John Deere World Headquarters in Moline, Illinois
|Traded as||NYSE: DE
S&P 500 Component
|Founded||Grand Detour, Illinois
|Headquarters||Moline, Illinois, United States|
(CEO and President)
|Products||Agriculture, Construction, Forestry, Consumer & Commercial equipment, Diesel engines, Automobiles|
|Revenue||US$37.795 billion (2013)|
|US$5.415 billion (2013)|
|US$3.537 billion (2013)|
|Total assets||US$56.04 billion (2016)|
|Total equity||US$10.267 billion (2013)|
Number of employees
Deere & Company (brand name John Deere) is an American corporation that manufactures agricultural, construction, and forestry machinery, diesel engines, drivetrains (axles, transmissions, gearboxes) used in heavy equipment, and lawn care equipment. In 2016, it was listed as 97th in the Fortune 500 America's ranking and was ranked 364th in the Fortune Global 500 ranking in 2016.
John Deere also provides financial services and other related activities.
Deere is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbols DE. The company's slogan is "Nothing Runs Like a Deere", and its logo is a leaping deer, with the words 'JOHN DEERE' under it. The logo of the leaping deer has been used by this company for over 155 years. Over the years, the logo has had minor changes and pieces removed. Some of the older style logos have the deer leaping over a log. The company uses different logo colors for agricultural vs. construction products. The company's agricultural products are identifiable by a distinctive shade of green paint, with the inside border being yellow. While the construction products are identifiable by a shade of black with the deer being yellow, and the inside border also being yellow.
- 1 19th century
- 2 20th century
- 3 21st century
- 4 Products
- 5 Factories
- 6 Equipment Divisions
- 7 Subsidiaries and affiliates
- 8 Pop culture
- 9 Sponsorships
- 10 Controversies
- 11 Green magazine
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
Deere & Company began when John Deere, born in Rutland, Vermont, USA on February 7, 1804, moved to Grand Detour, Illinois in 1836 in order to escape bankruptcy in Vermont. Already an established blacksmith, Deere opened a 1,378 square feet (128 m2) shop in Grand Detour in 1837 which allowed him to serve as a general repairman in the village, as well as a manufacturer of small tools such as pitchforks and shovels. Small tools was just a start, the item that set him apart, was the self-scouring steel plow, which was pioneered in 1837 when John Deere fashioned a Scottish steel saw blade into a plow. Prior to Deere's steel plow, most farmers used iron or wooden plows that the rich Midwestern soil stuck to and had to be cleaned frequently. The smooth sided steel plow solved this problem, and greatly aided migration into the American Great Plains in the 19th and early 20th century.
The traditional way of doing business was to make the product as and when it was ordered. This style was very slow and as Deere realized that this wasn’t going to be a viable business model so he increased the rate of production by manufacturing plows before putting them up for sale, this allowed customers to not only see what they were buying beforehand but allowed his customers to purchase his products straight away. Word of his products began to spread quickly.
In 1842, Deere entered a business partnership with Leonard Andrus and purchased land for the construction of a new two-story factory along the Rock River in Illinois. This factory, named the "L. Andrus Plough Manufacturer", produced about 100 plows in 1842 and approximately 400 plows during the next year. Deere's partnership with Andrus ended in 1848, and Deere relocated to Moline, Illinois in order to have access to the railroad and the Mississippi River. There, Deere formed a partnership with Robert Tate and John Gould and built a 1,440 square feet (134 m2) factory the same year. Production rose quickly, and by 1849, the Deere, Tate & Gould Company was producing over 200 plows a month. A two story addition to the plant was built, allowing further production.
Deere bought out Tate and Gould's interests in the company in 1853, and was joined in the business by his son Charles Deere. At that time, the company was manufacturing a variety of farm equipment products in addition to plows; including wagons, corn planters and cultivators. In 1857, the company's production totals reached almost 1,120 implements per month. In 1858, a nationwide financial recession took a toll on the company. To prevent bankruptcy, the company was reorganized and Deere sold his interests in the business to his son in law, Christopher Webber, and his son, Charles Deere, who would take on most of his father's managerial roles. John Deere served as president of the company until 1886. The company was reorganized again in 1868, when it was incorporated as Deere & Company. While the company's original stockholders were Charles Deere, Stephen Velie, George Vinton, and John Deere, Charles effectively ran the company. In 1869, Charles began to introduce marketing centers and independent retail dealers to advance the company's sales nationwide. This same year, Deere & Company won "Best and Greatest Display of Plows in Variety" at the 17th Annual Illinois State Fair, for which it won $10 and a Silver Medal.
