Eluru

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Eluru
Ellore, Ellora, Helapuri
City
Photos showing Police Quarters, Eluru Railway station arch, C.R. Reddy College, Brundhavan Gardens Park, Vengi Mandapam, Eluru New Bus station, EMC sign board, Sanivarapupeta galigopuram, Gautam Buddha Park
Photos showing Police Quarters, Eluru Railway station arch, C.R. Reddy College, Brundhavan Gardens Park, Vengi Mandapam, Eluru New Bus station, EMC sign board, Sanivarapupeta galigopuram, Gautam Buddha Park
Eluru is located in Andhra Pradesh
Eluru
Eluru
Coordinates: 16°42′N 81°06′E / 16.7°N 81.1°E / 16.7; 81.1Coordinates: 16°42′N 81°06′E / 16.7°N 81.1°E / 16.7; 81.1
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
District West Godavari
Founded 2nd century
Incorporated (town) 1866
Incorporated (city) 9 April 2005
Government
 • Type Mayor-council
 • Body Eluru Municipal Corporation
 • M.P Maganti Venkateswara Rao
 • M.L.A Badeti Kota Ramarao
Area[1]
 • City 11.52 km2 (4.45 sq mi)
Elevation 22 m (72 ft)
Population (2011)
 • City 217,876
 • Rank 12th (in state)
 • Density 19,000/km2 (49,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[2][3] 350,000(approx.)
Demonym(s) Elurian
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 534***
Telephone code +91–8812
Vehicle registration AP–37
Website eluru.cdma.ap.gov.in/en
Buddha Statue

Eluru is a city and the district headquarters of West Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.[4] It is one of the 14 municipal corporations in the state and the mandal headquarters of Eluru mandal in Eluru revenue division.[5][6] The city is on the Tammileru river and was the capital of the Northern Circars.[7] As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 217,876.[1] The city is well known for its wool-pile carpets and hand woven products.[8]

Etymology[edit]

During the Buddhist kingdom of Vengi, the city was known as 'Helapuri'.[9] It was also known by names such as 'Ellore' and 'Ellora'.[10]

History[edit]

There were 25 inscriptions of Vengi Chalukyas found on these pillars of Mandapam at Kotadibba, (Eluru Fort Land)

The history of Eluru dates back to the 2nd century and has great prominence in the history of Andhra. Vengi near Eluru was the capital of Andhra from the 2nd century to the 12th century, ruled by Salankayanas, Vishnukudinas, and Eastern Chalukyas. Vengi was the capital city of Andhradesa for more years than any other city in Andhra Pradesh. Eluru was part of the Buddhist kingdom of Vengi.

Salankayanas (3rd century AD to 5th century)[edit]

Salankayana ruled from the 3rd century AD to the 5th century AD.[11] They were known as Salankayana after the Gotra name. They were the feudatories of Ikshvakus. They ruled near the Vengi area, with Vengi (Eluru) as the capital. Salankayana is another of the Phantom kingdoms of Andhra for Indologists. Their date is fixed based on Samudra Gupta inscription mention of Hastivarman of Vengi.[12]

Vishnukundina (5th century to 7th century)[edit]

Eluru was a major city of the Vishnukundinas.[13] Vishnukundin reign might be fixed between the end of the Salankayana and the rise of the Eastern Chalukyan power in 624 AD.[14] In the late 5th century, the Salankayanas were conquered by Madhavarma II of the Vishnukundinas. During the reign of Madhava Varma the Great, they became independent and conquered coastal Andhra from the Salankayanas and might have shifted their capital to a place in coastal Andhra.[15]

Eastern Chalukyas period (7th century to 12th century)[edit]

Eastern Chalukyas, or Chalukyas of Vengi, were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was in the present day Andhra Pradesh. Their capital was Vengi near Eluru and their dynasty lasted for around 500 years from the 7th century until c. 1130 C.E. when the Vengi kingdom merged with the Chola empire.[16]

The Vengi kingdom continued to be ruled by Eastern Chalukyan kings under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C.E., when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. They had their capital originally at Vengi now (Pedavegi) near Eluru of the West Godavari district end later changed to Rajamahendravaram (Rajamundry).

Kakathiya, Kalinga, Vijayanagara, and Golkonda period (13th century to 16th century)[edit]

Eluru was captured by Kakatiyas and then became a part of the Kalinga Empire until 1471. Later it fell into the hands of the Gajapatis. In 1515 Srikrishnadevaraya captured it. After the fall of the Vijayanagara Kingdom, it was taken by the Sultan of Golkonda, Kutub Shah.

