Christmas music comprises a variety of genres of music normally performed or heard around the Christmas season, which tends to begin in the months leading up to the actual holiday and end in the weeks shortly thereafter.
- 1 History
- 2 Traditional Christmas carols
- 3 Popular Christmas songs
- 4 Adapted Christmas music
- 5 Novelty songs
- 6 Radio broadcasting
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Music was an early feature of the Christmas season and its celebrations. The earliest chants, litanies, and hymns were Latin works intended for use during the church liturgy, rather than popular songs. The 13th century saw the rise of the carol written in the vernacular, under the influence of Francis of Assisi.
In the Middle Ages, the English combined circle dances with singing and called them carols. Later, the word carol came to mean a song in which a religious topic is treated in a style that is familiar or festive. From Italy, it passed to France and Germany, and later to England. Christmas carols in English first appear in a 1426 work of John Audelay, a Shropshire priest and poet, who lists 25 "caroles of Cristemas", probably sung by groups of wassailers, who went from house to house. Music in itself soon became one of the greatest tributes to Christmas, and Christmas music includes some of the noblest compositions of the great musicians.
During the Commonwealth of England government under Cromwell, the Rump Parliament prohibited the practice of singing Christmas carols as Pagan and sinful. Like other customs associated with popular Catholic Christianity, it earned the disapproval of Protestant Puritans. Famously, Cromwell's interregnum prohibited all celebrations of the Christmas holiday. This attempt to ban the public celebration of Christmas can also be seen in the early history of Father Christmas.
The Westminster Assembly of Divines established Sunday as the only holy day in the calendar in 1644. The new liturgy produced for the English church recognised this in 1645, and so legally abolished Christmas. Its celebration was declared an offence by Parliament in 1647. There is some debate as to the effectiveness of this ban, and whether or not it was enforced in the country.
Puritans generally disapproved of the celebration of Christmas—a trend which continually resurfaced in Europe and the USA through the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
When in May 1660 Charles II restored the Stuarts to the throne, the people of England once again practiced the public singing of Christmas carols as part of the revival of Christmas customs, sanctioned by the king's own celebrations. William Sandys's Christmas Carols Ancient and Modern (1833), contained the first appearance in print of many now-classic English carols, and contributed to the mid-Victorian revival of the holiday. Singing carols in church was instituted on Christmas Eve 1880 (Nine Lessons and Carols) in Truro Cathedral, Cornwall, England, which is now seen in churches all over the world.
The tradition of singing Christmas carols in return for alms or charity began in England in the seventeenth century after the Restoration. Town musicians or 'waits' were licensed to collect money in the streets in the weeks preceding Christmas, the custom spread throughout the population by the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries up to the present day. Also from the seventeenth century, there was the English custom, predominantly involving women, of taking a 'wassail bowl' round their neighbours to solicit gifts, accompanied by carols. Despite this long history, almost all surviving Christmas carols date only from the nineteenth century onwards, with the exception of some traditional folk songs such as "God Rest You Merry Gentlemen", "As I Sat on a Sunny Bank" and "The Holly and the Ivy."
The status of Christmas as an important feast within the church year also means there is a long tradition of music specially composed for celebrating the season. The following is a brief and non-exhaustive list of notable compositions:
- Thomas Tallis: Mass "Puer natus est nobis" (1554)
- Heinrich Schütz: Weihnachtshistorie (1664)
- Marc-Antoine Charpentier: Pastorale sur la naissance de N.S. Jésus-Christ (c. 1670)
- Johann Sebastian Bach: several cantatas for Christmas to Epiphany and Christmas Oratorio (1734)
- George Frideric Handel: Messiah (1741)
- Messiah has become inextricably linked with the Christmas season, especially in England. This is in part due to the efforts of amateur choral societies during the nineteenth century. When it was composed, it was performed during Passiontide.
- Jakub Jan Ryba: Czech Christmas Mass "Hey, Master!" (1796)
- Various 18th-century composers such as Arcangelo Corelli, Antonio Vivaldi, Giuseppe Torelli & others: Christmas Concertos (for performance on Christmas Eve)
- Hector Berlioz: L'enfance du Christ (1853–4)
- Camille Saint-Saëns: Oratorio de Noël (1858)
- Benjamin Britten: A Ceremony of Carols (1942)
- Various composers from Baroque to the 21st century: Christmas cantatas
Traditionally in the United States and elsewhere, the playing of Christmas music would generally begin after the late-November Thanksgiving holidays, at which point Christmas decorations in stores and on streets would also appear, but in recent decades[when?] the music and related decor have been appearing increasingly early. This tendency for the length of the Christmas and holiday season to grow is referred to as "Christmas creep". Given the importance of seasonal gift-giving to many economies (for example, the U.S. economy is one driven largely by consumer spending) and with the music industry making at least 40 percent of its annual revenue in the fourth quarter culminating at Christmas, demands for increased revenues motivates the shift. Christmas music best serenades these shopping months, injecting the Christmas spirit and putting shoppers into the proper mood for buying gifts.
Radio stations—responsible for so much of Christmas music broadcasting, popularisation, and appreciation—are "going Christmas earlier and earlier" now starting between October 16 and November 19 instead of Thanksgiving or Black Friday, because executives "think that listeners will stick with the first station to change to a seasonal theme." About 400 radio stations "across the United States play Christmas music around the clock." In Chicago, WLIT-FM saw its share of all radio listeners grow from a 2.9/3.6 share earlier in the year to 9.3 during the Nov. 28 to Dec. 11, 2003 Arbitron rating period. A 2002 Arbitron ratings study confirmed holiday-music surges at stations around the country.
Traditional Christmas carols
Songs which are traditional, even some without a specific religious context, are often called Christmas carols. Each of these has a rich history, some dating back many centuries.
A popular set of traditional carols that might be heard at any Christmas-related event include:
performed by James D. Blodget on a Roland U-20 synthesizer, December 23, 2004.
Performed a cappella by Kim Butler on December 15, 2006.