The core focus remained on the agricultural implements, but John Deere apparently also made a few bicycles in the 90's.
Increased competition during the early 1900s from the new International Harvester Company led the company to expand its offerings in the implement business, but it was the production of gasoline tractors which would come to define Deere & Company's operations during the twentieth century.
In 1912, Deere & Company president William Butterworth (Charles' son-in-law), who had replaced Charles Deere after his death in 1907, began the company's expansion into the tractor business. Deere & Company briefly experimented with its own tractor models, the most successful of which was the Dain All-Wheel-Drive, but in the end decided to continue its foray into the tractor business by purchasing the Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company in 1918, which manufactured the popular Waterloo Boy tractor at its facilities in Waterloo, Iowa. Deere & Company continued to sell tractors under the Waterloo Boy name until 1923, when the John Deere Model D was introduced. The company still manufactures most of its tractors in Waterloo, Iowa.
The company produced its first combine harvester, the John Deere No. 2 in 1927. A year later, this innovation was followed up by the introduction of John Deere No. 1, a smaller, machine that was more popular with customers. By 1929, the No. 1 and No. 2 were replaced by newer, lighter-weight harvesters. In the 1930s John Deere and other farm equipment manufacturers began developing hillside harvesting technology. Harvesters now had the ability to effectively use their combines to harvest grain on hillsides with up to a 50% slope gradient.
On an episode of the Travel Channel series "Made in America" that profiled Deere & Company, host John Ratzenberger stated that the company never repossessed any equipment from American farmers during the Great Depression.
During World War II, The great-grandson of John Deere, Charles Deere Wiman, was president of the company, but he accepted a commission as a Colonel in the U.S. Army. A replacement was hired and before returning to work at the company in late 1944, Wiman directed the farm machinery and equipment division of the War Production Board. In addition to farm machinery, John Deere manufactured military tractors, and transmissions for the M3 tank. They also made aircraft parts, ammunition, and mobile laundry units to support the war effort.
In 1947 John Deere introduced its first self-propelled combine, the model 55. It was soon followed by the smaller models 40 and 45, the larger model 95 and an even larger model 105 was introduced in the 1960s. In the mid-1950s, Deere introduced attachable corn heads, allowing crop producers to cut, shell, and clean corn in one smooth operation.
On August 30, 1960, John Deere dealers from around the world converged on Dallas, Texas for an unprecedented product showcase. Deere Day in Dallas, as the event was called, introduced the world to the "New Generation of Power", the company’s first modern four-cylinder and six-cylinder tractors, during a day packed with high-tech presentations, live demonstrations, and of course a parking lot full of brand-new green and yellow machines. The line of tractors introduced that day was five years in the making, and the event itself took months to plan. Deere chose Dallas to host the event partly because it was home to facilities large enough to accommodate the 6,000 guests and the equipment they were all there to see. The Dallas Memorial Auditorium, the Texas State Fairgrounds Coliseum, the Cotton Bowl, and the Cotton Bowl parking lot were each the site of part of the event. During the event a new John Deere tractor with a diamond-covered nameplate was displayed for all to see inside Neiman-Marcus a popular Dallas based department store.
According to information released by the company at the time of the event, John Deere dealers and key employees came to Dallas via the "largest commercial airlift of its type ever attempted." During the 24 hours leading up to the event, 16 airlines brought Deere employees and sales people from all over the United States and Canada to Love Field in Dallas. Bill Hewitt, then chairman and CEO of Deere & Company, welcomed the dealers and introduced the new tractors. Hewitt told the guests they were about to see "a line of entirely new tractors – completely modern in every respect – with outstanding features not duplicated in any other make of tractor."
