Royal Dublin Society

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The Royal Dublin Society
Logo of the Royal Dublin Society.jpg
Abbreviation RDS
Motto Nostri plena laboris (Latin Our work bears fruit)[Note 1]
Founded June 25, 1731; 286 years ago (1731-06-25) (The Dublin Society)
1820 (The Royal Dublin Society)
Location
Origins The Dublin Society
Area served
Ireland
Key people
President: Ms Bernie Brennan
Website rds.ie
Formerly called
The Dublin Society

The Royal Dublin Society (RDS) is the name given in 1820 to a philanthropic organisation which was founded as the 'Dublin Society' on 25 June 1731 to see Ireland thrive culturally and economically.[1] The RDS is synonymous with its campus in Ballsbridge in Dublin, Ireland. This campus includes the "RDS Arena", "RDS Simmonscourt", "RDS Main Hall" and other venues which are used regularly for exhibitions, concerts and sporting events, including regular use by the Leinster Rugby team.[2]

Name and history[edit]

Front entrance

The society was founded by members of the Dublin Philosophical Society, chiefly Thomas Prior and Samuel Madden, as the 'Dublin Society for improving Husbandry, Manufactures and other Useful Arts'. On 1 July 1731 – at the second meeting of the Society – the designation 'and Sciences' was added to the end of its name.[3] The Society's broad agenda was to stimulate economic activity and aid the creation of employment in Ireland.[4] For the first few years of its existence, the Dublin Society concentrated on tillage technology, land reclamation, forestry, the production of dyestuffs, flax clutivation and other agricultural areas.[4]

In 1738, following the publication of his pamphlet entitled 'Reflections and Resolutions Proper for the Gentlemen of Ireland', Samuel Madden initiated a grant or 'premium' scheme to create incentives for improvements in Irish agricultural and arts.[5] He proposed a fund of £500 be raised for this and he personally contributed £130.[6] By 1740 the premium scheme had raised £900, and was adjudicated upon the following January and awarded to enterprises in earthernware, cotton, leatherwork, flax, surveying, as well as a number of painters and sculpturors.

In 1761 the Irish Parliament voted for £12,000 to be given to the Dublin Society for the promotion of agriculture, forestry, arts and manufactures. This funding was used to increase the amount of premiums distributed by the Dublin Society. Further funds were given by Parliament to the Dublin Society on a sporadic basis until 1784 when an annual parliamentary vote of £5,000 was put in place and remained so until the dissolution of Grattan's Parliament in 1800.[7]

The "Royal" prefix was adopted in 1820 when George IV became Society patron.[8][9]

Arts[edit]

On foot of the successful award of premiums to artists and the public interest in this area, the RDS decided to establish an arts school. Through successful petitioning of the then Lord Lieutenant, Lord Chesterfield, it applied for Government support and was awarded an annual grant of £500 in 1746.[10][11] The drawing school was established in 1750 and had an early emphasis on figure drawing, landscape and ornament, with architectural drawing added in the 1760s. Tuition was free and popular among people of a wide variety of trades and backgrounds.[12] A notable student was James Hoban, who attended in the 1780s and went on to design the White House, in Washington DC. Among the artists who attended the RDS schools of art or were awarded premiums by the Society were: James Barry, George Barrett, Francis Danby, Edward Smyth, John Hogan.[13]

In 1867 as part of a wider initiative, the Government took control of the RDS art school, which subsequently became the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art, and later became the National College of Art and Design.[14]

The annual RDS Visual Art Awards incorporate the RDS Taylor Art Award which has been awarded since 1878. This award is now valued at €10,000 and is open to Irish visual art graduates.[15] The total prize fund for the RDS Visual Art Awards is €27,000.[16]

Former notable winners of the RDS Taylor Art Award include: Walter Osborne, William Orpen, Seán Keating, Mainie Jellet, Colin Midleton, Nora McGuinness and Louis le Brocquy, as well as more contemporary artists such as Eamon O'Kane, Dorothy Cross and James Hanley.[17]

Agriculture[edit]

Agriculture has been a persistent theme of endeavour since the foundation of the Dublin Society. In its first eighteen months the Society reprinted or published up-to-date material on the latest agricultural innovations, such as Jethro Tull's book on Tillage, a paper 'on improvement of flax by changing the soil' and 'a new method of draining marshy and boggy lands'. The Society followed this in year to come with further publications on grass cultivation, saffron planting, drainage, management of hops, bee management, wool production and tillage. They also held demonstrations on how to use a newly designed farm machinery.[18]

