Voiced palatal affricate
|Voiced palatal affricate|
|IPA number||108 (139)|
|Unicode (hex)||U+025F U+0361 U+029D|
The voiced palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨ɟ͡ʝ⟩ and ⟨ɟ͜ʝ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is J\_j\. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding ⟨ɟʝ⟩ in the IPA and J\j\ in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences. Polish words czysta ('clean (f.)', pronounced with an affricate /t͡ʂ/) and trzysta ('three hundred', pronounced with a sequence /tʂ/) are an example of a minimal pair based on such a contrast.
This sound is the non-sibilant equivalent of the voiced alveolo-palatal affricate.
It occurs in such languages as Hungarian and Skolt Sami, among others. The voiced palatal affricate is quite rare; it is mostly absent from Europe as a phoneme (it occurs as an allophone in most Spanish dialects), with the aforementioned Uralic languages and Albanian being exceptions. It usually occurs with its voiceless counterpart, the voiceless palatal affricate.
Features of the voiced palatal affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. It is not a sibilant.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Albanian||Various Tosk dialects||gjë||[ɟ͡ʝə]||'thing'|
|Hungarian||gyár||[ɟ͡ʝaːr]||'factory'||See Hungarian phonology|
|Norwegian||Central dialects||leggja||[leɟ͡ja]||'lay'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Skolt Sami||vuõˊlǧǧem||[vʲuɘlɟ͡ʝːɛm]||'I leave'|
|Spanish||Castilian||yate||[ˈɟ͡jate̞]||'yacht'||Occurs only in the onset. See Spanish phonology|
- Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
- Menéndez García, Manuel (1965), El Cuarto de los Valles (Un habla del occidente astur) (in Spanish), IDEA, pp. 147–148
- Skjekkeland, Martin (1997), Dei norske dialektane: Tradisjonelle særdrag i jamføring med skriftmåla (in Norwegian), Høyskoleforlaget (Norwegian Academic Press)