Palakollu

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Palakollu
CompleteTempleComplex.jpg
Palakollu bus station phase 1 platforms.jpg
AP Highway 42 in Palakollu City.jpg
Palakollu railway.jpg
View From Inside Train Near Palakollu.png
Clockwise from top: Ksheerarama, Gandhi Bommala Center, Palakollu Railway, Near Palakollu Paddy, Palakollu Bus Station Phase 1
Palakollu is located in Andhra Pradesh
Palakollu
Palakollu
Palakollu is located in India
Palakollu
Palakollu
Coordinates: 16°32′00″N 81°44′00″E / 16.5333°N 81.7333°E / 16.5333; 81.7333Coordinates: 16°32′00″N 81°44′00″E / 16.5333°N 81.7333°E / 16.5333; 81.7333
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
RegionCoastal Andhra
DistrictWest Godavari
Government
 • TypeNagar Palika
 • BodyPMC, EUDA
 • MLA (Palakollu Assembly)Nimmala Rama Naidu (2014 - present)
 • MP (Narasapur Lok Sabha)Kanumuru Raghu Rama Krishna Raju (2019 - present)
Area
 • City24.68 km2 (9.53 sq mi)
Elevation
1.5 m (4.9 ft)
Population
 (2011)[2][3]
 • City104,216
 • Rank4th (In District)
 • Density4,200/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
 • Metro110,075
Languages
 • OfficialTelugu
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
53426×
Telephone code08814
Vehicle registrationAP37
International AirportVijayawada Airport
PoliceAndhra Pradesh Police
Railway stationPalakollu railway station
SeaportKakinada Port
Sex ratio1031/1000 /
HDI (2019)Increase 0.647[5]
HDI Categorymedium[6]
Literacy83.41%
Websitepalakol.cdma.ap.gov.in

Palakollu is a City and the administrative headquarters of Palakollu Mandal in Narasapuram revenue division in West Godavari district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Palakollu is situated in Coastal Andhra region of the state.[7] It occupies 4.685 square kilometres (1.809 sq mi).[8] As of 2011 census, it has a population of about 61,284 and a Metro population of about 81,199, Palakollu Municipality merged five Grama panchayats of Seven village's (Kontheru, Adavipalem, Palakollu Rural, Bhaggeswaram, Poolapalli, Varidhanam And Ullamparru) on dated 07 January 2020. the Seven Village's population of 42,932 (as 2011 Census) It around occupies 20.08 square kilometres (7.75 sq mi) and after merged palakollu municipality It around occupies 24.68 square kilometres (9.53 sq mi) with 35 election wards it is total population of 1,04,216 (as 2011 Census)[3][9] and making it the fourth most populous city in West Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh.[10] It is a part of Eluru Urban Development Authority.

In 2018, as per the Swachh Bharat mission of the Ministry of Urban Development, Under Swachh Survekshan -2018 Palakollu Municipality was ranked 43rd in the South Zone out of 1113 With Zonal Avg Marks 1438.96 And State Rank 20th Out of 79 With State Avg Marks 1916.2 Palakollu ULB Census Coad 802966.[clarification needed][11]

Palakollu City was selected for the year 2015-16 Housing for All Under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana for houseless poor in the urban areas.[clarification needed]

At an average altitude of 1.5 metres (4.9 ft), Palakollu city is situated on National Highway 165 (India) and National Highway 216 (India). It is bounded by Krishna district and Vijayawada on the west, Amalapuram and Bay of Bengal on the east, Narasapuram and Bay of Bengal on the south, and Rajahmundry and East Godavari district on the north.[12]

Palakollu is home to Ksheerarama, one of the five great Pancharama Kshetras.

Etymology[edit]

Palakollu was also known as "Upamanapuram" or "Ksheerapuri" or "Palakolanu", named after the lord Ksheera Ramalingeswara Swamy.[13] Gradually it changed into "Upamanapuram" or "Ksheerapuri" or "Palakolanu"and now to Palakollu.

History[edit]

Palakol or Palakollu was originally known as Kshiraramam, Kshirapuram, Palakolanu or Upamanyapuram. [14]

In 1613, the Dutch built their first Indian factory at Palakollu, which was temporarily abandoned in 1730. Part of Dutch Coromandel, it was a trading post for textiles, lamp oil, wood, roof tiles, and bricks.

