Ethnopluralism

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Ethnopluralism or ethno-pluralism is the acknowledgment of the diversity of different ethnic groups. Ethnopluralism brings together the philosophical doctrine of pluralism (often referred to as the doctrine of multiplicity) and applies the concept to ethnicity

"Cultural differentialism" is the view that cultures are clearly bound entities with a specific geographical location. From this perspective, global cultural diversity takes the form of a cultural mosaic, with a multiplicity of diverse cultures clearly delimited and with strict boundaries between them.[1]

Terminology[edit]

Ethnopluralism goes against liberal multiculturalism and emphasizes the separation of varying ethnic and cultural groups, in contrast to cultural integration and intra-cultural diversity. According to ethnomusicologist Benjamin R. Teitelbaum, the term "ethnopluralism" was first coined by German sociologist Henning Eichberg in an essay that was written in opposition to both Western and European eurocentrism.[2] It has been part of the ideological foundation of the European New Right, which has used ethnopluralism to express its favoritism towards the cultural identity of individual groups, thus expressing its opposition to heterogeneity within cultures.[3] As argued by many supporters of pluralism (which denotes a diversity of standpoints and systems rather than a single one), this sort of integration and diversification is likely to be a problem for societies of multiple ethnocultural groups that are oriented around the idea of separation as a means of a more cooperative integration.[4]

Ethnopluralists use the concept of cultural differentialism to assert a "right to difference" and argue for regional policies of ethnic separatism and racial separatism, but stress that each ethnic group and racial group should be considered equal on its own merit. This right-wing view of culture, ethnicity and race has become increasingly popular in the ideological discourse of several right-wing and far-right groups in Europe since the 1970s, and has penetrated the discourse of a postmodern Left (i.e. Telos).[1]

Two parts of Ethnopluralism[edit]

In two separate cases, ethnopluralism involves the implication of two policies. The first policy is maintaining the cultural space and identity of a community. The second policy utilizes a common culture as a type of mechanism in the formation of a nation that has proper protocol for dealing with community affairs.[5]

Ethnopluralism as a policy[edit]

Ethnopluralism, in contemporary postnationalist societies, has been perceived as a medium that answers the problems brought on by unsuccessful attempts to try and bring together people of diverse backgrounds and conflicting differences.[6] Along with this, avoiding potential cultural extinction due to diversification, preservation of European values, and separation from immigrants coming from non-European countries or backgrounds that are not in line with Pan-European identity, have been cited as rationale in the utilization of ethnopluralism as a governing policy for different European countries.[7] This is particular among countries that have made transitions from communism to a democracy.[8] In turn, it is difficult to rely on more realistic substitutes for ethnopluralism, because while the preservation of the equal rights of ethnic groups is apparent, ethnopluralism can still be problematic if there is a gap created between ethnopluralist countries and conformist culture and communities.

A leading proponent of ethnopluralism is the French New Right (Nouvelle Droite) philosopher Alain de Benoist, who claims that indigenous cultures in Europe are being stamped out and that pan-European nationalism based on ethnopluralism and "ethnoregionalism" would be the way to stop this process.[1]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Teitelbaum, Benjamin (2013). “Come Hear Our Merry Song:” Shifts in the Sound of Contemporary Swedish Radical Nationalism. Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Spektorowska, Alberto (2003). "The New Right: ethno-regionalism, ethno-pluralism and the emergence of a neo-fascist 'Third Way'". Retrieved 2010-06-03. 
  2. ^ Teitelbaum 2013:103-105
  3. ^ McCulloch, Tom (2006-08-01). "The Nouvelle Droite in the 1980s and 1990s: Ideology and Entryism, the Relationship with the Front National". French Politics. 4 (2): 158–178. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200099. ISSN 1476-3419. 
  4. ^ Karklins, Rasma (2000-06-01). "Ethnopluralism: Panacea for east Central Europe?". Nationalities Papers. 28 (2): 219–241. doi:10.1080/713687469. ISSN 0090-5992. 
  5. ^ Karklins, Rasma (2000-06-01). "Ethnopluralism: Panacea for east Central Europe?". Nationalities Papers. 28 (2): 219–241. doi:10.1080/713687469. ISSN 0090-5992. 
  6. ^ Rydgren, Jens (2007). "The Sociology of the Radical Right" (PDF). http://jensrydgren.com/. Annual Review of Sociology. Retrieved 2017-01-29.  External link in |website= (help)
  7. ^ Karklins, Rasma (2000-06-01). "Ethnopluralism: Panacea for east Central Europe?". Nationalities Papers. 28 (2): 219–241. doi:10.1080/713687469. ISSN 0090-5992. 
  8. ^ Karklins, Rasma. "Ethnopluralism: Panacea for east Central Europe?". Nationalities Papers. 28 (2): 219–241. doi:10.1080/713687469.