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|Founded by||British India|
|• City||12.95 km2 (5.00 sq mi)|
|Elevation||89 m (292 ft)|
|• Rank||19th in West Bengal|
|• Density||8,300/km2 (21,000/sq mi)|
|• Additional official||English|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
735 101-735 110 (city limits), 735120-735134 (suburbs)
|Vehicle registration||WB-71, WB-72 2|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Jalpaiguri, Alipurduar|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Jalpaiguri, Rajganj (SC), Maynaguri, Dabgram Fulbari|
|Precipitation||3,341 mm (132 in)|
|Avg. annual temperature||23.2 °C (74 °F)|
|Avg. summer temperature (April to May)||25.6 °C (78 °F)|
|Avg. winter temperature ( December to February)||16.5 °C (62 °F)|
|1The coordinates given here are in metric system and based upon the Microsoft Encarta Reference Library Map Center 2005 2 The Vehicle Code given here based upon the Jalpaiguri District Court documentations.|
Jalpaiguri is a city in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the largest city and the headquarters of the Jalpaiguri district as well as of the Jalpaiguri division of West Bengal, covering the jurisdiction of the five districts of North Bengal. The city is located on the banks of the Teesta River which is the second largest river in West Bengal after the Ganges, on the foothills of the Himalayas. The city is the home to the circuit bench of the Kolkata High Court, the other seat being at Port Blair in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Jalpaiguri features the Jalpaiguri Government Engineering College, the second campus of the University of North Bengal, the newly built Jalpaiguri Medical College and the Biswa Bangla Krirangan/ Jalpaiguri Sports Village. It lies 35 km east of its twin city, Siliguri. The merging of the two cities makes it the largest metropolis of the region.
The name "Jalpaiguri" most probably comes from the Bhutanese term je-le-pe-go-ri, meaning a place where warm clothes are traded, suggesting a trading centre. Another suggestion is that it is from the word "Jalpai" meaning olive, and "Guri" meaning a place. The city once had many olive trees.
The Raikat family controlled large estates in Baikunthapur, now a part of West Bengal, first as subjects to the state of Koch Bihar, later as Zamindars to the Mughal rulers of Bengal, and then to the British. The Raikat family is descended from the Koch dynasty, who took control of the Kamata Kingdom in 1515. The family founder was Sisya Singha, elder brother of Viswa Singha, the second Koch Maharajah. At Viswa Singha's coronation in 1523, Sisya Singha held the royal umbrella atop the crown, a sign of vassalage. Sisya Singha was given the title "Raikat" or "family guardian", and his descendants were hereditary prime ministers of the Koch Bihar successor state to the Kamata kingdom. They were given the land of Baikunthapur in the present Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal.
Jalpaiguri is located at  It has an average elevation of 89 metres (297 feet). Jalpaiguri lies at the middle of the vast fertile plains (Terai) south of the Himalayas, watered by numerous rivers and rivulets rising from and flowing down the Himalayas. Other than the Teesta, the Karala River, nicknamed the "Thames of Jalpaiguri", flows through the city thereby bisecting it into two-halves..
Jalpaiguri city has many areas. From north to south, Patkata, Denguajhar, Paharpur, Shantipara, Rajbaripara, Raikatpara, Senpara, Postal colony, Ashrampara, Bowbazar, Pandapara are observed.
From west to east, Assam more, Maskalaibari, 73 more, Deshbandhupara, Kadamtala, Surf more, Panpara, Natunpara, Babupara, Hakimpara are noticed. Jalpaiguri ends at Teesta river, in the east. Teesta separates Jalpaiguri from Mainaguri.
The city of Jalpaiguri experiences three seasons mainly, namely summer, monsoons and winter. Two minor seasons, spring and autumn are also observed.
