005, p. 258.
- Times Online 2009.
- Badman 2003, p. 393.
- Harry 2000b, p. 682.
- Miles 1997, p. 272.
- Harry 2000b, p. 683.
- Two Virgins liner notes
- Lennon 1978, p. 183.
- Spitz 2005, p. 800.
- Coleman 1992, p. 705.
- Kruse 2009, p. 16.
- Harry 2000b, p. 276.
- Coleman 1992, p. 550.
- Coleman 1984b, p. 64.
- Norman 2008, p. 615 et seq.
- Emerick & Massey 2006, pp. 279–280.
- "John & Yoko's New York". StopOver Magazine. 16 August 2010. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- Harry 2000b, p. 700.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 700–701.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 535, 690.
- Harry 2000b, p. 535.
- Harry 2000b, p. 195.
- Harry 2000b, p. 327.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 934–935.
- Cohn 2010–2011, p. 95.
- Seaman 1991, p. 122.
- Miles and Badman 2003, 1969: "They were ridiculed by the world's media".
- Anderson 2010, p. 83: "The Bed-In stunt was ridiculed by the press".
- Harry 2000b, pp. 745–748.
- Holsinger 1999, p. 389.
- "John Lennons Convey Greetings via Billboards" The New York Times 16 December 1969: 54
- Wenner 2000, p. 43.
- Clark 2002.
- Milmo 2002.
- Hanratty: The damning DNA. 10 May 2002, BBC. Retrieved 20 July 2012
- Tim Castle (30 December 2010). "New appeal sought 48 years after Hanratty hanging". Reuters. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- McGinty 2010.
- Harry 2000b, p. 344.
- Buchanan 2009.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 789–790, 812–813.
- Glenn 2009.
- Calkin 2002.
- Bright 2000.
- Harry 2000b, p. 403.
- Ali 2006.
- Brooks 2005.
- Richmond, Len. "The gay liberation book by Len Richmond - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists". Goodreads.com. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
- "John Lennon's last public political statement. - Dynamic Tension". Crowdog89.tumblr.com. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
- Was John Lennon Conservative? Andrew Romano, June 30, 2011, Accessed March 5, 2014
- 1980 Playboy Interview With John Lennon And Yoko Ono John Lennon.com, Accessed March 5, 2014
- Wiener 1999, p. 2.
- BBC News 2000.
- Wiener 1990, p. 225.
- Coleman 1992, pp. 576–583.
- BBC News 2006c.
- Wiener, Jon. "Bob Dylan's defense of John Lennon". The Nation, 8 October 2010
- "Photo Copy of Bob Dylan's 1972 Letter to the INS in Defense of John Lennon". Lennonfbifiles.com. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- Wiener 1999, p. 326.
- Harry 2000b, p. 663.
- Urish & Bielen 2007, p. 143.
- Harry 2000b, p. 664.
- Coleman 1984a, p. 289.
- Wiener 1999, p. 13.
- Friedman 2005, p. 252.
- Wiener 1999, p. 315.
- Wiener 1999, pp. 52–54, 76.
- Wiener 1999, p. 27.
- The Associated Press 2006.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 179–181.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 393–394.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 396–397.
- Harry 2000b, p. 313.
- Harry 2000b, pp. 738–740.
- Prown and Newquist 2003, p. 213.
- Lawrence 2009, p. 27.
- Appleford, Steve (6 August 2010). "Yoko Ono Discusses New John Lennon Documentary". Rolling Stone.
- Everett 1999, p. 297.
- Blaney 2005, p. 83.
- Everett 2001, p. 200.
- Babiuk 2002, pp. 164–165.
- Wenner 2000, p. 14.
- Miles and Badman 2003, p. 90.
- Coleman 1992, pp. 369–370.
- Wiener 1990, p. 143.
- Gregory 2007, p. 75.
- Ryan 1982, pp. 118, 241.
- Wiener 1990, p. 35.
- Urish & Bielen 2007, p. 123.
- Schinder & Schwartz 2007, p. 160.
- Harry 2000b, p. 265.
- Wiener 2006.
- Urish & Bielen 2007, pp. 121–122.
- "Recent History and Current Developments". Friends of Liverpool Airport. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Monument to John Lennon unveiled in Liverpool on his '70th birthday'". The Daily Telegraph (London). 9 October 2010.