Mohammedans built the fort at Eluru from the ruins of Vengi.[17]

Modern history[edit]

Eluru was formerly a military station, and the capital of the Northern Circars, a former division of British India's Madras Presidency.[18] Salabat Jang, the son of the Nizam al Mulk, granted Northern Circurs to French East India Company and was necessarily transferred from the French to the British. After the British established control over South India, Eluru and surrounding areas were merged into the Madras Presidency.

Eluru was a part of Machilipatnam district after the division of Northern Circars. In 1859, it was included in the Godavari district; later it was made a part of the Krishna district. In 1925, it became the headquarters of the newly formed West Godavari district.[19]

Geography[edit]

Western Tammileru near Bus Station

Eluru is at 16°42′N 81°06′E / 16.7°N 81.1°E / 16.7; 81.1 and has an average elevation of 22 m (72 ft). It lies on the Eastern coastal plains.[20] The Tammileru river and the Krishna and Godavari canals pass through the city, before the river. The Eluru canal from Krishna empties into Kolleru Lake near the city.[19]

Climate[edit]

Eluru experiences hot and humid climate due to its proximity to the shore of Bay of Bengal. It has an average annual temperature of 28.2 °C (82.8 °F). May is the hottest and December is the coolest month of the year. Temperature crosses 40 °C (104 °F) in summer.[4] July receives most precipitation and annually the city receives an average rainfall of 992 mm (39.1 in).[21]

Climate data for Eluru, Andhra Pradesh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.1
(84.4)
31.7
(89.1)
34.5
(94.1)
36.7
(98.1)
38.6
(101.5)
36.9
(98.4)
32.4
(90.3)
32.0
(89.6)
32.2
(90)
31.4
(88.5)
29.8
(85.6)
28.8
(83.8)
32.84
(91.12)
Average low °C (°F) 18.9
(66)
20.3
(68.5)
22.6
(72.7)
25.8
(78.4)
27.9
(82.2)
27.2
(81)
25.4
(77.7)
25.3
(77.5)
25.3
(77.5)
24.3
(75.7)
21.3
(70.3)
18.8
(65.8)
23.59
(74.44)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 3
(0.12)
6
(0.24)
6
(0.24)
14
(0.55)
40
(1.57)
123
(4.84)
229
(9.02)
186
(7.32)
170
(6.69)
166
(6.54)
40
(1.57)
9
(0.35)
992
(39.05)
Source: en.climate-data.org

Demographics[edit]

Aerial view of R.R.Pet from Powerpet
Religions in Eluru[22]
Religion Percent
Hindu
89.51%
Muslim
7.02%
Christians
2.74%
Others†
0.72%
Includes Sikhs, Jains

As of 2011 census of India, Eluru had a population of 283,648 of which 140,059 were male and 143,589 female.[23] The Eluru urban agglomeration had a population of 350,000.[2][3]

Governance[edit]

Civic administration[edit]

Eluru District Collector office

Eluru Municipal Corporation is the civic body of Eluru. It was first constituted as a municipality in 1866.[24] It was upgraded to municipal corporation on 9 April 2005 from selection grade municipality.[9] It is spread over an area of 14.50 km2 (5.60 sq mi) with 50 wards.[1]

The present municipal commissioner of the city is Y.Sai Sreekanth and the mayor is Shaik Noorjahan.[25] In 2015, as per the 'Swachh Bharat Abhiyan' of the Ministry of Urban Development, Eluru Municipal Corporation was ranked 249th in the country.[26]

Eluru urban agglomeration is spread over an area of 23.85 km2 (9.21 sq mi) and its constituents include Eluru municipal corporation, census towns of Sanivarapupeta, Satrampadu, Gavaravaram, Tangellamudi, and partly out growths of Komadavole, Eluru (rural) villages.[6]:54

Law and order in Eluru is maintained with the help of eight police stations, which includes one woman and one traffic police station. These are under the jurisdiction of the 'Additional Judicial First Class Magistrate'.[27]

A view of Police Quarters from Hotel Grand Arya

Politics[edit]

Eluru (Assembly constituency) is one of the constituencies for Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Badeti Kota Ramarao is the present MLA of the constituency from Telugu Desam Party.[28] The constituency falls under Eluru (Lok Sabha constituency) which was won by Maganti Venkateswara Rao of Telugu Desam Party.[29][30] The city is going to be the head office for the Jana Sena Party.[31]

Economy[edit]

Central Plaza: A shopping mall in the city

Since the 17th century, Eluru was known for rug weaving, derived from weavers of Iranian descendants.[10] R.R.Pet, Powerpet, Eluru 1-Town area are the commercial centres.[32] Tangellamudi, Sanivarapupeta and Lakshavarapupeta areas of the city are known for the wool pile carpet industry. The eco-friendly carpets are exported to countries like US, Australia, Germany and the UK.[33][34]

Government allotted 1.416 km2 (0.547 sq mi) of land near Vatluru and Bhogapuram for a light combat aircraft manufacturing facility[35] which is estimated to cost about 2,135 billion (US$33 billion).[36]

Culture[edit]

R.R.Pet Main Road

The city residents are referred as Elurians.[37] The lifestyle of the city has a mixture of urban and rural with some cosmopolitan element. Eluru's residents wear both Indian style and Western style clothing. The common traditional clothing for women is a saree and dhoti for men.