Forestry was encouraged from an equally early stage with records of the Society showing that premiums were increasingly awarded for afforestation from 1742 onwards. Between 1766 and 1806 over 55 million trees were planted in Ireland on foot of the Society's initiatives.[18]

The genesis of Dublin's Botanic Gardens can be found in the minute books of the Dublin Society as far back as 1732.[19] From this time onwards, the Dublin Society sporadically leased land around the city to conduct agricultural and botanic experiments and initiatives. In 1790, enabled by funding from the Irish Parliament, the Society leased land in Glasnevin with the intent of making the lands ready for delivering public education on botany. It appointed a professor of Botany to oversee the gardens along with an experienced head gardener from Scotland. With the completion of offices and green houses in 1799, the Botanic Gardens, Dublin were opened in 1800 and remained in the care of the Society until 1877 when they were transferred over to the State.[20]

In 1845 the early signs of potato blight that would go on to have devastating effect on Ireland were detected by the RDS in the Botanic Gardens. The Society offered a prize of £20 for the best research on the poorly understood disease. Utilising knowledge of both agriculture and science, the Society directed its own scientists to find remedies, but despite many trials and experiments both in the Botanic Gardens and in the Society's laboratory in Leinster House, they were unable to find one.[21]

The first Spring Show was held in April 1831 on the grounds of Leinster House, Kildare Street, the purpose of which was to encourage best breeding practices in livestock by showcasing the best in the country. By 1848 the judges of the Show were satisfied that English breeders would soon be purchasing Irish stock such was the quality of cattle breeding on display. Their confidence was validated in 1856 at the Paris International Cattle Show where Irish shorthorn cattle took more prizes in proportion to livestock displayed, than their English and Scottish counterparts combined.[22] The Spring Show moved to the RDS grounds of Ballsbridge in 1881 and continued it there until the last Spring Show took place in 1992.[23]

The association with agriculture persists to today and it forms an important part of the Society's philanthropic mission.[24] The RDS Forestry and Woodland Awards have been awarded annually since 1988 and in 2017 had a prize fund of €15,000 which is spread across four different categories.[25] In 2016 the RDS, in conjunction with the IIEA, outlined the framework of a 'Climate Smart Agriculture' plan for Ireland.[26] The Society continues to award annual prizes for the best cattle in Ireland, including the Economic Breeding Index (EBI) dairy cow.[27]

Science[edit]

In the early period of the Society, science was innately linked to agriculture and industry. A link that continued well into the nineteenth century; for instance, the Botanic Gardens had cross-over appeal to both science and agriculture, as did the public lectures in veterinary science. But science began to also carve out its own separate area of interests towards the latter end of the nineteenth century with professorships in chemistry and physics funded by the Society in the 1790s, the employment of an itinerant geologist who toured Ireland collecting specimens for the Society, and the purchase of the Leskean Cabinet of minerals in 1792.[28][29]

The Dublin Society began science lectures covering an array of topics in 1797, with lectures on physics and chemistry made open to the public in 1824. In 1810 a large laboratory and lecture room were built in Hawkins House and a similar facility was constructed in Leinster House when the Society moved there, allowing the public lectures on science to continue (in what is now the Dáil Chamber in the Houses of the Oireachtas). in 1835 the RDS co-hosted the British Association for the Advancement of Science, which is also did again in 1957, and from 1838 commenced science lectures outside of Dublin.

in 1903 the Society imported radium into Ireland for the first time and through experimental methods, devised by RDS Members John Joly and Walter Stevenson, one of the earliest forms of cancer treatment was created to much international acclaim. It subsequently became known as the 'Dublin method'. in 1914 the Society established the Irish Radium Institute to supply radon to Irish hospitals, a function it carried out until the Irish Radiological Institute was established in 1952.[30]

In 1961 the RDS held its first exhibition on atomic energy which was followed up in 1963 and 1966, garnering audiences of over 30,000. The Young Scientists and Technology Exhibition was started at this time by physicists Tom Burke and Tony Scott, the latter being a member of the RDS Science Committee. The Exhibition has been held in the RDS since 1966.

Today, the RDS continues to promote science in Ireland through the awarding of the Boyle Medal on a biennial basis, alternating between a scientist based in Ireland and an Irish scientist based abroad, with a prize of €20,000. The Boyle Medal has been awarded since 1899 and is Ireland's most prestigious scientific honour.[31]

The RDS Primary Science Fair encourages primary school classes to explore science hypotheses and from 2017 operated in three cities around Ireland, with over 7,000 participating children across all three venues.[32] The RDS Primary Science Fair was cited as a positive example of informal science education by the Government commissioned 'STEM Education in the Irish School System'.[33]

RDS STEM Learning is a continuous professional development programme for primary school teachers to gain confidence in teaching science in the classroom.[34]

Premises[edit]

Entrance arch to Leinster House, home of the RDS. Circa 1863–1880.