- "Unveiling of 'Peace & Harmony', European Peace Monument – Dedicated to John Lennon". YouTube. 8 November 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
- "Mercury Crater Named After John Lennon". Space.com. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- RIAA 2010b.
- Greenberg 2010, p. 202.
- RIAA 2010a.
- Brit Awards 2010.
- BBC News 2002.
- Browne 2008.
- Rolling Stone 2008.
- Rolling Stone 2003.
- Songwriters Hall of Fame 2009.
- Allmusic 2010a.
- "Most No. 1s By Artist (All-Time)". Billboard. Retrieved 1 June 2012.[dead link]
- Allmusic 2010e.
- Allmusic 2010c.
- Allmusic 2010d.
- Ali, Tariq (20 December 2006). "John Lennon, the FBI and me". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 18 August 2010.
- "David Bowie – Billboard Singles". AllMusic. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- "Elton John – Billboard Singles". AllMusic. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- "John Lennon – Billboard Singles". AllMusic. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- "John Lennon Discography, Singles & EPs, Happy Xmas (War is Over)". AllMusic. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- "Peter and Gordon – Billboard Singles". AllMusic. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- "The Beatles – Billboard Singles". AllMusic. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- Anderson, Jennifer Joline (2010). John Lennon: Legendary Musician & Beatle. ABDO Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-60453-790-1. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- Babiuk, Andy (2002). Beatles Gear. Backbeat. ISBN 978-0-87930-731-8.
- Badman, Keith (2001). The Beatles Diary, Volume 2 : After the Break-Up, 1970–2001. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-8307-6.
- Badman, Keith (2003). The Beatles Off The Record: The Dream Is Over. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-9199-6.
- "100 great British heroes". BBC News. 21 August 2002. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- "1969: Millions march in US Vietnam Moratorium". BBC News. 15 October 1969. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- "Beatles in Bangor". BBC News. Retrieved 11 May 2010.[dead link]
- "Judge releases Lennon letters". BBC News. 19 February 2000. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- "Lennon filmmakers credit campaign". BBC News. 12 October 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- "Lennon ship log book up for sale". BBC News. 27 March 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- "The Lennon–McCartney Songwriting Partnership". BBC News. 4 November 2005.
- "US chat show veteran Douglas dies". BBC News. 12 August 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- "Lennon killer is denied parole for the sixth time". BBC News. 7 September 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2010.
- Bennahum, David (1991). The Beatles After the Break-Up: In Their Own Words. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-2558-8.
- Blaney, John (2005). John Lennon: Listen to this Book. Paper Jukebox. ISBN 978-0-9544528-1-0.
- Bright, Martin (20 February 2000). "Lennon aided IRA, claims MI5 renegade". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- Brooks, Richard (13 June 2009). "Julian Lennon gives family peace a chance". The Times (UK). Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- Brooks, Xan (23 September 2005). "Lennon too stoned to be a revolutionary". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 22 December 2010.
- Brown, Peter (1983). The Love You Make: An Insider's Story of The Beatles. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-008159-X.
- Browne, Jackson (12 November 2008). "100 Greatest Singers of All Time". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- Buchanan, Jason (2009). "Overview of Twenty to Life: The Life and Times of John Sinclair". Allmovie. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- Calkin, Graham (2002). "Anthology". Graham Calkin. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
- Cohen, Claire (10 January 2008). "Churchill? A troublemaker. Lennon? A useless clown. And as for that girl Thatcher ...". Daily Mail (UK). Retrieved 7 December 2010.
- Cohn, Jonathan (23 December 2010 – 6 January 2011, Issue 1120/1121). "The Lost Lennon Tapes". Rolling Stone.
- Cleave, Maureen (10 May 2010). "The John Lennon I Knew". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- Coleman, Ray (1984). John Winston Lennon. Sidjwick & Jackson. ISBN 978-0-283-98942-1.
- Coleman, Ray (1984). John Ono Lennon: Volume 2 1967–1980. Sidgwick & Jackson. ISBN 978-0-283-99082-3.
- Coleman, Ray (1992). Lennon: The Definitive Biography. Harper. ISBN 0-06-098608-5.
- Deming, Mark (2008). "Overview of John Lennon: Live in New York City". Allmovie. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- Doggett, Peter (2010). You Never Give Me Your Money: The Beatles After the Breakup. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-177446-1.