Tune of traditional English Christmas carol transcribed by CambridgeBayWeather.
|Problems playing these files? See media help.|
- "Angels We Have Heard on High" (in the UK the text of "Angels from the Realms of Glory" is sung to this tune)
- "Away in a Manger"
- "Deck the Halls" (Deck the Hall)
- "Ding Dong Merrily on High"
- "The First Nowell" (The First Noël)
- "Go Tell It on the Mountain"
- "God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen" (God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen)
- "Good King Wenceslas"
- "Hark! The Herald Angels Sing"
- "I Saw Three Ships"
- "It Came Upon the Midnight Clear"
- "Joy to the World"
- "O Christmas Tree" (O Tannenbaum)
- "O Come, All Ye Faithful" (Adeste Fideles)
- "O come, O come, Emmanuel"
- "O Holy Night" (Cantique de Noël)
- "O Little Town of Bethlehem"
- "Once in Royal David's City"
- "Silent Night"
- "The Twelve Days of Christmas"
- "We Three Kings of Orient Are"
- "We Wish You a Merry Christmas"
- "What Child Is This?"
- "While Shepherds Watched Their Flocks"
Less-often heard Christmas carols include:
- "Bring a Torch, Jeanette, Isabella"
- "Coventry Carol"
- "Gabriel's Message"
- "Here We Come A-wassailing"
- "The Holly and the Ivy"
- "In dulci jubilo" (Good Christian Men, Rejoice)
- "In the Bleak Midwinter"
- "Lo, How a Rose E'er Blooming"
- "See, Amid the Winter's Snow"
- "Sussex Carol" (On Christmas Night All Christians Sing)
- "Wexford Carol"
These songs hearken from centuries ago, the oldest ('Wexford Carol') originating in the 12th century. The newest came together in the mid- to late-19th century. Many began in non-English speaking countries, often with non-Christmas themes, and were later converted into English carols with English lyrics added—not always translated from the original, but newly created—sometimes as late as the early 20th century.
Early secular Christmas songs
More recent, copyrighted carols about the Nativity include "I Wonder as I Wander" (1933), "Mary's Boy Child" (1956), "Carol of the Drum" ("Little Drummer Boy") (1941), "Do You Hear What I Hear?" (1962), and "Mary, Did You Know?" (1984), "Little Donkey" by Eric Boswell (1959) and the Calypso Carol by Michael Perry (1964).
Popular Christmas songs
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2013)|
More recently popular Christmas songs, often Christmas songs introduced in theater, television, film, or other entertainment media, tend to be specifically about Christmas or have a wintertime theme. They are typically not overtly religious. The most popular set of these titles—heard over airwaves, on the Internet, in shopping centres and lifts, even on the street during the Christmas season—have been composed and performed from the 1930s onward. "Jingle Bells", "Jolly Old Saint Nicholas", and "Up on the House Top", however, date from the mid-19th century.
The largest portion of these songs in some way describes or is reminiscent of Christmas traditions, how western countries tend to celebrate the holiday, i.e., with caroling, mistletoe, exchanging of presents, a Christmas tree, feasting, jingle bells, etc. Celebratory or sentimental, and nostalgic in tone, they hearken back to simpler times with memorable holiday practices—expressing the desire either to be with someone or at home for Christmas. Many titles help define the mythical aspects of modern Christmas celebration: Santa Claus bringing presents, coming down the chimney, being pulled by reindeer, etc. New mythical characters are created, defined, and popularised by these songs; Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer and Frosty the Snowman were both introduced by Gene Autry a year apart (1949 and 1950 respectively).[n 1] Though overtly religious, and authored (at least partly) by a writer of many church hymns, no drumming child appears in any biblical account of the Christian nativity scene—this character was introduced to the tradition by Katherine K. Davis in her "The Little Drummer Boy" (written in 1941, with a popular version being released in 1958).
The winter-related songs celebrate the climactic season, with all its snow, dressing up for the cold, sleighing, etc.
Most-performed Christmas songs (USA)
According to the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers in 2006, the following are the Top 25 most-performed "holiday" songs written by ASCAP members, for the first five years of the 21st century: (tracking plays in the U.S. only, and in order of number of plays)
Of these, the oldest songs are "Santa Claus Is Coming to Town" and "Winter Wonderland", both published in 1934—though some element of the song came along earlier for two titles (the source or music). Almost a dozen were released in the 1940s, the next largest group coming in the 1950s. Only two became popular in the 1960s; one each in the 1970s and 1980s. "Do They Know It's Christmas? (Feed the World)" by Midge Ure and Bob Geldof is the only relatively new one on the list: "Recorded in 1984 by Band Aid—an all-star band of British musicians—this benefit single assisted famine relief efforts in Ethiopia, and sold millions of copies over the '84 holiday season."
Christmas songs introduced in theater, television, and film include "White Christmas" from Holiday Inn (1942), "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas" from Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), and "Silver Bells" in The Lemon Drop Kid (1950).
Johnny Marks has three top Christmas songs, the most for any writer—"Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer", "Rockin' Around the Christmas Tree", and "A Holly Jolly Christmas". By far the most recorded Christmas song is "White Christmas" with well over 500 versions in dozens of languages.
Approximately half of the 25 best-selling Christmas songs were written by Jewish composers, including "White Christmas", "Let It Snow", "Winter Wonderland," "The Christmas Song (Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire)," "Sleigh Ride," "Let It Snow! Let It Snow! Let It Snow!," "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer," "I'll Be Home for Christmas," and "Silver Bells".
While the ASCAP list is relatively popular in the United Kingdom and Ireland, it remains largely overshadowed by a collection of chart hits recorded in a bid to be crowned the UK Christmas number one single during the 1970s and 1980s. According to a 2007 poll, the UK's most popular Christmas song is "Merry Xmas Everybody" by Slade, a band that was popular in the 1970s.