In April and May, Jalpaiguri feels a tropical summer with maximum temperatures ranging between 26-34 °C. The highest recorded temperature in Jalpaiguri was 41.3 °C. Monsoons (June to September) are very severe with the city experiencing high amount of rainfall, which may extend up to 200 mm, stalling all life and activities. The average annual rainfall is about 3341 mm, and July is the wettest month (806 mm). The winters, which are seen between mid November to February, again quite cool, with the cold Himalayan winds blowing straight into the city. The minimum temperatures are around 7-10 °C during this period. The lowest recorded temperature in Jalpaiguri City was 2.1 °C . Spring, the most pleasant time, is felt in March while the autumn is felt in October to mid November. Average temperature of the warmest month, August, is 28.8 °C and average temperature of the coldest month, January is 15.9 °C. However, the climate has undergone a drastic change in the past few years, with the mercury rising and the rainfall decreasing each year.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Climate data for Jalpaiguri, Extremes (1901-2012)
|Record high °C (°F)||32.4
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||26.0
|Average high °C (°F)||23.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||15.9
|Average low °C (°F)||8.8
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||5.6
|Record low °C (°F)||2.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||8
|Average rainy days||3||5||7||12||21||28||30||26||26||14||4||5||181|
|Average relative humidity (%)||74||70||61||78||83||88||90||85||83||78||64||75||77|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||180.0||180.8||213.9||141.0||99.2||78.0||71.3||114.7||90.0||158.1||198.0||176.5||1,701.5|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||6.0||6.4||6.9||4.7||3.2||2.6||2.3||3.7||3.0||5.1||6.6||5.7||4.7|
|Source 1: www.weatheronline.in|
|Source 2: "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" page no. M236, published by India Meteorological Department in December 2016|
According to the 2011 census, Jalpaiguri had a population of 107,341 (53,708 male and 53,633 female) while the Metropolitan region had a population of 169,002; 85,226 males and 83,787 females. The 0–6 years population was 14,522. Effective literacy rate for the 7+ population was 86.43 per cent.
Jalpaiguri has a majority population of Bengalis, following Hinduism. The second largest religion followed in the city is Islam, (mainly Sunni). Other minority communities include Gorkhas (Nepali), Marwaris, Biharis, Punjabis, and Manipuri. There is a notable part of the population who claim to be Shia Muslims, which fall under the minority.
Civic administration is the responsibility of the Jalpaiguri Municipality which is the sixth oldest one in West Bengal after that of Kolkata, Howrah, Berhampore, Burdwan and Siuri. Set up in 1885, it is headed by a chairman who is elected by the all residents of the city. It has 45 wards that elect the ward councillors. The All India Trinamool Congress is in power of this municipal body. The chairman of the municipality is Mohan Bose.
Jalpaiguri has been witnessing radical changes, along with rapid development in segments like industry, real estate, and information technology firms, and education, since the advent of the twenty-first century. The changes are with respect to infrastructure and industrial growth for steel (direct reduced iron), metal, cement and knowledge-based industries. Many engineering, technology, management, and professional study colleges have opened at Jalpaiguri. Housing co-operatives and flats, shopping malls, multiplexes, cineplexes a science and energy park, a software technology park (STPI), hotels and stadiums have also come up.
Jalpaiguri has its own bank, the Jalpaiguri Central Co-operative Bank, whose head office is located at Temple Street of the city. Founded in 1919, it has more than 20 branches with ATMs spread across North Bengal.
The municipality is responsible for providing basic services, such as potable water and sanitation. The water is supplied by the municipal authorities using its groundwater resources, and almost all the houses in the municipal area are connected through the system. Solid waste is collected every day by the city van from individual houses. The surface drains, mostly uncemented, drain into the Teesta River. Electricity is supplied by the West Bengal State Electricity Board, and the West Bengal Fire Service provides emergency services like fire tenders. Almost all the roads are metalled (macadam), and street lighting is available throughout the city. The Public Works Department is responsible for road maintenance in the city and on the roads connecting Jalpaiguri with other cities and towns in the region. Health services in Jalpaiguri include a government-owned District Hospital, a Regional Cancer Centre, a local T.B. Hospital, and private hospitals, clinics and nursing homes.
