Kadapa district

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YSR kadapa district
CountryIndia
StateAndhra Pradesh
Administrative divisionYSR district
HeadquartersKadapa
Tehsils50[1]
Government
 • District collectorCh.Harikiran IAS
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesKadapa, Rajampet
 • Assembly seats10
Area
 • Total15,379 km2 (5,938 sq mi)
Population
(2011)
 • Total28,84,524[2]
 • Urban
34.1%
Demographics
 • Literacy67.88%
 • Sex ratio984
Vehicle registrationAP-04
Major highwaysNational Highway 40 (India)
Coordinates14°28′N 78°49′E / 14.467°N 78.817°E / 14.467; 78.817Coordinates: 14°28′N 78°49′E / 14.467°N 78.817°E / 14.467; 78.817
WebsiteOfficial website
Kadapa district is a part of Rayalaseema region (highlighted in blue) in Andhra Pradesh
Pylon commemorative of 200 years, kadapa

YSR Kadapa district (Officially: YSR district) is said to be the heart of the Rayalaseema as it is centrally located and well connected with the 4 districts of Rayalaseema. The District has a glorious history and a rich cultural heritage. Kadapa district is one of the 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is also one of the four districts in the Rayalaseema region of the state. The city of Kadapa is the seat of administration for the district.[3]

History[edit]

Rock paintings[edit]

Paleolithic rock paintings found at Chintakunta caves[4] near Muddanuru in Kadapa district are said to be the second largest group of paintings in India after Bhimbetika rock art paintings. The rock paintings with mystic figures are also found at Dappalle village[5] near Mylavaram Dam in Jammalamadugu Taluk of the district.

Prehistoric Culture[edit]

Many Paleolithic sites were found in Kadapa district, as the surroundings of Jammalamadugu, Mailavaram Dam[5] and Gandikota.

Some megalithic burial sites were explored near Porumamilla, Sankhavaram and at Yellatur[6] village near Kadapa. The surroundings of Vontimitta are also noted as Megalithic cultural sites.

The section of Rayachoti consists of many documented and undocumented Megalithic sites and stone circles. A noted megalithic site is at Devandlapalli[7] in Tsundupalle taluk of the district.

Buddhism & Jainism[edit]

Kadapa has historical importance since BC era. It was connected with Mouryans in BC era and Sathavahanas. Buddhism must have flourished here for many years along the banks of rivers Cheyyeru and Penna. Nandalur[8] is an important Buddhist site in the district along with Tallapaka, Rajampeta, Konduru, Khazipeta in the district.
Jainism also had a place in Kadapa district history; the remnants of a buried Jain temple were found at Danavulapadu[9] village on the banks of river Penna.

Medieval history[edit]

Gandikota fort view

It was part of the area ceded to the British by Nizam. The District was formed by splitting the Ceded Districts into two in 1808 during the British rule, the other district being Bellary.[10] The British spelt the district as Cuddapah.

The district is part of Rayalaseema, commemorating the name of Rayulu (Kings) of the Vijayanagar Empire, who ruled the area in the 16th century. Gandikota fort located on the bank of the Penna River was the citadel of Pemmasani Nayaks, commanders of Vijayanagar army and who won the battles of Raichur and Gulbarga for the Vijayanagar kings.

The old records of the district reveal that Kadapa previously called Gadapa which means in Telugu language threshold. The ancient village of Kadapa with its large tank and temple of Lord Venkateswara at Devuni Kadapa was convenient camping place for the myriads of pilgrims travelling to the holy shrine of Tirupathi. There was a belief that the pilgrims have to first visit Devuni Kadapa, before going to Tirupathi to pray to Saint Annamacharya and Saint Potuluri Veera Brahmam who foretold the future and advocated a classless society. The ancient temple at Vontimitta which inspired Pothana to compose Andhra Maha Bhagavatham is also in the district. In the olden days Kadapa was also called "Hiranyanagaram".

Recent historical records reveal that in Jyothi village located in Siddavatam mandal has 108 Shiva lingas on the bank of Penna river.

Modern history[edit]

After the Treaty of Seringapatam, the nizam acquired the district. He ceded it to the British in 1800 and eight years later they created the present-day administrative entity. The district headquarters were situated in Siddavatam but moved to Kadapa in 1812.[11]

Geography[edit]

Districts of Andhra Pradesh

Kadapa District occupies an area of 15,938 square kilometres (6,154 sq mi),[12] comparatively equivalent to Canada's Prince Patrick Island.[13]

The main rivers in this district are Penna, Chitravathi, Kunderu, Papagni, Sagileru, Bahuda and Cheyyeru.