- Edmondson, Jacqueline (2010). John Lennon: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-37938-3.
- Emerick, Geoff; Massey, Howard (2006). Here, There and Everywhere: My Life Recording the Music of the Beatles. Penguin Books. ISBN 1-59240-179-1.
- Everett, Walter (1999). The Beatles as Musicians: Revolver through the Anthology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512941-0.
- Everett, Walter (2001). The Beatles as Musicians: The Quarry Men through Rubber Soul. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514104-0.
- Fawcett, Anthony (1976). John Lennon: One Day at a Time. Evergreen. ISBN 978-0-394-17754-0.
- Frankel, Glenn (26 August 2007). "Nowhere Man (p4)". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- Friedman, John S. (2005). The Secret Histories: Hidden Truths that Challenged the Past and Changed the World. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-42517-3.
- Gerson, Ben (28 October 1971). "Imagine". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Ginell, Richard S. (2009). "Milk and Honey Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- Glenn, Alan (2009). "The Day a Beatle Came to Town". The Ann Arbor Chronicle. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
- Goldman, Albert Harry (2001). The Lives of John Lennon. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-55652-399-1.
- Goodman, Joan (December 1984). "Playboy Interview with Paul and Linda McCartney". Playboy.
- Gould, Jonathan (2008). Can't Buy Me Love: The Beatles, Britain and America. Piatkus. ISBN 978-0-7499-2988-6.
- "Grammy Award Winners". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- Gregory, Chris (2007). Who Could Ask For More: Reclaiming The Beatles. The Plotted Plain Press. ISBN 978-0-9557512-0-2.
- Greenberg, Keith Elliot (2010). December 8, 1980: The Day John Lennon Died. Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-963-3.
- Harry, Bill (2000a). The Beatles Encyclopedia: Revised and Updated. Virgin Publishing. ISBN 0-7535-0481-2.
- Harry, Bill (2000b). The John Lennon Encyclopedia. Virgin. ISBN 0-7535-0404-9.
- Harry, Bill (2009). "John Lennon and Blackpool". Mersey Beat. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- Holsinger, M. Paul (1999). War and American popular culture: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1998. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-29908-7.
- Hoppa, Jocelyn (10 November 2010). "Celluloid Heroes: John Lennon and How I Won the War". Crawdaddy!. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- Ingham, Chris (2006). The Rough Guide to The Beatles. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84353-720-5.
- Kruse, Robert J. II (2009). "Geographies of John and Yoko's 1969 Campaign for Peace: An Intersection of Celebrity, Space, Art,and Activism". In Johansson, Ola, Bell, Thomas L., editors. Sound, Society and the Geography of Popular Music. Ashgate. pp. 11–32. ISBN 978-0-7546-7577-8.
- Landau, Jon (3 January 1974). "Mind games". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Lawrence, Ken (2005). John Lennon: In His Own Words. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7407-5477-7.
- Lawrence, Robb (2009). The Modern Era of the Les Paul Legacy: 1968–2008. Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-1-4234-5531-8.
- Lennon, Cynthia (1978). A Twist of Lennon. Avon. ISBN 978-0-380-45450-1.
- Lennon, Cynthia (2005). John. Crown Publishers. ISBN 978-0-307-33855-6.
- Lewisohn, Mark (1988). The Beatles Recording Sessions. Harmony Books. ISBN 0-517-57066-1.
- Logan, Nick (25 November 1967). "Magical Mystery Tour". NME (UK).
- Loker, Bradford E. (2009). History with the Beatles. Dog Ear Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60844-039-9.
- "Most Excellent Order of the British Empire". London Gazette (supplement). 4 June 1965. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- MacDonald, Ian (2005). Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties. Pimlico. ISBN 1-84413-828-3.
- McGinty, Stephen (12 August 2010). "Jimmy Reid: A working-class hero and the saviour of Clyde yards". The Scotsman (UK). Retrieved 18 August 2010.
- Miles, Barry (1997). Paul McCartney: Many Years From Now. Henry Holt & Company. ISBN 0-8050-5248-8.
- Miles, Barry; Badman, Keith (2001). The Beatles Diary: The Beatles Years. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-8308-3.
- Norman, Philip (25 May 1981). "A Talk with Yoko". New York.