Christmas music in the United Kingdom and Ireland
Most played songs
The top ten most played Christmas songs in the United Kingdom based on a 2010 survey conducted by PRS for Music, who collect and pay royalties to its 75,000 song-writing and composing members, are as follows:
|1||"All I Want for Christmas Is You"||Mariah Carey and Walter Afanasieff||Mariah Carey||1994|
|2||"Last Christmas"||George Michael||Wham!||1984|
|3||"Fairytale of New York"||Jem Finer and Shane MacGowan||The Pogues with Kirsty MacColl||1987|
|4||"Do They Know It’s Christmas?"||Bob Geldof and Midge Ure||Band Aid||1984|
|5||"Merry Xmas Everybody"||Noddy Holder and Jim Lea||Slade||1973|
|6||"White Christmas"||Irving Berlin||Louis Armstrong||1940|
|7||"Driving Home for Christmas"||Chris Rea||Chris Rea||1988|
|8||"Merry Christmas Everyone"||Bob Heatlie||Shakin' Stevens||1985|
|9||"Mistletoe and Wine"||Jeremy Paul, Leslie Stewart and Keith Strachan||Cliff Richard||1988|
|10||"Walking in the Air"||Howard Blake||Peter Auty||1982|
Included in previous lists—like those for 2009 and 2008—are such titles as "Stop the Cavalry"—Jona Lewie, "Santa Claus is Coming to Town"—Bruce Springsteen, "I Wish It Could Be Christmas Every Day"—Wizzard, "Step into Christmas"—Elton John, "Lonely This Christmas"—Mud, and "White Christmas" by Bing Crosby.
"Christmas number one single"
In Britain and Ireland, the terms "Christmas number one single" and "Christmas number two single" denote songs released around the time of the Christmas holiday and that reach the top of the UK Singles Chart and/or Irish Singles Chart respectively. Because of the two countries' proximity to each other, the Irish #1 is usually the same as the British #1 or #2. Though some of these songs do tend to develop an association with Christmas or the holiday season, such an association tends to be much shorter lived than the more traditionally themed Christmas songs such as "I Wish It Could Be Christmas Everyday", "Mistletoe and Wine" and "Merry Christmas Everyone", and the songs may have nothing to do with Christmas or even winter. Past Christmas number-ones include children's songs such as "Mr Blobby" (#1, 1993) and the theme from Bob the Builder (#1, 2000), novelty songs such as Benny Hill's "Ernie (The Fastest Milkman in the West)" (#1, 1971) and South Park's "Chocolate Salty Balls" (#2, 1998), and several examples of standard pop fare that would likely be just as popular outside the holiday season. Some songs will be "tweaked" to make them more related to Christmas. This is almost exclusively a British cultural phenomenon; some notable and longer-lasting examples include Band Aid's "Do They Know It's Christmas?" (#1, 1985, 1989 and 2004), Slade's "Merry Xmas Everybody" (#1, 1973) and Wham!'s "Last Christmas" (#2, 1984). Although Scotland maintains a separate chart, its results almost always parallel the main UK chart in this regard.
Reality television has had an impact on both the British and the Irish charts since 2002. In that year, the series Popstars The Rivals produced the top three singles on the Christmas charts: two produced by the two "rival" groups created as the result of the series (the girl group Girls Aloud and the boy band One True Voice) finished first and second respectively, while failed contestants The Cheeky Girls charted with a novelty hit at third, on the British charts. Will Young, winner of the first Pop Idol, charted at the top of the Irish charts in 2003, but not in his native Britain. Since the second series of the TV series The X Factor, which ends in December, the debut song from that series' winner generally is released at a time conducive to it becoming the Christmas number one in both countries, and most of the songs are unrelated to Christmas. X Factor winners have earned the Christmas number one in at least one of the two countries every year since 2005, and in both countries in a majority of those years (four times out of the last seven). As a result of the show's stranglehold on the top of the charts, each year since 2008 has seen protest campaigns to outsell the X Factor single and prevent it from reaching number one. Only one has actually been successful: in 2009, "Killing in the Name" by Rage Against the Machine reached number one in the UK instead of that year's X Factor winner, Joe McElderry; McElderry did reach number one in Ireland. 2010 saw several campaigns to unseat the X Factor winner, but fracturing between the warring campaigns in Britain and a delay in the delivery of The Rubberbandits' "Horse Outside" to stores in Ireland led to X Factor winner Matt Cardle earning the number one in both countries. In 2011, "Wherever You Are", the single from a choir of military wives assembled by the TV series The Choir (which was not released specifically as a campaign against the X Factor single), earned the Christmas number-one single in Britain, pulling off an upset over X Factor winners Little Mix, whose single was mistakenly released one week earlier than usual and peaked in sales too soon, and a host of anti-X Factor campaigns supporting acts like Lou Monte, Nirvana and unsigned YouTube artist Alex Day; because the Military Wives Choir single was not released in Ireland, Little Mix succeeded in winning the Christmas number-one in Ireland that year due to a lack of competition. In 2012 The Christmas #1 was a cover of He Ain't Heavy, he's my Brother from an ensemble of Liverpudian celebrities in commemoration of the 1989 Hillsborough Disaster.
Currently, popular Christmas songs in the U.K. arise from diverse artist inspirations, aims, social concerns, and takes on the holiday itself. Many share roots in major U.S. popular Christmas tunes, either in actual musical terms or in originating artist favorites. Illustrative examples of this include:
- "Merry Xmas Everybody" by Slade (1973): Noddy Holder, who co-wrote the song with bassist Jim Lea, gained inspiration from his co-writer's motheri-n-law, who'd asked "why we'd never brought a song out, something that could come out every year like, 'Happy Birthday' or a Christmas-type song." At the time "the country was in real turmoil": "Miners were on strike, bakers were on strike, grave diggers were on strike, electric workers were on strike." He feels "'Merry Xmas' provided a real optimistic outlook – 'look to the future now it's only just begun'." The song, a Christmas number one for Slade in 1973, has been "a longevity boost for the band and the band's product as well." Holder's "favourite other Christmas song" is "All I Want for Christmas Is You" by Mariah Carey.
- "I Wish It Could Be Christmas Everyday" by Wizzard (1973): Songwriter Roy Wood of Wizzard says they "recorded it in the August and . . we put on some big fans and blue lights and left them on for an hour. So we got the band to record the song in overcoats and scarves and we put a Christmas tree up and lights and all that sort of stuff." Wood's song, performed by Wizzard, reached number four in 1973. Wood's "favourite other festive song" is "All I Want for Christmas Is You" by Mariah Carey.