Under the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the town was ceded to the British, but the Dutch continued to rent it from them until 1804. In 1818 it was formerly restored to the Dutch only to be ceded again to the British in 1824.[15]

Palakollu is also known as Trilinga Desam, the region bounded by three lingas (Srisailam, Draksharamam and Kaleswaram)

The most famous Ksheerarama is one of the five Pancharama Kshetras, and is located in Palakollu. Lord Shiva is known locally as Ksheera Ramalingeswara Swamy. The Sivalinga was established by Lord Vishnu.

The famous Sri Lakshmi Ganapathi Navagraha Subrahmanya Aalayam, temple located at Brodipeta 2nd Lane in Palakollu. The presiding deity is Lord Ganapathi in the divine form of Lakshmi Ganapathi, along with the Navagrahalu and Subrahmanya Swamy deities. [16]

Geography[edit]

Palakollu is located at 16°31′00″N 81°43′48″E / 16.5167°N 81.7300°E / 16.5167; 81.7300.[17] It is in the southern part of Andhra Pradesh in southeastern India. The town occupies an area of 19.49 square kilometres (7.53 sq mi) under the administration of Palakollu Municipality (PMC). There is one major Dhavaleswaram - Narsapuram Canal that supplies water to the city: New Water Lake and old water lake apart from the Godavari River. Small canals are used only for agricultural and industrial purposes. Palakollu is a flat country with a slight eastern slope along the canals of the town flow. The canals in Palakollu generally flow from west to east.

The town has an average elevation of 1.5 metres (4.9 ft). It is bounded by Penugonda Village on the north, Narasapuram on the south. The Godavari River separates East Godavari district on east and Bhimavaram on the west.

There is paddy and sugarcane cultivation in the area.

Climate[edit]

Palakollu has a tropical climate. When compared with winter, the summers have much more rainfall. The climate here is classified as Aw by the Köppen-Geiger system. In Palakollu, the average annual temperature is 27.9 °C. In a year, the average rainfall is 1208 mm.The driest month is January, with 1 mm of rainfall. In October, the precipitation reaches its peak, with an average of 286 mm.The warmest month of the year is May, with an average temperature of 32.4 °C. At 23.4 °C on average, January is the coldest month of the year. The difference in precipitation between the driest month and the wettest month is 285 mm. The variation in annual temperature is around 9.0 °C. The weather is hot and humid, with a tropical climate and, thereby, no distinct seasons. The coolest months are December and January There is heavy monsoon rain at the end of summer, with depressions in the Bay of Bengal.

Climate data for Palakollu
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 27.7
(81.9)
30
(86)
32.8
(91.0)
35
(95)
37
(99)
36.3
(97.3)
32.4
(90.3)
32.2
(90.0)
32
(90)
31
(88)
28.8
(83.8)
27.6
(81.7)
31.9
(89.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.4
(74.1)
25.4
(77.7)
27.8
(82.0)
30.5
(86.9)
32.4
(90.3)
31.8
(89.2)
29
(84)
28.9
(84.0)
28.8
(83.8)
27.8
(82.0)
25.4
(77.7)
23.5
(74.3)
27.9
(82.2)
Average low °C (°F) 19.2
(66.6)
20.9
(69.6)
22.8
(73.0)
26
(79)
27.8
(82.0)
27.3
(81.1)
25.6
(78.1)
25.6
(78.1)
25.6
(78.1)
24.6
(76.3)
21.1
(70.0)
19.4
(66.9)
23.8
(74.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 1
(0.0)
6
(0.2)
4
(0.2)
7
(0.3)
41
(1.6)
145
(5.7)
266
(10.5)
190
(7.5)
191
(7.5)
286
(11.3)
52
(2.0)
19
(0.7)
1,208
(47.6)
Average precipitation days 1.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 1.6 3.0 6.1 6.4 5.4 8.7 9.1 3.7 46.0
Source: India Meteorological Department (climate data)[18]


Culture[edit]