- Norman, Philip (2008). John Lennon: The Life. Ecco. ISBN 978-0-06-075401-3.
- Pang, May (2008). Instamatic Karma: Photographs of John Lennon. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-37741-0.
- Peebles, Andy; Lennon, John; Ono, Yoko (1981). The Lennon tapes: John Lennon and Yoko Ono in conversation with Andy Peebles, 6 December 1980. BBC. ISBN 978-0-563-17944-3.
- Perone, James E. (2001). Songs of the Vietnam Conflict. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-31528-2.
- Prown, Pete; Newquist, Harvey P. (1997). Legends of Rock Guitar: The Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists. Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-0-7935-4042-6.
- "RIAA: Searchable database". RIAA. 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
- "RIAA Gold & Platinum Top Selling Artists". RIAA. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- Roberts, David (2001). Guinness World Records: British Hit Singles (14th Edition). Guinness World Records Limited. ISBN 0-85156-156-X.
- Riley, Tim (2001). Tell me why: a Beatles commentary. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81120-3.
- "David Bowie". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. 1996. Retrieved 10 May 2010.[dead link]
- "The RS 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. 18 November 2003. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". Rolling Stone. 12 April 2008. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- Seaman, Frederic (1991). The Last Days of John Lennon. Birch Lane Press. ISBN 1-55972-084-0.
- Ryan, David Stuart (1982). John Lennon's Secret. Kozmik Press Centre. ISBN 978-0-905116-08-2.
- Schechter, Danny (1997). The More You Watch, the Less You Know: News Wars/Submerged Hopes/Media Adventures. Seven Stories Press. ISBN 1-888363-80-0.
- Schinder, Scott; Schwartz, Andy (2007). Icons of Rock: An Encyclopedia of the Legends Who Changed Music Forever. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-33845-8.
- Sheff, David (January 1981). "Interview with John Lennon and Yoko Ono". Playboy. Archived from the original on 25 September 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- Sheff, David; Golson, G. Barry (editor) (1981). The Playboy Interviews with John Lennon and Yoko Ono. Playboy. ISBN 978-0-87223-705-6.
- Shennan, Paddy (26 November 2007). "What will Liz think of these?". The Liverpool Echo. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- Spitz, Bob (2005). The Beatles: The Biography. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-80352-9.
- "Other noises, Other notes". Time. 3 March 1967. Retrieved 27 November 2010.
- The Beatles (2000). The Beatles Anthology. Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-2684-8.
- "Wins and Nominations by Artist: John Lennon". The Brit Awards. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "John Lennon". The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. 1994. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- "Celebrity Obituaries – Allen Klein". The Telegraph. 5 July 2009. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- "FBI Releases Last Pages From Lennon File". The Washington Post. 20 December 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- Urish, Ben; Bielen, Kenneth G (2007). The Words and Music of John Lennon. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-99180-7.
- Vigilla, Hubert (29 August 2005). "Album Review : John Lennon – Imagine". Treble. Retrieved 10 November 2010.[dead link]
- Wald, Jonathan (6 October 2004). "Lennon killer denied parole". CNN. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- Warner Brothers. John Lennon: Imagine, Cynthia Lennon Interview (DVD). Warner Brothers. 1988.
- Wenner, Jann S (2000). Lennon Remembers. Verso. ISBN 1-85984-600-9.
- Wiener, Jon (1990). Come Together: John Lennon in His Time. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-06131-8.
- Wiener, Jon (1999). Gimme Some Truth: The John Lennon FBI Files. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22246-6.
- Wiener, Jon (19 December 2006). "He didn't have to do it. That's one reason he's still admired". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 18 August 2010.
- Kane, Larry (2007). Lennon Revealed. Running Press. ISBN 978-0-7624-2966-0
- Pang, May; Edwards, Henry (1983). Loving John: The Untold Story. Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-37916-6.
- Wiener, Jon. The John Lennon FBI Files
- Yorke, Richard (1969). "John Lennon: Ringo's Right, We Can't Tour Again", New Musical Express, 7 June 1969, reproduced by Crawdaddy!, 2007.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: John Lennon|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Lennon.|
- John Lennon at The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
- John Lennon at the Internet Movie Database
- BBC Archive on John Lennon
- NPR Archive on John Lennon
- FBI file on John Lennon
- John Lennon hosted by EMI Group Limited