Since entering the tractor business in 1918 John Deere had focused on two-cylinder machines. The New Generation of Power introduced at Deere Day in Dallas was very different from anything Deere had built before. The new line of four-and six-cylinder tractors, the model 1010, 2010, 3010, and 4010 were more far more powerful than Deere's two cylinder models, and also easier and more comfortable to operate, with conveniently located controls, better visibility and improved seat suspension. These new tractors were also easier to service.
The 4010 was rated at 80 horsepower in 1960, but tested at 84 horsepower during testing trials making it one of the most powerful two wheel drive farm tractors at that time. The 4010 was the predecessor to the 4020 which is widely regarded as the most popular tractor ever produced by John Deere, and perhaps any tractor manufacturer in the United States. Although the 4020 which was available with Deere's optional Power Shift enjoyed greater popularity it was the 4010 that catapulted John Deere into the modern era of farm tractor technology and design following its successful history as a tractor manufacturer that was by the late 1950s experiencing waning market share due to its outdated two engine cylinder technology.
In addition to the advanced engine technology, the "10" series tractors offered many other upgrades from the older two-cylinder models they replaced including significantly higher horsepower-to-weight ratio, advanced hydraulics, more convenient and comfortable operator station as well as many other improvements. Of the "10" series John Deere tractors introduced in 1960, the 4010 was by far the most popular with more than 58,000 units sold from 1960 to 1963. The success of the "10" series John Deere tractors, led by the 4010, helped propel John Deere from a 23% market share in 1959 to 34% by 1964 when the 4020 was introduced making it the top manufacturer of farm equipment in the United States.
In 1972 Deere introduced its new Sound Idea the 4030, 4230, 4430, and 4630. While these tractors were mechanically similar to the New Generation tractors they replaced they featured re-designed sheet metal and most importantly they were available with an optional completely integrated operators cab that John Deere called the Sound Gard body. This cab that included a Roll Over Protective Structure had a distinctive rounded windshield and came equipped with heat and air conditioning as well as speakers for an optional radio. An 8 track tape player was also available as an option. The 5020 was replaced by the very similar 6030 and continued in production until 1977 when the 30 Series tractors were replaced by Deere's Iron Horse series that included the 90 Hp 4040, 110 HP 4240, 130 HP 4440, 150 HP 4640 and the 180 HP 4840, and on the 4240, 4440, 4640, and 4840 featured a new 466 cubic inch displacement engine.
In 1983 Deere introduced the 4050, 4250, 4450, 4650, and 4850. These tractors were essentially the same machines as the Iron Horses they replaced but with significant upgrades. They offered a new 15 speed power shift transmission, and were available with optional mechanical front wheel drive featuring Caster Action for better traction and a tighter turning radius. They also featured cosmetic upgrades including a new light brown cab interior, v/s the black interior on previous models. These tractors were followed by the mechanically similar 55 and 60 series tractors before they were replaced by the Deere's completely redesigned 7000 and 8000 series tractors in the early 1990s.
In the 1962 Illinois Manufacturers Directory (50th anniversary edition), John Deere, listed as Deere and Company claimed a total work force of 35,000 of which 9,000 were in Illinois. The corporate headquarters were located at 1325 Third Ave. in Moline, IL with six manufacturing plants located around that city and a seventh plant in Hoopston, IL. The six plants in Moline were listed as follows: the John Deere Harvester Works at 1100 - 13th Ave., East Moline where 3,000 employees made agricultural implements. The John Deere Industrial Equipment Works at 301 Third Ave., Moline where 500 employees made earth moving equipment. The John Deere Malleable Works at 1335-13th Street, East Moline where 600 employees made malleable and nodular iron castings. The John Deere Planter Works at 501 Third ave., Moline where 1,000 employees made agricultural implements. The John Deere Plow Works at 1225 Third Ave., Moline where 1,100 employees made agricultural implements. The sixth plant was the John Deere Spreader Works at 1209-13th Ave., Moline where 800 employees made agricultural implements. The John Deere Vermilion Works was located at North Sixth Ave., Hoopston, Illinois where 140 employees were listed as making iron work; implement parts. Moline with 42,705 residents in 1962 saw the local 7,000 employees of John Deere represent 16% of the city's entire population.