Palakollu near Konaseema

The town is known in the state for its cultural history whose residents are more often referred as 'Palakollu'.[clarification needed] There are many religions, languages, traditions and festivals. Shiva Puja and a special Maha Shivaratri Karthika Masam in Karthikai Deepam are important events of the Hindu festival of Makar Sankranti in the town, mainly due to the existence of the self manifested Ksheerarama Temple. Palakollu town Mosque is a Muslim shrine housing the holy relic of the Prophet Mohammed. The St. John Luther Church, Sambhunipeta Lutheran Church, Church of Christ, St. Andrews Lutheran Church, is an important shrine for Christians and illuminates on Christmas Eve.

The clothing of the locals include traditional men wearing dhoti and women wearing saree and salwar kameez. Western clothing is also predominant.

Sri Ksheera Rama Lingeswara Swamy Temple

Film industry people[edit]

Film director Dasari Narayana Rao in New Delhi

The town is notable for many artists like Chiranjeevi, Allu Ramalingiah, Allu Aravind, Kodi Ramakrishna, Dasari Narayana Rao, Chalam, Mandolin Srinivas, RaviRaja Pinisetty, Chintapalli Ramana, Nookala Chinna Satyanarayana, Ghazal Srinivas (recipient of Guinness World Record for most languages sung), Beri Thimappa (founder of Madras), Veera Pothana (Nandi awardee, cine and drama writer), R. NaniKrishna (film director and producer), Chanti Addala (art director and producer), Relangi Narasimha Rao (director), Bunny vasu (producer), Maruthi (director), Ananth Sriram (lyricist).

Allu Rama Lingaiah, commonly known as Allu, was an Indian Telugu language comedic actor from Palakollu, who appeared in over one thousand Tollywood films.

Anantha Sriram Chegondi is an Indian lyricist, mainly writing lyrics for songs in Telugu language films. He is one of the most sought after lyricists in the Telugu film Industry.

Dasari Narayana Rao is an Indian film actor, director and producer in Telugu cinema. He has directed about 140 films, produced three films, and worked as a dialogue writer and as a lyricist.

Administration[edit]

Municipality[edit]

Palakollu Municipality official logo

The Palakollu Municipal Council (PMC) is the municipal governing body of the city. It was constituted as a municipality on 1 April 1919. The jurisdiction of the civic body is spread over an area of 19.49 km2 (7.53 sq mi) and has 32 municipal wards. Each ward is represented by a councilor, elected by popular vote. The Council Members democratically elected headed by a municipal chairman, who is the titular head of PMC; executive powers rest with the municipal commissioner, appointed by the state government. The PMC carries out the city's infrastructural work such as building and maintenance of roads and drains, town planning including construction regulation, maintenance of municipal markets and parks, solid waste management, the issuing of birth and death certificates, the issuing of trade licences, collection of property tax, and community welfare services such as mother and child healthcare, and pre-school and non-formal education.[19]

The municipality was constituted in 1919 and upgraded as a third grade municipality in 1952. The Palakollu Municipality was upgraded to first grade on August 1965. Its constituents include the municipality of Palakollu, and the outgrowths of Poolapalli, Ullamparru, and Palakollu (rural). Now Palakollu municipality 1 January 2019: Eluru Urban Development Authority (EUDA) created.[clarification needed] Palakollu became a part of EUDA along with places in West Godavari District.

Palakollu (Assembly constituency) is a legislative assembly constituency in Andhra Pradesh. Sri Chodisetty Surya Rao was its longest serving municipal chairman, from 1956 to 1986. Many colleges ASNM, Dasari Women's degree college, Coco Junior govt college, 34 acres of drinking water tanks developed with 20 year vision, government hospital, and lorry stand are all developed under his regime. As gratitude people of Palakol erected a bronze statue in center of the city.[20]

E-governance services[edit]

For providing facilities to the people the Government of Andhra Pradesh started MeeSeva[21] (at your service) centres all around the city and the state. The main purpose of this facility was to bring public services closer to home. MeeSeva provides online signed digital certificates like income certificates, residence certificates, land records and other registration records. These records are further stored in an online database.[22]

Healthcare[edit]

Palakollu is becoming one of the major healthcare centers in West Godavari District. Government General Hospital is one of the major government hospitals in the West Godavari District, also serving patients from the cities and neighbouring mandals of Poduru, Yelamanchili and Penugonda. The city has about 50 hospitals including surgeons, orthopedics, gynecologists, dental specialists, ENTs, eye specialists, RMPs and PMPs.