Reservoirs

Brahmam Sagar reservoir

Kadapa Dist has several reservoirs within the District. Some of them are Brahmamsagar Reservoir, Mylavaram Dam Reservoir, Gandikota Reservoir.[14]

Demographics[edit]

Population Growth of Kadapa district 
CensusPop.
18711,351,194
18811,121,038-17.0%
18911,272,07213.5%
19011,291,2671.5%
20012,601,797
20112,884,52410.9%
source:1871-1901[15]


According to the 2011 census Kadapa District has a population of 2,884,524, Hindus are 83.7%, Muslims are 14% & Christians are 2.3%[16] roughly equal to the nation of Jamaica[17] or the US state of Arkansas.[18] This gives it a ranking of 132nd in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 188 inhabitants per square kilometre (490/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 10.87%. Kadapa district has a sex ratio of 984 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 67.88%.[16]

Economy[edit]

Besides its historical importance, the district has occupied an important place in the industrial map of Andhra Pradesh with its valuable mineral resources.

The Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP) of the district is 26,342 crore (US$3.7 billion) and it contributes 5.0% to the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). For the FY 2013-14, the per capita income at current prices was 70,821 (US$990). The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the district contribute 6,204 crore (US$860 million), 6,935 crore (US$960 million) and 13,203 crore (US$1.8 billion) respectively.[19]

Black corson soil lands are 24%, black soil 19%, sandy soil lands 4%, red soil lands 25%. The first variety lands are very fertile, sand soil lands less so. 'Korra', orange, lime and betel leaf are the special crops. They are cultivated near river beds. Starting at Sunkesula Dam on Tungabadra river K. C. Canal flows through Kadapa and Kurnool districts providing water to 40 km² of cultivable land. The main source of drinking water to this district is Galeru Nagari Sujala Sravanthi Project Canal.

This district is the repository of mineral wealth. As per the 1983 survey of geological survey of India 3 million tons of lead, 74,000,000 tons of barytes, and 27000 tons of asbestos deposits are there. It is estimated that 70 million tons of barytes deposits might be in Mangampet. There are clay deposits in Rajampet. This is used to make stone implements. Limestone is available in Yerraguntla. National Mineral Development Corporation is extracting asbestos in Brahman palli and barytes in Mangampet. Kadapa is also famous for its stone called "kadapa stone" used in building construction and for slabs especially in south India. In Tummalapalle, there are 49,000 tonnes of confirmed uranium deposits which are mined and processed locally.[20][21] Apart from these minerals and industries Agriculture also forms a part district economy.

Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station

Industries[edit]

In 2006 the Indian government named Kadapa district as one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[22] It is one of the thirteen districts in Andhra Pradesh currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[22]

Divisions[edit]

Kadapa district Collectorate Complex

Kadapa District has three Revenue Divisions viz., Kadapa, Rajampeta and Jammalamadugu divisions.[23] The district has 50 mandals under these revenue divisions. It also has a Municipal Corporation of Kadapa and six municipalities namely, Badvel, Mydukur, Proddatur, Pulivendula, Rayachoti, Jammalamadugu and a Nagar panchayat of Rajampet.[24][25]

There are a total of 51 mandals in Kadapa District.[26]

Mandals

The mandals are listed with respect to their revenue divisions in the following table:[23][27]

# Kadapa Division Rajampeta Division Jammalamadugu Division
1 Chakrayapet Atlur Chapadu
2 Chennur B Matham Duvvur
3 Chinnamandem B.Kodur Jammalamadugu
4 Chinthakommadinne Badvel Kondapuram
5 Kadapa Chitvel Lingala
6 Galiveedu Gopavaram Muddanur
7 Kamalapuram Kalasapadu Mydukur
8 Khajipet Kodur Mylavaram
9 Lakkireddipalle Nandalur Peddamudium
10 Pendlimarri Obulavaripalle Proddatur
11 Ramapuram Penagalur Pulivendula
12 Rayachoti Porumamilla Rajupalem
13 Sambepalle Pullampeta Simhadripuram
14 T Sundupalle Rajampet Thondur
15 Vallur Siddavatam Vempalle
16 Veeraballi Sri Avadhuth Kasinayana Vemula
17 Veerapunayunipalle Vontimitta
18 Yerraguntla

Assembly constituenties

Education[edit]