- "I Believe in Father Christmas" by Greg Lake of Emerson, Lake & Palmer (1974): Lake "wrote the guitar riff first and . . stumbled on the thought that the song Jingle Bells fitted over [it]. He and his co-writer Peter Sinfield, formerly of rock band King Crimson, "thought maybe it could be a Christmas song." The composition "features a motif from Prokofiev's "Lieutenant Kijé" suite which has since "become synonymous with Christmas." It made Christmas number two in 1975 behind Queen's "Bohemian Rhapsody". Lake, who rates his "favourite festive songs" to be Bing Crosby's "White Christmas" and "Happy Xmas (War Is Over)" by John Lennon, says it was "a serious song lamenting the fact that Christmas had moved away from being a season of goodwill and peace on earth to all men to being about commerciality."
- "A Spaceman Came Travelling" by Chris de Burgh (1976): De Burgh, who had just signed his first recording contract with A&M Records, was broke and "staying at a friend's flat" when he read Chariots of the Gods? by Erich von Däniken. The book made him think "what if the star of Bethlehem was a space craft and what if there is a benevolent being or entity in the universe keeping an eye on the world and our foolish things that we do to each other?" A fan of Irish poet William Butler Yeats, whose work "The Second Coming" avers that every 2,000 years or so there would be a major cataclysmic event happening, de Burgh saw the birth of Christ as "such an event and then 2,000 years later there would be a similar" one. He imagined "the nativity scene, the thing hovering over and I could see the shepherds in the fields and this weird, ethereal music was drifting into the air and they were 'what the heck is that'?" But he "had no ideas about trying to write a hit record." The song failed to chart when it was first released as a single, but De Burgh says it's been "much better to have a regular recurring song than a hit for three weeks." Like Lake, de Burgh's favourite Christmas song is "White Christmas", sung by Bing Crosby.
- "Stop the Cavalry" by Jona Lewie (1980): Lewis says the song started out "with a lyric idea . . a thing about the Crimean War where people were just in the charge of the light brigade . . charging to their deaths." He first did the brass line on a kazoo, only later – "once the whole thing started to mould itself into something" – using "a military brass band from Yorkshire." Though he "absolutely did not sit down with the idea of writing a big Christmas hit," the song made Christmas number three for Lewis in 1980, hitting that spot "at the very moment when John Lennon was assassinated and his assassination led to him occupying the number one and number two positions." (This is an error: "There's No One Quite Like Grandma" by the St. Winifred's School Choir was number-one that year, preventing both Lennon and Lewie from reaching the top spot; Lennon ended up at #2 on that week's charts.) The hit still provides "about 50% of (his) total income stream" (from music royalties). His "favourite other festive songs" are Lake's "I Believe in Father Christmas" and Elvis Presley's "Santa Claus Is Back in Town".
- "Merry Christmas Everyone" by Shakin' Stevens (1985): Songwriter Bob Heatlie directly states: "To be honest, I've always wanted to have a Christmas hit." His first effort became a Christmas number one for Shakin' Stevens in 1985. But the climate was a challenge: "It was in the middle of a heat wave which is unusual in Scotland . . I remember standing in my shorts and nothing else, recording these jingle bells and the sweat was just pouring down me . . I thought, 'this is crazy singing about Christmas while I'm sweating like a pig'." The effort has provided eternal reward: "If you crack it, it's an evergreen and it goes on forever and, even though your career might be over, you've always got that." His "favourite other festive songs" are "Fairytale of New York" by The Pogues and "I Wish It Could Be Christmas Everyday" by Wizzard.
- "Fairytale of New York" by The Pogues with Kirsty MacColl (1987): Jem Finer decided to start writing a Christmas song, but his wife "said it was a load of rubbish, lyrically and narratively speaking, so she suggested a storyline about a couple who are down on their luck." Frontman Shane MacGowan had been working on a Christmas duet, so they decided to use his story: "The guy went out with what little money they had to buy a Christmas tree and presents but, on the way, he decided to go into the bookies and it all went horribly wrong . . But then . . love took over from the more material aspects of Christmas." The song was a Christmas number two for The Pogues in 1987. His "favourite other festive song" is Captain Beefheart's "There Ain't No Santa Claus on the Evenin' Stage". Surveys consistently rank the song the nation's favourite at Christmas.
- "Mistletoe and Wine" by Cliff Richard (1988): Originally written in 1976 for a musical of Hans Christian Andersen's The Little Match Girl directed by songwriter Jeremy Paul, the song had "almost the opposite to its meaning now. We wanted a satirical Christmas carol when the little match girl is being kicked away into the snow by the unfeeling middle classes in a Dickensian setting." Co-written with Leslie Stewart and Keith Strachan, it became a Christmas number one for Cliff Richard in 1988, his 99th single, and it was the best-selling single of the year. "We were absolutely overwhelmed by it," says Paul. "We didn't particularly, the three of us co-writers, at that point, understand the power of Cliff's world." Paul's "favourite other festive song" is "Santa Baby" by Eartha Kitt.
Christmas music in Australia
Situated in the southern hemisphere, where seasons are reversed from the northern, the heat of early summer in Australia affects the way Christmas is celebrated and how northern hemisphere Christmas traditions are followed. Australians generally spend Christmas out of doors, going to the beach for the day, or heading to camp grounds for a vacation. International visitors to Sydney at Christmastime often go to Bondi Beach where tens of thousands gather on Christmas Day.
The tradition of an Australian Christmas Eve carol service lit by candles, started in 1937 by radio announcer Norman Banks, has taken place in Melbourne annually since then. Carols by Candlelight events can be "huge gatherings . . televised live throughout the country" or smaller "local community and church events." Carols in the Domain in Sydney is now a "popular platform for the stars of stage and music."