In 1969 John Deere followed its New Generation tractors of the 1960s with a "New Generation" of combines. These included the 3300, 4400, 6600 and 7700. These models were also the first to come with Quik-Tatch header mounting capabilities as standard equipment. In the 1980s these combines were followed by the 4420, 6620, 7720, 8820 that were essentially updated and improved versions of the previous models with larger capacity, a nicer cab, and easier maintenance and service. The 4420 was discontinued in 1984 and replaced by the 4425 combine imported from Germany and the 6620, 7720 and 8820 received the Titan II updates.
In 1989 Deere replaced the venerable 6620, 7720 and 8820 with a new line of completely redesigned "Maximizer" combines, that included the 9400, 9500, and 9600 walker combines. These combines were completely redesigned and featured a center mounted cab, rear mounted engine, and more creature comforts in the cab. Also in 1989, Deere was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. In 1997 Deere celebrated 50 years of self-propelled combine production, and the 1997 models featured a 50th anniversary decal. In 1998 the 9410, 9510, and 9610 were introduced. These were essentially the same machines but with minor upgrades. Deere dealers offered '10 series' upgrades to owners of older 9000 series Maximizer combines. In 1999 Deere introduced the 50 series Maximizer combines. These machines featured significant cosmetic upgrades including a more streamlined appearance, improved ergonomics in the cab, pto shaft style header hook up, and the larger models were available as rotary machines which were a complete departure from the combines that Deere had built in the past.
In the late 1970s International Harvester had pioneered rotary combines with their Axial flow machines, and were soon followed by other manufacturers, but Deere continued to build only conventional walker combines through the 1980s and 1990s. In 1999 John Deere introduced the Single-Tine Separation (STS) system on its 9550, 9650, and 9750 combines, representing a step forward in rotary combine technology. The STS system uses less horsepower and improves material handling.
|This section is incomplete. (October 2011)|
As of 2014[update], Deere & Company employed approximately 67,000 people worldwide, of which half are in the United States and Canada, and is the largest agriculture machinery company in the world. In August 2014 the company announced it was indefinitely laying off 600 of its workers at plants in Illinois, Iowa and Kansas due to less demand for its products. Inside the United States, the company's primary locations are its administrative center in Moline, Illinois and manufacturing factories in central and southeastern United States. As of 2016[update], the company experiments with an electric farm tractor.
John Deere manufactures a wide range of products, with several models of each in many cases.
Agricultural products include, amongst others, tractors, combine harvesters, cotton harvesters, balers, planters/seeders, silage machines, and sprayers.
Horse drawn manure spreader
Construction equipment includes:
The company manufactures lawn mowers and also is a manufacturer of consumer and commercial equipment, and snow throwers, as well as a supplier of diesel engines and powertrains (axles, transmissions, etc.) used especially in heavy equipment
Major North American factories include:
- Harvester Works (large combine harvesters) East Moline, Illinois
- Cylinder Internal Platform (hydraulic cylinders) Moline, Illinois
- Seeding Group (planting equipment) Moline, Illinois and Valley City, North Dakota
- Davenport Works (wheel loaders, motor graders, articulated dump trucks, wheeled forestry equipment) Davenport, Iowa
- Dubuque Works (backhoes, crawlers, skid-steer loaders, tracked forestry equipment) Dubuque, Iowa (Quad cities area)
- Des Moines Works (tillage equipment, cotton harvesters, sprayers) Ankeny, Iowa
- Ottumwa Works (hay and forage equipment) Ottumwa, Iowa
- Thibodaux Works (cane harvesting equipment, scrapers) Thibodaux, Louisiana
- Horicon Works (lawn & garden and turf care) Horicon, Wisconsin
- Augusta Works (small commercial and agricultural tractors) Augusta, Georgia
- Turf Care (Specialty golf equipment and commercial mowing) Fuquay Varina, North Carolina
- Industrias John Deere (agricultural tractors; construction equipment) (Monterrey, Mexico)
- Motores John Deere (Power Systems; 6- and 4-cylinder engines, Heavy duty Axles) Torreon, Mexico.
- Coffeyville Works (transmissions, pump drives, planetaries) Coffeyville, Kansas.