JNTUACEP Entrance, Pulivendula
RIMS Medical College Block, Kadapa

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[28][29] As per the school information report for the academic year 2015–16, there are a total of 4,488 schools. They include, 22 government, 3,094 mandal and zilla parishads, 1 residential, 1,181 private, 10 model, 29 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV), 88 municipal and 63 other types of schools.[30] The total number of students enrolled in primary, upper primary and high schools of the district are 416,782.[31]

There are junior colleges for (10+2) education, among which 25 are under government, 13 are social welfare, 26 private aided, 83 are private unaided and also there are a few incentive, co-operative, government model colleges. for the purpose of imparting and the students sit for the certificate of Board of Intermediate Education.[32] Government colleges of Kadapa, Proddatur,Pulivendula, Rayachoti, Jammalamadugu, Rajampet are the oldest government colleges of the district, established in 1969.[32]

The higher education colleges have various fields of study like medical, nursing, degree, post graduate, polytechnic, law, teaching, pharmacy, engineering, veterinary etc. The Yogi Vemana University is a state university which has one autonomous college as per Universities Grant Commission.[33] Sri Venkateswara College of Veternary Sciences. .Engineering college of the district are, KSRM College of Engineering, Annamacharya Institute of Technology and Sciences etc.[34]

Notable personalities[edit]

Transport[edit]

Pulivendula-Kadapa 4 lane road near pulivendula
Kadapa Airport Terminal

Kadapa district is well connected by Road, Rail and Airways with neighbouring districts of Andhra Pradesh.

Roadways[edit]

The total of core road network of the district is 1,130.906 km (702.712 mi). It includes, 714.317 km (443.856 mi) of existing and a proposed length of 416.589 km (258.856 mi).[35]National Highway 40 (India) and National Highway 67 (India) are the national highways passing through the district.

Railways[edit]

Kadapa district has Railway network administration under Guntakal railway division. cuddapah, Yerraguntla Junction, Proddatur, Jammalamadugu are the major railway stations.

Airways[edit]

kadapa Airport is located in kadapa city.

Temples[edit]

There are forty-two temples under the management of Endowments Department[36].

Trust controlled Temples
S.no Temple Mandal Village
1 Sri. Veerabhadra Swamy Temple CHAPAD ALLADUPALLE
2 Sri.Ramalayam KHAJIPET BHUMAYAPALLE
3 Sri.Prasanna Venkateswara Swamy Temple PRODDUTUR BOLLAVARAM (R)
4 Sri.Chennakesava & Someswara & Veerabhadra Swamy Temple DUVVUR CHINTAKUNTA
5 Sri.Bheemeswara & Anjaneya swamy temples PRODDUTUR CHOWDUR
6 Sri. Palakondaraya Swamy Temple CUDDAPAH Palakonda
7 Sri.Mruthunjayeswara Swamy Temple CUDDAPAH CUDDAPAH (U)
8 Sri.Rama Swamy Temple CUDDAPAH CUDDAPAH (U)
9 Sri.Somasundareswara Swamy Temple CUDDAPAH CUDDAPAH (U)
10 Sri.Chennakesava Swamy Temple MYLAVARAM DOMMARA NANDYALA [U]
11 Sri.Kodandarama Swamy Temple DUVVUR DUVVUR
12 Sri.Chennakesava Swamy Temple DUVVUR IDAMADAKA
13 Sri.Siddeswara Swamy Temple YERRAGUNTLA KALAMALLA
14 Sri. Rama and Gangamma Devata temple KHAJIPET KHAJIPET SUNKESULA
15 Sri.Veerabhadra Swamy Temple CHAPAD MADUR
16 Sri. Malluramma Devata Temple CHINNAMANDEM MALLUR
17 Sri.Vasakota yellamma&Gangamma Devata temple PRODDUTUR MODAMEEDIPALLE (R)
18 Sri.Mopuri Bairaveswara Swamy Temple VEMULA NALLACHERUVUPALLE
19 Sri.Sowmyanadha Swamy Temple NANDALUR NANDALUR
20 Sri.Mallamkondeswara Swamy Temple GOPAVARAM OBULAM
21 Sri. Chennakesava Swamy Temple RAJU PALEM PAIDALA
22 Sri.Kona Malleswara & Anjaneya swamy temples LINGALA PARNAPALLE
23 Sri.Someswara swamy temple CUDDAPAH PATHACUDDAPAH
24 Sri. Eswara and Veerabhadra Swamy Temple PEDDAMUDIUM PEDDA PASUPALLE
25 Sri.Madhava & Anjaneya Swamy Temple PEDDAMUDIUM PEDDA PASUPALLE
26 Sri. Kodandarama and Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple PEDDAMUDIUM PEDDAMUDIUM
27 Sri.Maddimanu Gurrappa Swamy Temple PORUMAMILLA Gurrappagaripalli
28 Sri. Agasteswara Swamy Temple PRODDUTUR PRODDATUR (R)
29 Sri.Anjaneya Swamy Temple PRODDUTUR PRODDATUR (R)
30 Sri. Ranganadha & Mitta Malleswara Swamy Temple PULIVENDLA PULIVENDLA (P) (URBAN)
31 Sri.Ankalamma Devatha Temple PULIVENDLA PULIVENDLA (P) (URBAN)
32 Sri. Kamakshi Thretheswara Swamy Temple,Hatyaralla, RAJAMPET RAJAMPET
33 Sri.Anjaneya Swamy Temple RAJAMPET RAJAMPET
34 Sri.Madhava & Anjaneya Swamy Temple S MYDUKUR S.MYDUKUR
35 Sri.Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple PENDLIMARRI SANGATIPALLE
36 Sri.Someswara Swamy Temple RAJU PALEM TANGATUR
37 Sri.Madana Gopala Swamy Temple RAJU PALEM TANGATUR
38 Sri.Prasanna venkateswara &Ramalingeswara swamy temple PRODDUTUR THALLAMAPURAM
39 Sri.Bhavani Sankara & Anjaneya Swamy Temple RAJU PALEM THONDALADINNE
40 Sri.Chennakesava & Anjaneya Swamy Temple RAJU PALEM VELLALA
41 Sri.Vrushabachaleswara Swamy Temple VEMPALLE VEMPALLE
42 Sri.Nithya Pooja Swamy Temple SIDHOUT VONTITHATIPALLE