Politics[edit]

Palakollu Assembly constituency is one of the constituencies for Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Nimmala Rama Naidu is the present MLA of the constituency from Telugu Desam Party.[23] The constituency falls under Narasapuram (Lok Sabha constituency) which was won by Kanumuru Raghu Rama Krishna Raju of YSR Congress Party.[24][25]

Demographics[edit]

Palakollu population 
CensusPop.
190110,848
191112,95319.4%
192114,53512.2%
193116,90616.3%
194119,86917.5%
195123,03715.9%
196128,48123.6%
197136,19627.1%
198146,14627.5%
199156,96923.5%
200176,30833.9%
201181,1996.4%
Sources:[26][27]
Palakollu

As of the 2011 census of India, the city had a population of 81,199. The total population constitutes 40,103 males and 41,096 females—a sex ratio of 1024 females per 1000 males. 7,318 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of whom 3,743 are boys and 3,575 are girls—a ratio of 955 girls per 1000 boys. The average literacy rate stands at 76.95%, significantly higher than the state average of 73.00%.[28][29][30][31]

Language and religion[edit]

Referred to as "Palakolian", the residents of Palakollu are predominantly Telugu, with a minority Gujarati (including Memon). Telugu is the official language. Hindus are in the majority. Muslims and Christians form a very small minority of the people in Palakollu. According to the 2011 census, the religious makeup of Palakollu City was: Hindus (95.64%), Muslims (2.11%), Christians (1.97%), Jains (40 people), Sikhs (10 people) and Buddhists (3 people); 143 people did not state any religion.[32]

Religion in Palakollu (2011)[33]
Hinduism
95.64%
Islam
2.11%
Christianity
1.97%
Others
0.34%

Economy[edit]

Agriculture-based businesses like food processing and rice mills are the chief sources of the town's revenue. It serves as a distribution centre as well as commercial centre to its hinterland. The town is the regional centre for higher education and is known for its specialized health services

Palakollu exports coconuts to all over India.[34]

Industries Handmade crochet lace-work is one of the most common form of industry in the City.[35]

There are many industries and rice mills industries in and around the City.[36]

Aquaculture

Fishery is one of the main occupations that generates good amounts of revenues for the fishermen. It involves cultivation of a variety of estuarine fish called Pulasa.[37]

Landmarks[edit]

The Perupalem Beach is located at a distance of 26 km from the City and Dindi Resorts is located at a distance of 15 km from the City.[38]. Palakollu has become a key landmark destination for foreigners due to monkey tourism [39].

Transport[edit]

The city was once famed for its traffic problems with the railway gates at Bhimavaram Road (P.P Road) area. When the National Highway passed through the city, the traffic hurried to pass over the railway gate in the city and outskirts, which made traffic worse.

To avoid the traffic congestion, the government of India constructed a mini bypass road connecting Narsapur Road and Poolapalli on both ends of the city. Even then, the traffic problem were not resolved. The main bypass road (which was constructed under R&B which was completed in the late 2014s) had only 10,000 vehicles pass through the bypass road; now it has almost doubled.

Traffic in the city of narrow lanes was growing by the day. Even though officials planning to construct an underbridge at Bhimavaram Road (P.P Road) railway overbridge it is already approved from South Central railway at Palakollu City But still Pending in the project. and in the city all National Roads and R&B Roads still single lines only thay try to Since 1950 extend Roads making the one way but This is also Still Pending. 2018 year the traffic has doubled, without giving any relief to citizens. There are 25 traffic centres identified in the city.