- Waterloo Works (Tractor, cab, and assembly operations, Drivetrain Operations, foundry operations, service parts operations) Waterloo, Iowa
- Power Systems and Engine Works (Power Systems and Engines) Waterloo, Iowa
Other important factories:
- John Deere Usine Saran (Power Systems), Fleury-les-Aubrais, France
- John Deere Argentina (engines, tractors and combine harvesters), Granadero Baigorria, Santa Fe, Argentina
- John Deere Equipment Pvt Ltd (5000-series tractors) Pune, India
- John Deere Equipment Pvt Ltd (5000-series tractors), Dewas, India
- John Deere Electronic solutions, Pune, India
- John Deere Harvester Works, Sirhind-Fategarh, India
- John Deere Werke Mannheim (6000-series tractors), Mannheim, Germany
- John Deere Brasil: Montenegro, Rio Grande do Sul (tractors), Horizontina - RS (harvesters and planters), Catalão - GO (sugarcane harvesters).
- John Deere Werke Zweibrücken (harvesting equipment) Zweibrücken, Germany
- John Deere Fabriek Horst (pulled & self-propelled agricultural sprayers) Horst, The Netherlands
- John Deere Forestry Oy (forwarders, wheeled harvesters) Joensuu, Finland
- John Deere Reman remanufacturing components for off-highway vehicles: facilities in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (cylinders, axles, transmissions, pumps, hydraulic and powertrain components) and Springfield, Missouri, USA (engines, fuel systems, turbochargers).
- Sabo (consumer and commercial lawn equipment) Gummersbach, Germany
Subsidiaries and affiliates
- AGRIS Corporation (John Deere Agri Services)
- John Deere Ag Management Solutions (intelligent mobile equipment technologies) Urbandale, Iowa
- John Deere Capital Corporation
- John Deere Financial (John Deere Credit and Finance) Johnston, Iowa.
- Kemper (row tolerant headers for forage harvesters and combines) Stadtlohn, Germany
- Waratah Forestry Attachments (forestry harvesting heads) Tokoroa, New Zealand
- NavCom Technology, Inc. (precision positioning systems, see also StarFire) Torrance, California
- John Deere Electronic Solutions (Ruggedized electronics) Fargo, North Dakota
- Ningbo Benye Tractor & Automobile Manufacture Co. Ltd. (low HP tractors) Ningbo, China
- Machinefinder (used equipment division and marketplace)
- John Deere Technology Innovation Center located in Research Park, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
- QCFS and Consolidating (attachment distribution center)Davenport. IA
- John Deere Renewables, LLC, a wind energy plant manufacturing arm which represented John Deere's extension into the renewable energy industry - under which it had successfully completed 36 projects in eight US states - was sold to Exelon Energy in August 2010.
- Joe Diffie released a song in 1993 called "John Deere Green", a top 5 hit.
- George Jones famously drove a John Deere lawn tractor to a liquor store after his wife had taken away his car keys to keep him from driving drunk. The incident was later memorialized as part of country music lore in numerous songs and videos, including Jones’ own “Honky Tonk Song” in 1996. Twelve years earlier years before, the video for Hank Williams Jr.’s “All My Rowdy Friends Are Coming Over Tonight” featured George Jones riding a lawnmower. Vince Gill’s 1993 hit “One More Last Chance” includes the line, “She might have took my car keys, but she forgot about my old John Deere.” The video ends with Vince on a John Deere tractor passing George on a John Deere lawnmower. The video for John Rich’s “Country Done Come to Town” also features Jones on a riding lawnmower.
- John Deere Classic is an American professional golf tournament sponsored by the company.
- John Deere sponsored the #23 & #97 car for NASCAR driver Chad Little in the late 1990s
Some groups, including the Electronic Frontier Foundation, have taken issue with the fact that John Deere's license covering the internal software on tractor control computers does not allow them to modify the software and that John Deere claims doing so would be DMCA forbidden bypassing of DRM. John Deere locks tractors digitally under usage of the DMCA DRM-law to prevent the DIY repairing by the owning farmers, stating safety concerns as reason.