References[edit]

  1. ^ "District – Guntur". Andhra Pradesh Online Portal. Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  2. ^ "District profile". AP State Portal. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  3. ^ "Districts". Government of AP. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  4. ^ Subramanyam, M.V. (25 July 2012). "Second largest rock art painting site explored". The Hindu. Chennai, India.
  5. ^ a b http://asi.nic.in/nmma_reviews/Indian%20Archaeology%201976-77%20A%20Review.pdf
  6. ^ "Comprehensive History and Culture of Andhra Pradesh: Pre- and protohistoric ..." google.co.in.
  7. ^ "Megalithic burial site found in Kadapa". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 24 June 2012.
  8. ^ http://asi.nic.in/nmma_reviews/Indian%20Archaeology%201979-80%20A%20Review.pdf
  9. ^ "Archaeological Survey of India". ap.nic.in.
  10. ^ The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 7. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1908. pp. 158–176.
  11. ^ "district news".
  12. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Andhra Pradesh: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1111–1112. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.
  13. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 18 February 1998. Retrieved 11 October 2011. Prince Patrick Island 15,848
  14. ^ Correspondent, Special. "Krishna water released into Gandikota reservoir". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  15. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 11, page 62 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library".
  16. ^ a b "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  17. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. Jamaica 2,868,380 July 2011 est
  18. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Arkansas 2,915,918
  19. ^ "Economy of Kadapa District". Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  20. ^ "Tummalapalle uranium mill to start operation by March 2011". Article from the Times of India. WISE Uranium Project. 24 October 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
  21. ^ "India: 'Massive' uranium find in Andhra Pradesh". BBC News – South Asia. BBC. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
  22. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  23. ^ a b "Revenue Divisions". National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  24. ^ "Andhra Pradesh Municipalities Reservation of Chairperson in Municipal Councils and Nagar Panchayats". Tgnns.com. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  25. ^ "Municipal Websites". Commissioner and Director of Municipal Administration. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  26. ^ "Mandals in Kadapa district" (PDF). AP State Portal. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  27. ^ "District Revenue Divisions and Mandals". Y.S.R.-District Panchayat. National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  28. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  29. ^ "The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  30. ^ "School Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  31. ^ "Student Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Child info 2015-16, District School Education - Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  32. ^ a b "List of colleges in Guntur district" (PDF). Board of Intermediate Education. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  33. ^ "Autonomous colleges" (PDF). University Grants Commission. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
  34. ^ Cite error: The named reference autonomous was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  35. ^ ":: APRDC ::". Andhra Pradesh Road Development Corporation. Roads and Buildings Department. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  36. ^ "Trust Boards Abstract". AP Temples Portal, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 24 July 2018.

External links[edit]