A antique museum is being set up in the city, that will preserve prehistoric tools, idols, and elements found in the archaeological excavations near the city.[38]

Notable personalities[edit]

The personalities from Eluru include Kommareddi Suryanarayana, a Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha member in Indian Parliament and Indian freedom activist; Murali Mohan, a Member of Parliament and Telugu film actor, producer and business executive; Duvvuri Subbarao, an Economist and the 22nd governor of the Reserve Bank of India; Kurma Venkata Reddy Naidu, a lawyer, professor, Justice Party leader, Governor and Chief Minister of Madras Presidency; Chodagam Ammanna Raja, Indian freedom movement activist and Rajya Sabha member; Mothey Vedakumari, parliamentarian and singer; V. S. Ramadevi, the first woman to become Chief Election Commissioner of India; Pawan Kumar, former cricketer for Andhra and Hyderabad.

People from film industry are L. V. Prasad, film producer, actor, director, cinematographer and businessman; Pasupuleti Kannamba, actress, playback singer and film producer of Telugu cinema; Vijaya Bapineedu, magazine editor, film screenwriter and director; V. N. Aditya, film director and screenwriter; Sekhar Kammula, film director, screenwriter and producer; Silk Smitha, film actress; Naga Shourya, film actor; Shanmukha Srinivas, film actor and an accomplished Kuchipudi dancer.

Cityscape[edit]

View of Buddha Statue

'Buddha park' is in the city and is notable for its 74 ft (23 m) Buddha statue in the Abhaya posture, in the heart of Gaja Vallivari Cheruvu tank which was used as drinking water source for elephants in the Ancient Era.

Kolleru lake is a largest fresh water lake, about 15 km from the city. The lake is known for attracting migratory birds from Northern Europe and Northern Asia during the months of October–March.

The ‘Holy Land’ of Israel has been replicated on the premises of Fr. Silvio Pasquali Memorial Convent at Duggirala on the city outskirts.[39]

Neighbourhoods[edit]

The city has suburbs such as Ramachandrarao Pet (R.R Pet), Narasimharao Pet (N.R Pet),[40] Pathebada,[41] 1-Town, Powerpet etc.

Transport[edit]

Fire Station Centre
Departure Block of Eluru New Bus station

The city was once famed for its traffic problems with the railway gates at Vatluru, Venkatraopet, Powerpet, Old bus stand and Eastern Locks areas. When the National Highway passed through the city, the traffic hurried to pass over the railway gates in the city and outskirts, which makes traffic worse.[42]

To avoid the traffic congestion, the government of India constructed a mini bypass road connecting Eastern locks and Vatluru on both ends of the city. Even then, the traffic problem were not resolved. The main bypass road (which was constructed under Golden Quadrilateral programme which was completed in the late 1990s) had only 10,000 vehicles pass through the bypass road; now it has almost doubled.[2]

Traffic in the city of narrow lanes was growing by the day. Even though officials constructed an underbridge at Venkatraopet railway gate and a railway overbridge at old bus stand besides the foot bridge at Powerpet was replaced by another bridge, but the traffic has doubled, without giving any relief to citizens. There are 93 traffic centres identified in the city.[3]

Roadways[edit]

Eluru is well connected to the major destinations through national and state highways. National Highway 16, a part of Asian Highway 45 and Golden Quadrilateral highway network, bypasses the city and connects Kolkata with Chennai.[43][44] GNT Road, Mini-Bypass Road, Canal Road and Sanivarapupeta Road are the major internal arterial roads.

The city has a total road length of 227.09 km (141.11 mi).[45]

Mini-Bypass road in Eluru

Eluru is well connected to most of the cities and towns in Andhra Pradesh by road, rail and waterways. The bus, auto and railway are the main modes of transport services.

APSRTC operates its bus services from Eluru Old and Eluru New bus stations[46][47] to parts of the State and to other states.[48] State Highway 43 and State Highway 44 connect Eluru with Sathupalli and Jangareddygudem respectively.[49] Private bus operators also provide transport services. Motor-driven auto-rickshaws and manual-driven cycle-rickshaws are the other alternative means of transportin Eluru. Private lorries, cars and two-wheelers[42] are common.