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Public transport includes cycle rickshaws, auto rickshaws, local buses and tempos. There is no metered vehicular transport. While 6-seater city autos ply between two fixed destinations of about 10–15 km, one can hire petrol-driven auto rickshaws from auto stands at a rate fixed by the municipal authorities. A total of 16,000 rickshaws licensed by the municipal corporation.
Jalpaiguri city region has four important railway stations:-
- Jalpaiguri Town is the oldest station in the area.
- Jalpaiguri Road was opened in 1944 and is the primarily crucial railway station of the city.
- Mohitnagar lies at Mohitnagar in the Haldibari-New Jalpaiguri line.
- Raninagar Jalpaiguri Junction is situated at the further western part of the city. The railway station serves Jalpaiguri, Raninagar and other nearby places.
The Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Central Bus Terminus situated next to the North Bengal State Transport Corporation (NBSTC) Bus Terminal is a major stop for most private and state-owned buses in the region. The Royal Government of Bhutan also operates buses from Jalpaiguri to its border town Jaigaon/ Phuentsholing, Bhutan. Air conditioned sleeper coach bus service is also available from Jalpaiguri to Kolkata (Banglashree Express). There are several bus stands in Jalpaiguri:-
- NBSTC Depot: Government buses are available from here.
- Kadamtala Bus Terminus: Private buses to Siliguri and Islampur are available from here.
- Super Bus Stand near the Jalpaiguri railway station – Super (or non-stop) bus services to Siliguri are available from here.
- Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Private Bus Terminus: Buses to the Dooars region, i.e., Malbazar, Birpara, are available from here.
- Bowbazaar Bus Stand: Bus services to Haldibari are available from here.
Bagdogra Airport is an international airport located towards the west of Jalpaiguri (some 45 kilometers away from the city centre), operated as a civil enclave at AFS Bagdogra of the Indian Air Force. This airport is a major transport hub in the region with flights connecting Kolkata, New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Chandigarh, Guwahati, Dibrugarh, Imphal, etc. and has international connectivity with Paro, Kathmandu and Bangkok. The airport also has regular helicopter services to Gangtok.
Major festivals observed at Jalpaiguri include Durga puja, Chhath Puja, Ganesh puja, Laxmi puja, Saraswati puja, and Diwali. Boishakhi Mela is one of the oldest fairs in Jalpaiguri which takes place in the Bengali month of Baisakh (i.e., April–May).
Lot of fairs and carnivals take place in Jalpaiguri. The most popular fairs in Jalpaiguri are Baisakhi Mela, Hasta Shilpa Mela, Book Fair, and Lexpo Fair. Most of the fairs happens in the Jalpaiguri Sports Village, Jalpaiguri District Sports Complex Stadium or the Town Club Stadium.  The city hosts group theatres, music and dance schools and night clubs.
Jalpaiguri's schools are run by the state government or private organisations, many of which are religious. Bengali and English are the primary languages of instruction; Nepali and Hindi are also used. Schools in Jalpaiguri follow the "10+2+3" plan. After completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in schools that have a higher secondary facility and are affiliated with the West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education, the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), or the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). They usually choose a focus on liberal arts, business, or science. Vocational programs are also available. In 2012, the Government proposed a medical college for the suburb of Paharpur.
Colleges include the Ananda Chandra College, Ananda Chandra College of Commerce, P.D. Women's College, St. Xavier's College, all of which are affiliated with the University of North Bengal. Also, since 2011, the second campus of the university with the same name provides with master's degrees in arts, sciences, and commerce. Jalpaiguri Polytechnic Institute, is a Government Diploma level institute with 3 yrs.(10+) Civil, Electrical, Mechanical & Automobile Engineering and 2 yrs.(12+) The Institute of Pharmacy, Jalpaiguri is the sole pharmacist college in the region which offers pharmacy courses under West Bengal State Council of Technical Education, Kolkata. There is also an industrial training institute in the city. 
The Jalpaiguri Government Engineering College is an autonomous institution of the Government of West Bengal under the Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology. It is located near the National Highway 27 (West Bengal State Highway 12A) at Denguajhar, Jalpaiguri. The construction of the new medical college has shortly began in the Paharpur suburb of the city. Jalpaiguri Law College is the city's law college.