Roadways[edit]

Palakollu bus station phase 1 platforms

Sri Potti Sriramulu bus station Located in palakollu City APSRTC operates buses from Palakollu to major cities like Hyderabad, Vizag, Vijayawada, and Tirupati. Ten express trains service the city, which is on the Narsapur – Vijayawada railway route.[40] A bridge was built on Vasista Godavari near Chinchinada 8 km away from Palakollu connecting East Godavari and West Godavari Districts of Andhra Pradesh, which makes it a part of National Highway 216. Palakollu railway station is classified as a B–category station in the Vijayawada railway division of South Central Railway zone.[41]

The town has a total road length of 78.80 km (48.96 mi).[42]

Railways[edit]

Palakollu Railway Station entrance

Palakollu Railway Station is classified as a B category station With three platforms In Vijayawada railway division.[43] It is one of the main stations, and is located on the Bhimavaram–Narasapuram branch line of South Central Railway zone.[44]

Waterways[edit]

National Waterway 4 was declared on 24 November 2008, and connects the Indian states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and the union territory of Puducherry. It passes through Kakinada, Eluru, Commanur, Buckingham Canal and also part of Krishna and Godavari rivers rivers.[45] It is being developed by Inland Waterways Authority of India, and was scheduled for completion in 2013.[46]

Airways[edit]

Palakollu's nearest airport is Rajahmundry Airport, about 84 km away.[47] Spicejet, IndiGo and TruJet are major airliners. The airport has direct services to Hyderabad, Chennai and Bangalore. A new terminal building was inaugurated on 16 May 2012. The runway is being expanded from the 1,749 m to 3,000 m to facilitate the landing and takeoff of bigger aircraft.[48] The state government is keen to develop the airport as a national airport and alternative for Visakhapatnam airport during bad climatic conditions.[49]

Education[edit]

Palakollu plays a major role in education for urban and rural students from nearby villages.[50] It has an average literacy rate of 83.90% with, according to the 2011 census, a total number of 63,097 who are literate. This includes 32,397 men (88.13%) and 30,700 women (79.82%).

Primary and secondary school education is provided by government, aided, and private schools, under the School Education Department of Andhra Pradesh.[51] According to the school information report for the academic year 2016–17, the urban area has around 160 schools. These include government, residential, private, municipal, and other types of schools. There are more than 100 private schools and 49 municipal schools.[52] There are more than 30,000 students in these schools.[53]

Instruction is in English, Urdu, and Telugu.