The society purchased Leinster House, home of the Duke of Leinster, in 1815 and founded a natural history museum there.[35] The society acquired its current premises at Ballsbridge in 1879, and has since increased from the original fifteen to forty acres (60,000 to 160,000 m²). The premises consist of a number of exhibition halls (at the "RDS Main Hall"), a stadium (the "RDS Arena"), meeting rooms, bars, restaurants, and a multi purpose venue named "RDS Simmonscourt Pavilion".

RDS Main Hall[edit]

The RDS Main Hall is a major centre for exhibitions, concerts and other cultural events in Dublin. It hosts, for example, the Young Scientist and Technology Exhibition each January.

RDS Simmonscourt[edit]

The RDS Simmonscourt in May 2012.

The multi-purpose RDS Simmonscourt has a capacity of approximately 7,000 (6,500 theatre style) and is the largest hall in the complex. It has hosted the Meteor Music Awards in 2008, 2009 and 2010, Disney on Ice, as well as a number of concerts including The Smashing Pumpkins and My Chemical Romance, and the Eurovision Song Contest in 1981 and 1988. Simmonscourt is where the show jumping horses are stabled during Dublin Horse Show week.

RDS Arena[edit]

The RDS Arena (more commonly known simply as the RDS) was developed to host equestrian events, including the annual Dublin Horse Show. It is often used for other sporting events however – primarily football and rugby. Between September 1990 and April 1996 it was used for home games of Shamrock Rovers football club, on 19 February 1992 it played host to a home game between the Republic of Ireland national football team and Wales, and hosted the 2007 and 2008 FAI Cup finals.

In 2007 and 2008 the arena's capacity was expanded to 18,250 (with additional seated stands being built), and the venue is now used by the Leinster Rugby team for home games. The club also moved their Leinster Rugby Store to the RDS (between the two parade rings), and it is open on match days.

The covered Anglesea Stand is the oldest stand in the ground below which there is a small amount of terracing. Opposite the Anglesea Stand is the Grandstand which contains the TV gantry and was covered with a roof in 2008. Behind the goals are the uncovered North and South stands which are removed for showjumping events to allow for extra space.

The DART runs close to the RDS premises with Lansdowne and Sandymount being the closest stops. The RDS is served by bus route numbers 4, 7, 18 and 27x, which stop outside the Main Hall Entrance to the RDS on Merrion Road.

Events[edit]

Dublin Horse Show[edit]

Main arena
Anglesea stand

The first Dublin Horse Show took place in 1864 and was operated in conjunction with the Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland. The first solely Society-run Horse Show was held in 1868 and was one of the earliest "leaping" competitions ever held.[36] Over time it has become a high-profile International show jumping competition, national showing competition and major entertainment event in Ireland. In 1982 the RDS hosted the Show Jumping World Championships and incorporated it into the Dublin Horse Show of that year. The Dublin Horse Show has an array of national & international show jumping competitions and world class equestrian entertainment, great shopping, delicious food, music & fantastic daily entertainment. There are over 130 classes at the Show and they can be generally categorised into the following types of equestrian competitions: showing classes, performance classes and showjumping classes.[37]

Concerts[edit]

In recent years, the venue has been used as a music venue, for many rock, heavy metal and pop artists.

Bruce Springsteen has played there eleven times since 1988: The Tunnel of Love Express Tour (1988), The Other Band Tour (1993), The Reunion Tour (1999), "The Rising Tour" (2003), the "Magic Tour" (2008),[38] three times for the "Working on a Dream Tour" (2009),[39] and twice for the Wrecking Ball Tour (2012). He played for 40,000 people during The Rising Tour in May 2003, 115,500 people at the arena during his Magic Tour in May 2008, and 80,000+ people during his Working on a Dream Tour.

In June 2008, American band Paramore played their debut Irish concert in the RDS Arena.

Other notable performers who have played in the main arena include: Bon Jovi, Michael Jackson, Kylie Minogue, Radiohead, Shania Twain, The Cure and Metallica among others. U2 played 2 dates of their "Zooropa" tour on the 27 and 28 August 1993 in the main Arena.

On 30 April 1988, the Eurovision Song Contest took place in the Simmonscourt Pavilion and was won by Celine Dion. Seven years earlier, on 4 April 1981, the Eurovision Song Contest was held there, was won by Bucks Fizz.

