Shantou dialect

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Shantou dialect
Swatow
汕頭話/Suan¹tao⁵ uê⁷
Native toChina
RegionMainly in Shantou, southwestern Guangdong province.
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologshan1244[1]
Linguasphere79-AAA-jif
Shantou map2005.jpg
     Shantou dialect

The Shantou dialect, formerly known as the Swatow dialect, is a dialect mostly spoken in Shantou in Guangdong, China. It is a sub-dialect of the Teochew variety of Southern Min.[2]

Phonology[edit]

Shantou dialect has 18 initials, 61 rimes and 8 tones.

Initials[edit]

Stop Affricate Fricative Nasal Lateral
Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiceless Voiced Voiced
Tenuis Aspirated Tenuis Tenuis Aspirated
Bilabial p

b
m
Alveolar t

ts
tsʰ
s
z
n
l
Velar k

g
ŋ
Glottal ʔ
h

Rimes[edit]

i
u
a
ia
ua
o
io
e
ue
ɯ
ai
uai
oi
ui
au
iau
ou
iu
ĩ
ã
ĩã

ĩõ

ɯ̃
ãĩ
õĩ
im
am
iam



iaŋ
uaŋ

ioŋ

ɤŋ


iaʔ
uaʔ

ioʔ

oiʔ
iuʔ
ip̚
ap̚
iap̚
uap̚
ik̚
uk̚
ak̚
iak̚
uak̚
ok̚
iok̚
ek̚

Tones[edit]

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Tones dark level
陰平
dark rising
陰上
dark departing
陰去
dark entering
陰入
light level
陽平
light rising
陽上
light departing
陽去
light entering
陽入
Tone contour ˧˧ (33) ˥˧ (53) ˨˩˧ (213) ˨ (2) ˥˥ (55) ˧˥ (35) ˩˩ (11) ˥ (5)
Example Hanzi

Tone sandhi[edit]

Shantou dialect has extremely extensive tone sandhi rules: in an utterance, only the last syllable pronounced is not affected by the rules. The two-syllable tonal sandhi rules are shown in the table below:

Tone sandhi of first syllable
Original citation tone Tone sandhi
dark level
33
23
light level
55
21
dark rising
53
35
light rising
35
21
dark departing
213
55
light departing
11
12
dark entering
2
5
light entering
5
2

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Shantou". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Shantou Dialect entry in Glossika

Further reading[edit]