There are numerous higher educational institutions in and around Palakollu City.[54] Some of the renowned institutions are Jogaiah Institute of Technology and Sciences,[55] D.N.R Educational Institutions,[56] Jogaiah Institute of agricultural engineering, A.S.N.M degree and P.G college, B.R.R & G.K.R Chambers Degree & PG College, Jogaiah institute of Technology and Sciences, College of Pharmacy.[57]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Municipalities, Municipal Corporations & UDAs" (PDF). Directorate of Town and Country Planning. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  2. ^ "Palakollu 2011 Census india". Census of india gov. 2011 census of india & Municipal Administration and Urban Development Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Palakollu merged Seven villages of five panchayat". Andhra jyothy News Paper. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  4. ^ "Andhra Pradesh (India): State, Major Agglomerations & Cities – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de.
  5. ^ "Human Development Report 2019 – "Human Development Indices and Indicators"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. pp. 22–25. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  6. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database". Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  7. ^ "West Godavari District Mandals" (PDF). Census of India. p. 457. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  8. ^ "District Census Handbook – West Godavari" (PDF). Census of India. p. 22,23–54. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  9. ^ "Palakollu municipality official relesed G.O merged Seven villages of five panchayat". Eenadu News Paper. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  10. ^ "Palakollu 2011 Census india". Census of india gov. 2011 census of india & Municipal Administration and Urban Development Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  11. ^ Swachh Survekshan 2018, SS2018 (10 August 2018). "Small Cities fare better in Swachh Bharat rankings". Ministry of housing and urban Affairs. India. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  12. ^ "West Godavari". Official portal of Andhra Pradesh Government. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  13. ^ "palakollu City Etmology Layout page". About Palakollu City areaprofiler.gov.in.
  14. ^ Pañchārāmas in medieval Āndhradēśa (Google eBook)
  15. ^ Bowrey, Thomas (1895). Temple, Richard Carnac (ed.). A Geographical Account of Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, 1669 to 1679. p. 105.
  16. ^ Readings in Indian History. Selected and Edited by Sir William Wilson Hunter 1899 (Google eBook)
  17. ^ "Palakollu Maps And Weather".
  18. ^ climate data Information For Palakollu. "Palakollu". climate data. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  19. ^ "Citizen's charter" (PDF). PMC. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
  20. ^ "About Palakollu Municipality". Palakollu Municipality Information. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  21. ^ "Andhra Pradesh State Portal MeeSeva Services". ap.meeseva.gov.in.
  22. ^ Our Bureau. "AP to offer 331 Mee Seva services by Oct". The Hindu Business Line.
  23. ^ "MLA". AP State Portal. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  24. ^ "MP (Lok Sabha)". Government of AP. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  25. ^ "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 20,30. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
  26. ^ "Palakollu 2011 Census india". Census of india gov. 2011 census of india & Municipal Administration and Urban Development Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  27. ^ name="census2011">"Palakollu Population". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2018. On this page, select "Andhra Pradesh" from the download menu In Town Amenities. Data for Palacole (M + OG)" is at row 234 of the downloaded excel file.
  28. ^ "West Godavari febsus Handbook Census india" (PDF). Census of India District Census Handbook. 2011 census of india & Municipal Administration and Urban Development Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 54,55. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
  29. ^ "Andhra Pradesh (India): Districts, Cities, Towns and Outgrowth Wards – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de.
  30. ^ "Literacy of AP (Census 2011)" (PDF). AP govt. portal. p. 43. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  31. ^ "Palakollu 2011 Census india". Census of india gov. 2011 census of india & Municipal Administration and Urban Development Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  32. ^ "C-1 Population By Religious Community". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2016. On this page, select "Andhra Pradesh" from the download menu. Data for Palacole (M + OG)" is at row 2393 of the downloaded excel file.
  33. ^ name="census2011">"C-1 Population By Religious Community". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2016. On this page, select "Andhra Pradesh" from the download menu. Data for Palacole (M + OG)" is at row 2393 of the downloaded excel file.
  34. ^ "Coconut Top 50 Distributors In palakollu".
  35. ^ Chari, Pushpa (6 January 2011). "On a creative trip". Palakollu Lace industries in indianmart. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  36. ^ "palakollu surround rice millis information". justdial about palakollu rice mills information. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
  37. ^ Murali Sankar, K.N (23 July 2015). "Pulasa fishermen wait for Pushkaram to end". The Hindu. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  38. ^ Puja Tripathy. "Perupalem Beach". Coastal Tourism India.
  39. ^ Daily Star. "Monkey Tourism". Daily Star.
  40. ^ http://www.indianrailways.gov.in/maps/st-cent-rly.htm
  41. ^ "Divisional info" (PDF). Indian Railways. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  42. ^ "Details of Roads in each ULB of Andhra Pradesh". Commissioner and Directorate of Municipal Administration. Municipal Administration and Urban Development Department - Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  43. ^ "Statement showing Category-wise No. of stations" (PDF). Indian Railways. p. 2. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  44. ^ "Railway station to have two more platforms".
  45. ^ Ministry of Shipping (Government of India). "National waterways Declaration". Archived from the original on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  46. ^ Press Information Bureau, Government of India (2 August 2010). "Development Authority for Inland Waterways in India". Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  47. ^ "Rajahmundry airport tops in occupancy rates".
  48. ^ "Gearing up for Big Planes by 2018".
  49. ^ "Rajahmundry airport terminal operational". The Hindu Business Line. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
  50. ^ "Palakollu Municipal Corporation Schools". Palakol.cdma.ap.gov.in. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  51. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  52. ^ "R1.1 SCHOOL INFORMATION".
  53. ^ "R3.1 STUDENT INFORMATION".
  54. ^ "Palakollu City Schools, Colleges, Engineering Colleges, Degree Colleges List".
  55. ^ "Jits Engineering College".
  56. ^ "(Autonomous) Affiliated to Andhra University, Reaccredited at the "A" Level by NAAC". DNR College Palakollu. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  57. ^ "Jogaiah Institute of technology and sciences college of pharmacy". Jogaiah Medical College. Retrieved 1 April 2017.

External links[edit]