Professional wrestling[edit]

In 2005, the RDS hosted a WWE SmackDown event as part of the WWE Summerbash tour of Europe. The event featured wrestlers such as Stone Cold Steve Austin, John Cena, Kurt Angle, and Rey Mysterio.[40]

Rugby Union[edit]

The RDS is the home of Leinster Rugby. The RDS hosts Leinster's home matches in the Pro14 and the Heineken Cup as well as some pre-season games. In March 2008, the final of the Leinster Schools Senior Cup was played in the RDS due to the redevelopment of Lansdowne Road, its traditional venue. An autumn international between Ireland and Fiji was played 21 November 2009.[41]

Association Football[edit]

Shamrock Rovers F.C. played their home matches at the RDS stadium between 1990 and 1996, including against Górnik Zabrze in the 1994–95 UEFA Cup. The stadium hosted an international between the Republic of Ireland and Wales in February 1992; the 1994 UEFA Under-16 Championships; the FAI Cup Final in 2007 and 2008; and the 2008–09 UEFA Cup match between St Patrick's Athletic and Hertha Berlin.[42] St. Pat's also played Steaua Bucureşti in the Arena on 27 August 2009 in the Play-off round of the opening season of the Europa League. The Republic of Ireland played two international friendly fixtures on 25 and 28 May 2010 against Paraguay and Algeria.

Other[edit]

In 1983, the Ireland team played in the World Group of the Davis Cup for the only time. The match against a United States team including John McEnroe was played in the RDS rather than the usual venue, Fitzwilliam, to accommodate crowds of 6,000 each day.[43]

Exams[edit]

The RDS hosts the University College Dublin exams before Christmas and in May/June, and Trinity College Dublin exams in April, among others.

Awards[edit]

Boyle Medal for Scientific Excellence[edit]

The Boyle Medal (named after Robert Boyle (1627–1691), was inaugurated in 1899 and is awarded jointly by the RDS and the Irish Times for scientific research of exceptional merit in Ireland. By 2013 the medal had been awarded to 38 scientists.

Past recipients of the Boyle Medal:[44]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nostri plena laboris (Latin from Virgil’s Aeneid is often translated as Our work bears fruit, but the Latin labor (genitive singular labōris) can mean both "work" and "suffering"/"illness" so a literal translation would be "full of our work." This is an allusion to Virgil's Aeneid I:459-460: "Constitit et lacrimans, 'Quis iam locus' inquit 'Achate, quae regio in terris nostri non plena laboris?"" (Aeneas halted, and said with tears, "What place is there, Achates, what region of earth is not full of our suffering?")