Some homegrown Christmas carols have become popular. William G. James' six sets of Australian Christmas Carols, with words by John Wheeler, include "The Three Drovers", "The Silver Stars are in the Sky", "Christmas Day", "Carol of the Birds" and others. "Light-hearted Australian Christmas songs" have become "an essential part of the Australian Christmas experience." Rolf Harris' "Six White Boomers", Colin Buchanan's "Aussie Jingle Bells", and the "Australian Twelve Days of Christmas", proudly proclaim the differing traditions Down Under. A verse from "Aussie Jingle Bells" makes the point:
"My Little Christmas Belle" (1909) composed by Joe Slater (1872-1926) to words by Ward McAlister (1872-1928) celebrates eastern Australian flora coming into bloom during the heat of Christmas. Blandfordia nobilis, also known as Christmas Bells, are the specific subject of the song—with the original sheet music bearing a depiction of the blossom. Whereas "The Holly and The Ivy" (1937) by Australian Louis Lavater (1867-1953) mentions northern hemisphere foliage.
Christmas song surveys
In a 2007 survey, of United States radio listeners, the most liked songs were standards such as Bing Crosby's "White Christmas" (1942), Nat King Cole's "The Christmas Song (Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire)" (1946), and Burl Ives' "A Holly Jolly Christmas" (1965). Other favorites like "Rockin' Around the Christmas Tree" (Brenda Lee, 1958), "Jingle Bell Rock" (Bobby Helms, 1957) and John Lennon and Yoko Ono's "Happy Xmas (War Is Over)" (1971), scored well in one study. Also "loved" were Johnny Mathis' "Do You Hear What I Hear?" and Harry Simeone Chorale's "Little Drummer Boy". The newest song in one survey's top 10 was Mariah Carey's "All I Want for Christmas Is You" (1994); for another it was Lennon and Ono's.
The Pinnacle Media Worldwide survey divided its listeners into music-type categories:
- "Adult contemporary" listeners rated Brenda Lee's "Rockin' Around the Christmas Tree" best.
- "Adult Top 40" fans liked Bobby Helms' "Jingle Bell Rock".
- "Hip-hop/R&B" fans liked the Jackson 5's "Santa Claus Is Coming to Town".
- "Country" listeners ranked Burl Ives' "A Holly Jolly Christmas" number one.
- "Smooth jazz" fans liked "The Christmas Song" as sung by Nat King Cole.
Among the most-hated Christmas songs, according to Edison Media Research's 2007 survey, are Barbra Streisand's "Jingle Bells?", the Jackson 5's "Santa Claus Is Coming to Town", Elmo & Patsy's "Grandma Got Run Over by a Reindeer", and "O Holy Night" as performed by cartoon characters from Comedy Central's "South Park". The "most-hated Christmastime recording" is a rendition of "Jingle Bells" by Don Charles's Singing Dogs, a revolutionary novelty song originally released in 1955, and re-released as an edited version in 1970.
Other popular "Holiday" songs
Other popular Christmas songs often heard include: "I've Got My Love to Keep Me Warm" (1937), "Happy Holidays" (1942), "Baby It's Cold Outside" (1944), "My Favorite Things" (1959), and "We Need a Little Christmas" (1966)—all recorded by a number of acts. Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters had a hit with "Mele Kalikimaka" in 1950, and Crosby introduced "Marshmallow World" in the same year, with other acts performing both songs since. Frank Sinatra put "The Christmas Waltz" on the flip-side of his version of "White Christmas" in 1954, many other acts covering it since. "Please Come Home for Christmas" and "Christmas Time is Here" was written and released by Charles Brown in 1960, but "Please Come Home for Christmas" is now mostly associated with The Eagles. The Jackson 5 released "Give Love on Christmas Day" in 1970, with other acts following suit. Also in 1970, Donny Hathaway originated "This Christmas"; in 2007 singer Chris Brown released a popular version for the film of the same name. "It Comes Around the Same Time Each Year," composed in 2011 by Hollywood composer Van Alexander and lyricist Lee Hale, is a new classic with a recent recording by Michael Feinstein.
Newer titles mostly associated with the originating artist include "Happy Xmas (War Is Over)" by John Lennon, "My Grown Up Christmas List" by David Foster, "Christmas Is the Time to Say I Love You" by Billy Squier, "Merry Christmas Darling" by The Carpenters, "Merry Christmas, Baby" and "Little Saint Nick" by the Beach Boys (with the former later covered by Bruce Springsteen), "Thank God It's Christmas" by Queen, "Wonderful Christmastime" by Paul McCartney,"Log Cabin Christmas" by Charlene Gordon (video shown on CMT and TNN), "If Everyday Could Be Like Christmas" by Patti Labelle, and "Pretty Paper" by Roy Orbison and Willie Nelson.
More recent covers of songs found on the ASCAP top-25 Christmas songs have gained a popularity all their own. Elvis Presley famously covered a number of Christmas standards on his Christmas album, originally released in 1957. His versions of "Here Comes Santa Claus" and the previously mentioned "Blue Christmas" are particularly popular. Bruce Springsteen and The Jackson Five recorded separate versions of "Santa Claus Is Coming to Town", as well as other Christmas titles. The unlikely pairing of Bing Crosby with David Bowie on the impromptu "The Little Drummer Boy/Peace on Earth" created one of the most popular Christmas duets ever recorded.
Rolling Stone magazine ranked Darlene Love's version of "Christmas (Baby Please Come Home)" (1963) first on its list of The Greatest Rock and Roll Christmas Songs in December 2010. Included on the list were such rock and roll hits as Chuck Berry's "Run Rudolph Run" released in 1958.
Adapted Christmas music
Much of what is known as Christmas music today was actually adapted from works initially composed for other purposes. Retroactively these were applied to Christmas, or came to be associated with the holiday in some way. Many tunes adopted into the Christmas canon fall into the generic Winter classification, as they carry no Christmas connotation at all. Others were written to celebrate other holidays and gradually came to cover the Christmas season. Favorites such as “Winter Wonderland,” “My Favorite Things,” “Let it Snow,” and “Baby, It's Cold Outside” describe Winter and seasonal experiences. "What Are You Doing New Year's Eve?" is a song specifically about celebrating New Year's Eve and makes no mention of Christmas. The widely popular "Deck the Halls" celebrates the pagan holiday of Yule and the New Year, but not explicitly Christmas ("Toll the ancient Yuletide carol . . See the blazing Yule before us . . While I tell of Yuletide treasure").