- Newspaper: English-language newspapers include the Times of India, The Economic Times, The Asian Age, The Statesman and The Telegraph. Several Bengali newspapers, including Anandabazar Patrika,Uttarbanga Sambad, Bartaman, Ganashakti, Aajkaal and Pratidin are also available.
- Radio: In addition to All India Radio, other private FM radio stations of Radio High 92.7 MHz, Red FM 93.5 MHz and Radio Misty 94.3 MHz are available from the city.
- Television : Jalpaiguri receives almost all the television channels that are received by the rest of India. Apart from the state-owned terrestrial network Doordarshan, cable television serves most of the homes in the city, while satellite television is common in the outlying areas and in wealthier households. Besides mainstream Indian channels, the city also receives some Nepali and Bangladeshi television channels. Local news broadcasts, sporting events, and concerts are broadcast live or delayed via cable to many households. DTH services by government and private companies are also available such as Tata Sky, Dish TV, Videocon d2h, Airtel Digital TV and Reliance Digital TV. Jalpaiguri has four local channels – JCC, CCN, Uttarer Mon and Amar Cable.
- Internet: Internet cafes can be found in the main market area, served through broadband services provided by BSNL and other private companies like MetroNET (Orange Networks) and Sinet (JCC and CCN).
- Mobile phone: The area is serviced by cell phone companies such as Idea, Vodafone, Jio (4G), Airtel, Aircel, BSNL, Reliance, Tata Indicom, MTS, Tata Docomo, Virgin Mobile and Uninor. And also has 3G network of BSNL, Reliance, Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, and Aircel.
Table tennis, cricket, taekwondo, chess and football are the most popular sports here. The Jalpaiguri District Sports Complex Stadium and the Town Club Stadium are the city's only outdoor stadiums and have hosted many state and national level matches. The stadium houses the Sports Authority of India sports hostel for athletes. There are three indoor stadiums at Shilpasamitipara, Raikatpara and Hakimpara, respectively in the southern part of the city. The new stadium next to Sports Complex has facilities for lawn tennis, badminton, table tennis, and other indoor sports.
- Raikatpara Palace Gate
- Bay of the River Teesta
- Rajbari Dighi, an urban lake attached just opposite to the Baikunthapur Palace
- Teesta Uddyan
- Jubilee Park
- The Alley on the banks of the river Karala
- Spurs of the Teesta
- Mandalghat, meeting point of Teesta and Karala river
- Gorumara National Park, Malbazar, Jalpaiguri district
- Chapramari Wildlife Sanctuary
- Royal Palace of Baikunthapur Royal Estate, at Rajbaripara. The building has made in the early twentieth century in place of the old palace by Raja Jayantadev Raikot.
- Rabindra Bhawan (also called the Arya Natya Samaj), a cultural centre
- Jogomaya Kalibari, a famous temple dedicated to the Goddess Kali on Temple Street. It also houses a temple of Baba Loknath.
- Sri Adyashakti Ma Bhramari Devi Temple, one of the 51 Shakti Peethas
- Devi Chaudhurani Mandir- It is believed that Devi Chaudhurani the bandit queen from the novel of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, has her Kali Temple near the banks of the Karala River and has an underground subway to the banks of Teesta.
- St. Michael and All Angels' Church – A one and half century old church located on the banks of the river Karala, Near the District Magistrate's Office. It is one of the last colonial era structures in the town that is actively taken care of.
- P. K. Banerjee, football player and coach who represented India at the international level.
- Swapna Barman, the heptathlete was born here.
- Ratan Lal Basu, fiction writer in English.
- Moushumi Bhowmik , eminent singer-songwriter was born here.
- Mimi Chakraborty, Tollywood actress and Member of Parliament from Jadavpur constituency.
- Bappi Lahiri, Indian singer.
- Samaresh Majumdar, Bengali author of novels like Uttoradhikar, Kalpurush, and Kaalbela.
- Khaleda Zia, Prime Minister of Bangladesh in 1991 to 1996 & 2001 to 2006.
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