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ireland's Philanthropic Society". rds.ie. RDS. Retrieved 21 February 2017. 
  2. ^ "RDS in multi-million deal to host Leinster matches". Sunday Business Post. 10 December 2006. Archived from the original on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2008. 
  3. ^ de Vere White, Terence (1955). The Story of the Royal Dublin Society. Tralee, Ireland: The Kerryman. p. 6. 
  4. ^ a b Bright, Kevin (2006). RDS TwoSevenFive, A Brief History of the Royal Dublin Society 1731-2006. Dublin: RDS. p. 6. 
  5. ^ de Vere White, Terence (1955). The Story of the Royal Dublin Society. Tralee, Ireland: The Kerryman. pp. 23–24. 
  6. ^ Meenan & Clarke (ed.), James & Desmond (1981). The Royal Dublin Society 1731-1981. Dublin, Ireland: Gill and MacMillan. p. 7. 
  7. ^ Bright, Kevin (2006). RDS TwoSevenFive, A Brief History of the Royal Dublin Society 1731-2006. Dublin, Ireland: RDS. pp. 8–9. 
  8. ^ Royal Dublin Society, The; James Meenan; Desmond Clarke (1981). RDS, The Royal Dublin Society, 1731–1981. Ireland: Gill and Macmillan. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-7171-1125-1. [1]
  9. ^ Sonnelitter, Karen (2016). Charity Movements in Eighteenth-Century Ireland: Philanthropy and Improvement. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell & Brewer. pp. 99–121. ISBN 9781783270682. 
  10. ^ de Vere White, Terence (1955). The Story of the Royal Dublin Society. Tralee, Ireland: The Kerryman. pp. 27–28. 
  11. ^ Bright, Kevin (2006). RDS TwoSevenFive, A Brief History of the Royal Dublin Society 1731-2006. Dublin, Ireland: RDS. p. 8. 
  12. ^ Bright, Kevin (2006). RDS TwoSevenFive, A Brief History of the Royal Dublin Society 1731-2006. Dublin, Ireland: RDS. p. 9. 
  13. ^ Berry, Henry F. (1915). A History of the Royal Dublin Society. London, UK: Longmans, Green and Co. pp. 120–131. 
  14. ^ Bright, Kevin (2006). RDS TwoSevenFive, A Brief History of the Royal Dublin Society 1731-2006. Dublin, Ireland: RDS. p. 22. 
  15. ^ http://www.strata3.com/, Strata3 -. "RDS - RDS Taylor Art Award". www.rds.ie. Retrieved 2017-08-22. 
  16. ^ http://www.strata3.com/, Strata3 -. "RDS - RDS Visual Art Awards". www.rds.ie. Retrieved 2017-08-22. 
  17. ^ http://www.strata3.com/, Strata3 -. "RDS - RDS Taylor Art Award". www.rds.ie. Retrieved 2017-08-22. 
  18. ^ a b Meenan & Clarke, James & Desmond (eds) (1981). The Royal Dublin Society 1731-1981. Dublin, Ireland: Gill and MacMillan. pp. 10–11. 
  19. ^ Berry, Henry F. (1915). A History of the Royal Dublin Society. London, UK: Longmans, Green and Co. p. 186. 
  20. ^ Bright, Kevin (2006). RDS TwoSevenFive, A Brief History of the Royal Dublin Society 1731-2006. Dublin, Ireland: RDS. pp. 12–13. 
  21. ^ Meenan & Clarke, James & Desmond (eds) (1981). The Royal Dublin Society 1731-1981. Dublin, Ireland: Gill and MacMillan. pp. 194–195. 
  22. ^ Meenan & Clarke, James & Desmond (eds) (1981). The Royal Dublin Society 1731-1981. Dublin, Ireland: Gill and MacMillan. p. 92. 
  23. ^ Bright, Kevin (2006). RDS TwoSevenFive, A Brief History of the Royal Dublin Society 1731-2006. Dublin, Ireland: RDS. p. 16. 
  24. ^ http://www.strata3.com/, Strata3 -. "RDS - Our Work". rds.ie. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  25. ^ "RDS Forestry and Woodland Awards". www.rds.ie. 
  26. ^ http://www.strata3.com/, Strata3 -. "RDS - Political commitment required to establish Ireland as global leader in climate smart agriculture". rds.ie. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  27. ^ http://www.strata3.com/, Strata3 -. "RDS - RDS Champion of Champions". rds.ie. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  28. ^ de Vere White, Terence (1955). The Story of the Royal Dublin Society. Tralee, Ireland: The Kerryman. pp. 78–82. 
  29. ^ Meenan & Clarke, James & Desmond (eds) (1981). The Royal Dublin Society 1731-1981. Dublin, Ireland: Gill and MacMillan. pp. 154, 167. 
  30. ^ Meenan & Clarke, James & Desmond (eds) (1981). The Royal Dublin Society 1731-1981. Dublin, Ireland: Gill and MacMillan. pp. 180–183. 
  31. ^ http://www.strata3.com/, Strata3 -. "RDS - RDS-Irish Times Boyle Medal for Scientific Excellence". rds.ie. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  32. ^ "3,000 children taking part in Primary Science Fair". RTE.ie. 2017-01-12. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  33. ^ "Report of the STEM Education Review Group" (PDF). Department of Education & Skills. Retrieved 23 August 2017. 
  34. ^ http://www.strata3.com/, Strata3 -. "RDS - RDS STEM Learning". rds.ie. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  35. ^ John James M'Gregor, Picture of Dublin, C.P. Archer, Dublin, 1821. p. 41
  36. ^ http://www.strata3.com/, Strata3 -. "Dublin Horse Show History". Discover Ireland Dublin Horse Show. Retrieved 2017-08-22. 
  37. ^ http://dublinhorseshow.com.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  38. ^ "Bruce Springsteen rocks the RDS…". Hot Press. 23 May 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2008. 
  39. ^ x2 shows 9 "Bruce Springsteen Working on a Dream Tour Dates 2009" Check |url= value (help). Pop Crunch magazine website. 27 January 2009. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  40. ^ "You are Here: Home > WWE SmackDown! House Show - June 18th, 2005WWE SmackDown! House Show - June 18th, 2005". Aaron Mykyta. 18 June 2005. Retrieved 24 April 2015. 
  41. ^ Watterson, Johnny (16 May 2009). "RDS to host Fiji for debut on international rugby stage". The Irish Times. Retrieved 16 May 2009. 
  42. ^ StPatsFC.com – Match Report
  43. ^ "1980's – Matt Doyle and Sean Sorenson". Tennis Ireland. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  44. ^ Boyle Medal Laureates Royal Dublin Society

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 53°19′36″N 6°13′43″W / 53.32667°N 6.22861°W / 53.32667; -6.22861