The popular Christmas standard "Jingle Bells" was originally written to celebrate Thanksgiving. Standard “Sleigh Ride” lyrics mention not a Christmas party but a birthday party: "There's a birthday party/At the home of farmer Gray". "Auld Lang Syne", with words by Scottish poet Robert Burns put to a traditional Scottish melody, is commonly sung at the conclusion of New Year gatherings in Scotland and around the world, especially in English speaking countries. Borrowing from the title, Dan Fogelberg's "Same Old Lang Syne" (released 1980) tells a Christmas Eve story and is now frequently played during the holiday season.
Perhaps the most famous Christmas-themed work in the classical music canon, Handel's Messiah, was first performed "not during Advent or Christmas, but in Eastertide." Handel’s masterpiece premiered in Dublin on April 13, 1742, 19 days after Easter, with proceeds intended for a number of charities. According to the words, only the beginning deals with the birth of Jesus, while "the second and third parts focus on his death, resurrection, the sending of the Spirit at Pentecost, and the final resurrection of all believers." It was performed from 1750 until Handel's death for the Foundling Hospital for orphans around Eastertime.
Another form of popular Christmas song are those musical parodies performed solely for comical effect, usually classified as "novelty songs". These range from those sung by children, or largely for their enjoyment, to those with a distinctly adult theme.
- "All I Want for Christmas Is My Two Front Teeth" written by Donald Yetter Gardner in 1944 and introduced by Spike Jones and his City Slickers in 1948.
- "I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus" sung by 13-year-old Jimmy Boyd in 1952.
- "Nuttin' for Christmas" by Art Mooney and Barry Gordon, who was seven years old when he sang the song in 1955.
- "The Chipmunk Song (Christmas Don't Be Late)" sung by Alvin and the Chipmunks in 1958.
- "You're a Mean One, Mr. Grinch" originally done for the 1966 cartoon special How the Grinch Stole Christmas!. The lyrics were written by Dr. Seuss, the music was by Albert Hague, and the lyrics were performed by Thurl Ravenscroft. Many different versions have been recorded since.
- "Snoopy's Christmas" performed by The Royal Guardsmen in 1967; a follow-up to their earlier song "Snoopy Vs. The Red Baron" recorded in 1966.
- "Santa Claus is a Black Man" by Akim and the Teddy Vann Production Company, recorded in 1973.
- "Jingle Bells" by the Singing Dogs was recorded in 1955 by Don Charles from Copenhagen, Denmark. Considered the work of Carl Weismann, it was revolutionary in its use of latest recording technology.
- "Green Chri$tma$", a radio play parody by Stan Freberg that came out in 1958.
- "A Christmas Carol" by Tom Lehrer, a 1959 live-recording parody of Christmas carols purporting to show the true spirit of Christmas, "refer[ring], of course, to money.
- "I'm Gonna Spend My Christmas with a Dalek" by The Go-Go's a Doctor Who spin-off song, released in 1964, that tried to turn the sinister Daleks into another version of The Chipmunks. It was originally intended to help fuel Dalekmania.
- "Santa Claus and His Old Lady," the debut single from Cheech & Chong in 1971.
- "Grandma Got Run Over by a Reindeer" by Elmo & Patsy which came out in 1979.
- "Christmas at Ground Zero" by Weird Al Yankovic came out in 1986.
- "Rusty Chevrolet" by Da Yoopers in 1987, a parody of Jingle Bells.
- Numerous "The Twelve Days of Christmas" parodies, including one by Bob and Doug McKenzie (Rick Moranis and Dave Thomas) which came out in 1982, and another by the a cappella group Straight No Chaser which was first performed in 1997.
- "Don't Shoot Me Santa" was released by The Killers in 2007, benefiting various AIDS charities.
The number of Christmas novelty songs is so immense that radio host Dr. Demento devotes an entire month of weekly two-hour episodes to the format each year, and the novelty songs receive frequent requests at radio stations across the country. The Dan Band released several adult-oriented Christmas songs on their 2007 album "Ho: A Dan Band Christmas" which included "Ho, Ho, Ho" (ho being slang for a prostitute), "I Wanna Rock You Hard This Christmas", "Please Don't Bomb Nobody This Holiday" and "Get Drunk & Make Out This Christmas". Seattle radio personality Bob Rivers became nationally famous for his line of novelty Christmas songs and released five albums (collectively known as the Twisted Christmas quintilogy, after the name of Rivers' radio program, "Twisted Radio") consisting entirely of Christmas parodies from 1987 to 2002. Christmas novelty songs can involve gallows humor and even morbid humor like that found in "Christmas at Ground Zero" and "The Night Santa Went Crazy", both by "Weird Al" Yankovic.
Radio broadcasting of Christmas music has been around for several decades in the U.S. and elsewhere. Traditionally, U.S. radio stations (particularly those with such formats as adult contemporary, adult standards, easy listening, or beautiful music) began adding some Christmas-themed selections to their regular playlists shortly after Thanksgiving each year, typically culminating in 36–48 hours of continuous Christmas music between December 24–25. Since the mid-1990s, it has become increasingly common for stations to switch their programming to continuous Christmas music around Thanksgiving, or earlier. This practice became even more widespread after 9/11, when many radio stations across the United States sought a sort of musical "comfort food".
24/7 Christmas music
When a radio station in the U.S. makes the temporary switch to all-Christmas music its listener share regularly doubles. A sampling of radio stations that made the switch in 2010 with the change in market share:
Adult contemporary, oldies, and country listeners tend to adjust better to an all-Christmas switch than do listeners of other formats such as hip-hop or hard rock. However: "Nine times out of 10, many new listeners pour in, outweighing the listeners that do opt out," says Greg Strassell, senior vice president of programming at CBS Radio. However, this may not always transition well into financial success, since advertisers do not universally recognise Arbitron's holiday ratings book.
The 24/7 all-Christmas format has been generally successful due in large part to Christmas creep. Many radio stations began airing an all-Christmas format by Thanksgiving, starting as early as the Friday one week prior. Several stations have started the format as early as November 1 (a few, such as KAAZ-FM and WNIC, have earned a reputation for this) or even in late October, although this is generally the exception rather than the norm. Stations that change formats before Thanksgiving sometimes experience backlash from listeners, because this is well outside the traditional Christmas and holiday season.