Green Magazine is a publication devoted to John Deere enthusiasts which began in November 1984 by Richard and Carol Hain of Bee, Nebraska. The first issue mailed in early November 1984 to 135 paid subscribers consisted of ten black and white pages with features on tractors, letters from readers and advertisements. At the time the magazine was published bimonthly. The writing was done in Lincoln, Nebraska and it was mailed from the Bee, Nebraska post office. The magazine grew rapidly and in 1990 bowing to public demand, the magazine became a monthly. Circulation continued to increase and at the current time hovers around 30,000. The magazine now generally contains 88 full color pages and is perfect bound. It is now printed in Michigan and mailed from several different post offices throughout the country.
Current content usually includes a "Tip of the Month" article covering New Generation restoration written by Dan Brotzman, "Youngtimer" article written by Tyler Buchheit, "Shop Talk" by Ron and JoAnn O'Neill, "Saw it On eBay" by Adam Smith and Benjamin Hain, "Scale Models" by Bill Proft, "What's New and Old" by Greg Stephen, "Feature Model" by Benjamin Hain, "Do You Have One of These" by Richard Hain and "Mr. Thinker" which is said to be written by "a variety of experts".
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- History of the John Deere Trademark Trademarks
- Reynolds, John P. "Transactions of the Illinois State Agricultural Society, with Reports from County and District Agricultural Societies", Illinois Journal Printing Office, 1871, pg. 43,
- "A Brief Look at John Deere Combine History: 86 Years of Evolution". blog.machinefinder.com. Retrieved 2016-02-07.
- Pure genius: the inventor's hall of fame. Independent.co.uk (2008-02-22). Retrieved on 2011-01-03.
- "John Deere War Hero's Recognized for Patriotism". blog.machinefinder.com. Retrieved 2016-02-07.
- "Agricultural Machinery during the 1940s". livinghistoryfarm.org. Retrieved 2016-02-07.
- "A Big Day for Deere" (PDF). The Plowshare. 14: 1–6. 27 March 2009. Retrieved 2016-02-07.
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- Illinois Manufacturers Directory, Manufacturers' News, Inc. Chicago, IL, copyright 1962, p. 1503, 1594–1595
- "Hit by weak crop prices Deere to lay off 600 manufacturing staff". Chicago Chronicle. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-15.
- John Deere worldwide
- "John Deere unveils latest all-electric tractor prototype for zero-emission agriculture". Electrek. 5 December 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- John Deere Reman Homepage. Deere.com (2009-03-20). Retrieved on 2011-01-03.
- John Deere Credit is your source for equipment financing solutions - John Deere Credit, U.S.A. Deere.com. Retrieved on 2011-01-03.
- Deere Reaches Agreement for Sale of Wind Energy Business. Deere.com (2010-08-31). Retrieved on 2011-01-03.
- "Chad Little Sprint Cup All Star race results". Racing Reference. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
- Automakers Say You Don’t Really Own Your Car on eff.org (April 2015)
- John Deere Really Doesn’t Want You to Own That Tractor on eff.org by Kit Walsh (December 20, 2016)
- Wiens, Kyle (21 April 2015). "We Can't Let John Deere Destroy the Very Idea of Ownership". Wired. Retrieved 2015-04-27.
- Sydell, Laura (2015-08-17). "DIY Tractor Repair Runs Afoul Of Copyright Law". npr.com. Retrieved 2015-08-31.
And the little computer screen lets him know when something is wrong. Unfortunately, Alford isn't allowed to fix it. John Deere has a digital lock on the software that runs his tractor. And it won't give him the key. [...] The company went on to say that unqualified individuals could endanger customer safety.
- "John Deere Two-Cylinder Tractor Buyer's Guide".
- "Standard Catalog of John Deere Tractors 1st".
- Mary Lou Montgomery. "John Deere heritage runs deep on Missouri farm". Neosho Daily News. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
- Broehl, Wayne G., Jr. (1984). John Deere's Company: A History of Deere & Company and Its Times. New York City: Doubleday. ISBN 9780385196642. OCLC 10606276.
- Dahlstrom, Jeremy; Dahlstrom, Neil (2005). The John Deere Story: A Biography of Plowmakers John & Charles Deere. Dekalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press. ISBN 9780875803364. OCLC 56753352.
- Kendall, Edward C. (1959). John Deere's Steel Plow. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. OCLC 3302873.
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