Rail[edit]

Eluru railway station

Eluru is classified as an 'A–category station' in the Vijayawada railway division of South Central Railway zone.[50][51] Apart from the main station, other stations that serve the city include Powerpet and Vatluru. All these stations are on the Howrah-Chennai main line.

Waterways[edit]

Indian National Waterway 4 (NW-4) is under development. The (NW-4) (NW-4) runs along the Coromandal Coast through Kakinada, Eluru, Commanur, Buckingham Canal, and part of the Krishna and Godavari rivers in South India.[52]

Sports[edit]

Cricket and soccer are the most popular sports in the city. Presently, the city has four stadium out of which Indoor Stadium and ASR Stadium hosted for Ranji Trophy in 1977. Other popular stadiums are Helapuri grounds, C.R. Reddy Cricket Stadium.

Alluri Sitarama Raju Cricket Stadium[edit]

ASR Stadium

ASR Stadium was named after Alluri Sitarama Raju.[53][54] It is located at 16°43′8″N 81°6′58″E / 16.71889°N 81.11611°E / 16.71889; 81.11611.

It had earlier hosted a Ranji Trophy match, handball, football and hockey tournaments.[54] The ground first held a single first-class match in 1976 when Andhra Pradesh played Hyderabad in the 1976/77 Ranji Trophy,[55] which ended in a draw.[56] It held Finals of Foodball League of West Godavari Matches in 2016. Current DSDO is Syed Azeez.[57]

Education[edit]

Eluru plays a major role in education for urban and rural students from nearby villages.[58] It has an average literacy rate of 83.90% with a total number of 155,894 literates. It includes, 80,434 male (88.13%) and 75,460 female (79.82%) literates.[59]

Primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided, and private schools, under the School Education Department of Andhra Pradesh.[60] As per the school information report for the academic year 2016–17, the urban area has around 160 schools. These include government, residential, private, municipal, and other types of schools. There are more than 100 private schools and with a half number of municipal schools, accounting to 49.[61] The number of students in all these schools is more than 30,000.[62]

The mediums of instruction are English, Urdu, and Telugu.

Sri Chintalapati Varaprasada Murthy Raju was the founder of three high schools in the name of Indian freedom fighters: Kasturiba Girls High School, Balagangadhar Tilak Oriental for Sanskrit, Duggirala Gopal Krishnayya. Moulana Abdul Kalam Azad High School is the only school with Urdu as medium of instruction in the district.[58] The Central Board of Secondary Education, Secondary School Certificate, or the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education are the types of syllabus followed by schools.

The government is planning to set up Municipal Corporation Junior College in the city.[63]

Research[edit]