To accommodate the adult contemporary stations' flip to Christmas music, the syndicated John Tesh and Delilah nighttime shows also play this format around the same time as their respective affiliates. Some radio stations, even those that do not play full-time Christmas music prior to Christmas Eve, play Christmas music commercial-free the entire day on Christmas Day and often a portion of Christmas Eve as well (e.g. KOIT), with only interruptions for Christmas messages from station personnel and personnel from the station's parent company. (This is also the case on home shopping TV networks.)
Some in the industry speculate that more stations may start programming 24/7 Christmas music as early as November 1 each year, which could result in dozens of stations (instead of the half-dozen or so stations in prior years) "taking the plunge" on that first day after Halloween (although November 1 is the Day of the Dead, the reason for Halloween's existence). As of the last week of October 2010, four stations had changed to the format. Two of them (WSMM in South Bend, Indiana and an admittedly stunting WSHP in Lafayette, Indiana) did so on their analog channel; the other two were automated digital-only channels, WBEB HD2 and WPEN HD2, both in Philadelphia. The number of "all-Christmas" radio stations indeed jumped on November 1; for instance, four stations in upstate New York adopted the format that morning. HD Radio also allows for the expansion of Christmas music beyond Christmas Day and into early January, much as WLIT does after Christmas.
Every year stationintel.com compiles a list of all stations that play the format. In 2011, the first station in North America to adopt a 24/7 all-Christmas format was WEZW in Wildwood Crest, New Jersey, which serves the southeastern corner of that state, including Cape May and the fringes of Atlantic City. WEZW switched on October 16, some 68 days prior to Christmas. What makes WEZW's case unusual is that in previous years, stations that changed to Christmas music in mid-October were generally stunting (see below) in anticipation of a change to a different format after the Christmas holiday; WEZW did not do so, thus obliterating—by over a week—the previous record for the earliest change by a non-stunting commercial analog station. As of November 21, 2011 (three days before Thanksgiving), there were over 150 commercial U.S. radio stations airing 24/7 Christmas music.
For 2012, KYXE-FM, a new sign-on station in Yakima, Washington, was the first terrestrial station in the United States to begin broadcasting the Christmas format, using the service called North Pole Radio. WEZW, the first station to do so in 2011, was also the first station to change to the Christmas format in 2012 (the distinction is that KYXE had signed on for the first time with the Christmas format). The first HD subchannel to carry Christmas music was the specially created HD3 channel of WODS, which signed on October 24. On Halloween, WLTQ, which flipped to Christmas early in 2011 ahead of rebranding their on-air identity, started airing all Christmas music.
The first station to change to the format in 2013 was WNDR-FM, a station in Mexico, New York (a town between Syracuse and Watertown). As with most exceptionally early adopters, WNDR-FM is stunting; its previous format moved to another frequency immediately prior to the move.
Although the Christmas season by definition runs until January 6 (Epiphany), and is observed until at least New Year's Eve by the public, almost all broadcasters skip the last Twelve Days of Christmas, abruptly ending all holiday music at or even before midnight on December 25, and not playing a single Christmas song again until the next November. (Several radio stations actually promote this, with ads that proudly proclaim to listeners weary of the Christmas music that the station's regular format will indeed return on December 26, as soon as Christmas Day is over.) It is not uncommon for broadcasters to market the twelve-day period preceding Christmas (December 14 to 25) as the "Twelve Days of Christmas", contrary to the traditional definition. One reason for this is that much popular Christmas music is so closely associated with Christmas Day itself that it would be difficult or impossible to play after December 25 without bringing up references that the broadcaster may wish to ignore (such as those that involve Santa Claus, who has already come and gone by Christmas morning). On occasion, some Christmas music stations will continue to play at least some Christmas music through the weekend following Christmas, or even through New Year's Day (particularly when stunting in anticipation of a format change; see below), but never any later.
Christmas music as a stunt format
Christmas music is a popular stunt format, used when a station is transitioning to a different format. For instance, a rock music station changing to a rhythmic oldies format will often air Christmas music in-between. This can occur at times when Christmas music seems out of place, such as in summer. The end of the calendar year is a common time of year for format switches. As such, Christmas music may be aired for a prolonged period of time from as early as October and/or extend as late as New Year's Day, while the station prepares the switch. Conversely, when 94.9 in Atlanta changed from adult contemporary to country music in the middle of December 2006, it abruptly stopped playing its annual Christmas music a week before the holiday.
A brief 24/7 Christmas music format is also common during Christmas in July stunts.
Christmas music on satellite and internet radio
Outside of traditional AM/FM radio, satellite radio providers XM and Sirius typically devote multiple channels to different genres of Christmas music during the holiday season. Numerous Internet radio services also offer Christmas music channels, some of them available year-round. Citadel Media produced The Christmas Channel, a syndicated 24-hour radio network, during the holiday season in past years (though in 2010, Citadel instead included Christmas music on its regular Classic Hits network). Music Choice offers nonstop holiday music to its digital cable, cable modem, and mobile phone subscribers between November 1 and New Year's Day on its "Sounds of the Seasons" (traditional), "R&B" (soul), "Tropicales" (Latin), and "Soft Rock" (contemporary) channels. DMX provides holiday music as part of its SonicTap music service for digital cable and DirecTV subscribers, as does Dish Network via its in-house Dish CD music channels. Services such as Muzak also distribute Christmas music to retail stores for use as in-store background music during the holidays.
The growing popularity of Internet radio has inspired other media outlets to begin offering Christmas music. In 2009 Phoenix television station KTVK launched four commercial-free online radio stations including Ho Ho Radio, which streams Christmas music throughout the month of December.
- List of Christmas/holiday hit singles in the US
- List of Christmas/holiday hit singles (UK)
- Christmas carol
- List of Christmas carols
- Best-selling Christmas/holiday albums in the US
- Best-selling Christmas/holiday singles in the US
- Christmas number-one singles in the UK
- Christmas number-two singles in the UK
- Christmas cantata
- First described in a book, Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer was popularised by the related song that came out in 1949.
- Miles, Clement (1976). Christmas customs and traditions. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 47–48. ISBN 0-486-23354-5.
- Hutton, Ronald (1996). The Stations of the Sun. Oxford.
- Shoemaker, Alfred L. (1959, 1999). Christmas in Pennsylvania. Mechanicsburg, PA. p. xvii.
- Richard Michael Kelly. A Christmas carol p.10. Broadview Press, 2003 ISBN 1-55111-476-3
- "Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols". BBC. December 16, 2005.
- Simpson, Jacqueline; Roud, Steve (2000). Oxford Dictionary of English Folklore. Oxford. p. 64.
- NATIONAL POST (OCTOBER 6, 2006). "Lights, holly? It's not even Thanksgiving yet (Christmas really is coming early this year, at least in some Canadian department stores)". Canada.com.
- "Retail Sales Rose 0.2% Last Month". New York Times. Associated Press. January 13, 1990. Retrieved September 23, 2009.
- Baxter, Annie (October 30, 2008). "Consumer spending accounts for two-thirds of U.S. economy". Minnesota Public Radio.
- Daniel Langendorf (November 21, 2007). "ERA asks for an early Christmas present the recording industry won't buy". Last100.com.
- Colin McKay (December 19, 2003). "Piped-In Christmas Music". Canuckflack. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011.
- "Carol Histories and Track List". pair.com. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "ASCAP Announces Top 25 Holiday Songs – "The Christmas Song (Chestnuts Roasting...)" Tops List". Ascap.com. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- As confirmed by e-mail response from Phil Crosland of ASCAP (212.621.6218, email@example.com)
- Fonseca, Corinna Da (November 28, 2011). "Dreaming of a Jewish Christmas". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "Jews among musicians with Christmas spirit". The San Francisco Chronicle. December 26, 2009. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "Bob Dylan joins long list of Jewish musicians performing Christmas music". Los Angeles Times. December 23, 1999. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- Bloom, Nate. "The Jews Who Wrote Christmas Songs". InterfaithFamily.com. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "UK's most popular Christmas song revealed". Nme.Com. December 6, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "Survey Reveals White Christmas As Most Memorable Christmas Song: But Mariah Carey’s Hit Most Played" December 14, 2010 press release.
- "PRS for Music". PRS for Music. December 5, 2009. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- Shipman, Tim; Paul Connolly and Paul Harris (December 21, 2011). Military Wives rejoice: Choir beats VAT threat as single heads for Christmas No1 with 300,000 sales. The Daily Mail. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
- Liam Allen (December 24, 2009). "The stories of the Christmas hits". BBC News.
- "" by Liam Allen, BBC News, December 22, 2008.
- "The stories of the Christmas hits" by Liam Allen, BBC News, December 25, 2010.
- MusicRadar Team (2 December 2013). "The 25 best Christmas songs of all time A festive countdown of the greatest ever". musicradar. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- Christmas season celebrations in Australia Australian Government official website.
- Merry Christmas From Australia website by 'Silver'.
- "1909, English, Printed music edition: My little Christmas belle / lyrics by Ward McAlister ; composed by Joe Slater. [music] / Slater, Joe, 1872-1926.". Trove. National Library of Australia. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- National Library of Australia vn2226949
- "'Grandma' got run over by the ratings, dear: Radio stations translate our love-hate relationship with holiday tunes into seasonal playlists" Chicago Tribune; December 18, 2007.
- "All I Want for Christmas Is Not To Hear That Song" by Paul Farhi, Washington Post; December 14, 2007.
- Bing and Bowie: An Odd Story of Holiday Harmony by Paul Farhi, Washington Post; December 20, 2006.
- Greene, Andy. "The Greatest Rock and Roll Christmas Songs". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
- Jingle Bells: History of Christmas Carols by Espie Estrella.
- "Handel’s Messiah: An Unexpected Easter Masterpiece" by Dr. Mark D. Roberts at Patheos.com; 2011.
- "How 'Jingle Bells' by the Singing Dogs Changed Music Forever" by William Weir, The Atlantic, DEC 20, 2010.
- "Tribute Songs" at The Millennium Effect.
- "Radio Christmas returns to Amersham" Amersham and Little Chalfont: Your Community, by Lawrence Poole; Dec 15, 2011.
- Tucker, Ken (May 13, 2005). "The Christmas Format: Santa Claus Is Coming To Town". Radio Monitor. AllBusiness.
- "Ka-Chung! How All Christmas Music Doubles Radio's Ratings" by Paul Bond, 12/5/2011, The Hollywood Reporter.
- Insight: the All-Christmas music format phenomenon. RadioInfo.com. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
- Hinckley, David (October 18, 2011). "WEZW 93.1 FM becomes first radio station in country to broadcast Christmas music all the time". New York Daily News.
- "100000watts.com". 100000watts.com. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "Too Early? One Radio Station is Playing Christmas Music Now".
- "Seasonal Songs With Twang, Funk and Harmony", New York Times, November 26, 2010.
- Stories Behind The Best-Loved Songs Of Christmas by Ace Collins, 160 pages, ISBN 0-7624-2112-6, 2004.
- The International Book of Christmas Carols by W. Ehret and G. K. Evans, Stephen Greene Press, Vermont, ISBN 0-8289-0378-6, 1980.
- Victorian Songs and Music by Olivia Bailey, Caxton Publishing, ISBN 1-84067-468-7, 2002.
- Spirit of Christmas: A History of Our Best-Loved Carols by Virginia Reynolds and Lesley Ehlers, ISBN 0-88088-414-2, 2000.
- Christmas Music Companion Fact Book by Dale V. Nobbman, ISBN 1-57424-067-6, 2000.
- Joel Whitburn presents Christmas in the charts, 1920–2004 by Joel Whitburn, ISBN 0-89820-161-6, 2004.
|Find more about Christmas at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Christmas carols.|
- Christmas music at the Open Directory Project
- Christmas Music Playlist
- AOL Christmas Music Radio
- ASCAP top 25 holiday songs for 2006
- Merry Christmas Radio
- Discover Christmas Music
- Wook Kim (Dec. 17, 2012). "Yule Laugh, Yule Cry: 10 Things You Didn’t Know About Beloved Holiday Songs (With holiday cheer in the air, TIME takes a closer look at some of the weird stories behind our favorite seasonal tunes)". TIME.