The city is home for Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research.[64]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Municipality Profile | Eluru Municipal Corporation". eluru.cdma.ap.gov.in. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c "Traffic woes grip Eluru". 
  3. ^ a b c "Traffic gridlock hits Eluru hard". 
  4. ^ a b "Severe heat continues to sizzle West Godavari". The Hans India. Retrieved 8 May 2017. 
  5. ^ "West Godavari District Mandals" (PDF). Census of India. p. 439. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  6. ^ a b "District Census Handbook – West Godavari" (PDF). Census of India. pp. 22–23, 54. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  7. ^ Hunter, Sir William Wilson. The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Trübner & Company. pp. 351–352. 
  8. ^ Babu, A. Satish (2008). Tourism development in India : a case study. New Delhi: A.P.H.Pub.Corp. p. 87. ISBN 978-81-313-0346-7. Retrieved 2 December 2015. 
  9. ^ a b Unnisa, edited by Syeda Azeem; Rav, S. Bhupatthi (2013). Sustainable solid waste management (Online-Ausg. ed.). Toronto: Apple Academic Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-926895-24-6. Retrieved 18 September 2015. 
  10. ^ a b Stone, Peter F. Oriental Rugs: An Illustrated Lexicon of Motifs, Materials, and Origins. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4629-1184-4. Retrieved 7 May 2017. 
  11. ^ "Vijayawada set to regain pre-eminence as Andhra Pradesh's capital". Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  12. ^ "Controversies in History: Vengi". 
  13. ^ http://www.harekrsna.com/sun/features/05-15/features3456.htm
  14. ^ "EASTERN CHALUKYAS". 
  15. ^ "Archeological Survey of India". 
  16. ^ "West Godavari district, irrigated by two mighty rivers, is on the road to agricultural prosperity thanks to various schemes". Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  17. ^ Francis, W. (1 January 2002). "Gazetteer of South India". Mittal Publications – via Google Books. 
  18. ^ "Ellore – Encyclopedia". theodora.com. 
  19. ^ a b ":: Eluru Municipal Corporation ::". 
  20. ^ Sr.Bimcy; Sr.Sisily; Charlotte. Bibliographic information. Scholar Publishing House. pp. 20–21. ISBN 8171725163. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  21. ^ "Climate: Eluru – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table – Climate-Data.org". en.climate-data.org. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 
  22. ^ "Eluru City Population Census 2011 – Andhra Pradesh". 
  23. ^ "Eluru Population". 
  24. ^ "Municipalities, Municipal Corporations & UDAs" (PDF). Directorate of Town and Country Planning. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016. 
  25. ^ "Contact Details of Commissioners and Mayors of Amrut Cities" (PDF). Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation. Government of India. Retrieved 28 March 2016. 
  26. ^ Sandeep Kumar, S (10 August 2015). "Small towns fare better in Swachh Bharat rankings". The Hindu. Vijayawada. Retrieved 30 March 2016. 
  27. ^ "Territorial Jurisdiction of Criminal Courts". Official Website of District Court of India. Retrieved 12 January 2016. 
  28. ^ "MLA". AP State Portal. Retrieved 18 September 2015. 
  29. ^ "MP (Lok Sabha)". Government of AP. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  30. ^ "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 20,30. Retrieved 11 October 2014. 
  31. ^ "Pawan Kalyan to open office in Eluru soon". 
  32. ^ "Lack of parking lots causes severe traffic snarls". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 13 May 2017. 
  33. ^ Nagaraja, G (20 March 2014). "Handmade carpet industry in doldrums". The Hindu. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  34. ^ Sajnani, Manohar (2001). Encyclopaedia of tourism resources in India. New Delhi: Kalpaz Pub. p. 66. ISBN 978-81-7835-018-9. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  35. ^ "Light Combat Aircraft manufacturing facility to come up in Andhra Pradesh". Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  36. ^ "Andhra Pradesh to have first private sector Light Combat Aircraft manufacturing unit". Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  37. ^ Eluru people as Elurians. 
  38. ^ Nagaraja, G (16 April 2014). "Antique museum at Eluru soon". The Hindu. Eluru. Retrieved 2 March 2016. 
  39. ^ "'Holy Land' thrown open to public". 29 January 2014 – via The Hindu. 
  40. ^ "Heavy rain lashes Eluru". 
  41. ^ Special Correspondent. "ACB slueths seize rs.6 crore worth assets from WG dpo's houses". The New Indian Express. 
  42. ^ a b Reporter, Staff. "Old overbridge bearing brunt of growing traffic". The Hindu. Retrieved 13 May 2017. 
  43. ^ "Axe may fall on firm for delay in national highway expansion – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 May 2017. 
  44. ^ "National Highways in A.P". AP Online Portal. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  45. ^ "Details of Roads in each ULB of Andhra Pradesh". Municipal Administration and Urban Development Department. Archived from the original on 1 August 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2016. 
  46. ^ "Bus Stations in Districts". Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016. 
  47. ^ "Eluru old bus stand in bad shape". Eluru. 26 May 2006. Retrieved 15 March 2016. 
  48. ^ "RTC buses go off the road". 
  49. ^ "Brief of Roads". Roads and Buildings Department. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 22 February 2016. 
  50. ^ "Divisional info" (PDF). Indian Railways. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016. 
  51. ^ "Eluru railway station info". India Rail Info. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  52. ^ "Speed up Aquisation for Inland waterways". 
  53. ^ [1]
  54. ^ a b Nagaraja, G (23 May 2014). "ASR Stadium to get facelift". The Hindu. Eluru. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  55. ^ "First-class Matches played on Exhibition Ground, Eluru". CricketArchive. Retrieved 10 November 2011. (Subscription required (help)). 
  56. ^ "Andhra v Hyderabad, 1976/77 Ranji Trophy". CricketArchive. Retrieved 10 November 2011. (Subscription required (help)). 
  57. ^ http://www.flow.football/flow.aspx
  58. ^ a b "Eluru Municipal Corporation Schools". eluru.cdma.ap.gov.in. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  59. ^ "Eluru City Population Census 2011 | Andhra Pradesh". www.census2011.co.in. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  60. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  61. ^ "R1.1 SCHOOL INFORMATION". 
  62. ^ "R3.1 STUDENT INFORMATION". 
  63. ^ "AP Govt to raise the bar for municipal schools". The Hans India. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  64. ^ "Location map" (PDF). 

External links[edit]