Taiwanese cuisine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ta-a noodles from Tō͘-sió-goe̍h (度小月) of Tainan region

Taiwanese cuisine (Chinese: 臺灣菜; pinyin: Táiwāncài; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-oân-chhài, Bopomofo:ㄊㄞˊㄨㄢˉㄌㄧㄠˋㄌㄧˇ, or 臺灣料理; Táiwān liàolǐ; Tâi-oân liāu-lí) has several variations. In addition to dishes from the majority Hoklo, there are also indigenous Taiwanese peoples, Hakka, Waishengren, and local derivatives of Japanese cuisine, as well as other types of Chinese cuisine from outside Taiwan or Fujian.

Taiwanese cuisine itself is often associated with influences from mid to southern provinces of mainland China, most notably from the south of Fujian (Hokkien) which often leads to it being classified as or grouped with 'Southern Fujianese cuisine'. However, influences from all of mainland China can easily be found after the Kuomintang retreat to the island which brought along many mainland Chinese cuisines. A notable Japanese influence also exists due to the period when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. Traditional Chinese food can be found in Taiwan, alongside Fujian and Hakka-style as well as native Taiwanese dishes, including dishes from Guangdong, Jiangxi, Chaoshan, Shanghai, Hunan, Sichuan and Beijing.

Ingredients and culture[edit]

At a Fruit and Vegetable Market in Taihoku 1938-1942
Fishing port in Penghu County.

Taiwanese culinary history is murky and is intricately tied to patterns of migration and colonization. Both locally and internationally Taiwanese cuisine, particularly its history, is a politically contentious topic.[1] Pork, seafood, chicken, rice, and soy are common ingredients. Beef is far less common, and some Taiwanese (particularly the elderly generation) still refrain from eating it.[2] A traditional reluctance towards slaughtering precious cattle needed for agriculture, and an emotional attachment and feeling of gratitude and thanks to the animals traditionally used for very hard labor.[2] However, due to influences from the influx of out of province Chinese in the early 1900s, the Taiwanese version of beef noodle soup is now one of the most popular dishes in Taiwan. American food aid in the decades following WWII which primarily consisted of wheat, beef, and spam like processed meats forever changed the Taiwanese diet with wheat based noodles, breads, and dumplings taking a more central role in the cuisine.[1]

During the Japanese Colonial period Taiwanese cuisine was divided with high-end restaurants, known as wine houses, serving Chinese influenced cuisine such as Peking duck, shark fin with bird's nest soup and braised turtle to the colonial elite while those without wealth or connections primarily ate rice, porridge, pickled vegetables, and sweet potato leaves. Cooking oil was considered a luxury and was only used for special occasions.[3]

Taiwan's cuisine has also been influenced by its geographic location. Living on a crowded island, the Taiwanese had to look aside from the farmlands for sources of protein. As a result, seafood figures prominently in their cuisine. This seafood encompasses many different things, from large fish such as tuna and grouper,[4] to sardines and even smaller fish such as anchovies. Crustaceans, squid and cuttlefish are also eaten.[citation needed] Milkfish is the most popular fish in Taiwanese cuisine, it is valued for its versatility as well as its tender meat and economical price.[5]

Because of the island's sub-tropical location, Taiwan has an abundant supply of various fruit, such as papayas, starfruit, melons, and citrus fruit. A wide variety of tropical fruits, imported and native, are also enjoyed in Taiwan. Other agricultural products in general are rice, corn, tea, pork, poultry, beef, fish and other fruits and vegetables. Fresh ingredients in Taiwan are readily available from markets.

In many of their dishes, the Taiwanese have shown their creativity in their selection of spices. Taiwanese cuisine relies on an abundant array of seasonings for flavor: soy sauce, rice wine, sesame oil, fermented black beans, pickled radish, pickled mustard greens, peanuts, chili peppers, cilantro (sometimes called Chinese parsley), and a local variety of basil (九層塔; káu-chàn-tha̍h; 'nine-story pagoda').

An important part of Taiwanese cuisine are xiaochi,[6] substantial snacks along the lines of Spanish tapas or Levantine meze.[1]

The Taiwanese xiaochi has gained much reputation internationally. Many travelers go to Taiwan just for xiǎochī. The most common place to enjoy xiǎochī in Taiwan is in a night market. Each night market also has its own famous xiǎochī.[1]

Moreover, the Taiwanese xiǎochī has been improving to a higher level. Nowadays, Taiwanese xiǎochī not only served in night markets but some luxury and high-end restaurants. These restaurants use higher quality ingredients and creative presentations, reinventing dishes whilst keeping the robust flavors. The prices usually jump by twice the price or even higher in the restaurants. The Taiwanese government supports the Taiwanese xiǎochī and has held national xiǎochī events in Taiwan regularly.

Regional specialities[edit]

A Fenchihu Bento box
Defining dishes by Region
Region Dish Han Characters Taiwanese Hokkien (Tâi-lô) Description
Changhua ba-wan 肉圓 bah-ôan Literally meaning 'meat sphere'. They are a kind of large dumpling made from a gelatinous tapioca starch dough and stuffed with pork and vegetables, most commonly mushrooms and bamboo shoots.[5]
Chiayi turkey rice 火雞肉飯 hoe-koe bah-pn̄g Bowls of rice with shredded turkey layered on top, often accompanied by pickled radish. The rice is drizzled with a kind of gravy made from the turkey drippings and soy sauce.[7]
Chiayi/Tainan Coffin bread 棺材板 koann-chhâ-páng Similar to French toast or bread bowl soups, but filled with savory fillings, such as black pepper beef or curried chicken. Thick-cut bread is dipped in egg, deep fried, cut along three sides, opened and filled, and eaten.[8]
Daxi Daxi dried tofu 大溪豆乾 Tāi-khe tāu-koaⁿ Firm tofu fried and braised in a sweet soy-based sauce and then dried.
Hsinchu pork balls 貢丸 kòng-ôan Often eaten in soup (; thng).
Hsinchu rice vermicelli 米粉 bí-hún Thin al-dente rice noodles. Often eaten 'dry' (; ta/kan, without soup) with mushroom and ground pork.
Nantou yi mein 意麵 ì-mī Soft tender noodles in soup.
Taichung suncake 太陽餅 One of the most noted pastries of Taichung. It is a baked layered puff pastry with a sweet center often made with honey or molasses. Also, Nagasaki-style Castella and nougats.
Tainan ta-a noodles 擔仔麵 tàⁿ-á-mī Also known as slack season noodles. Yellow "oily noodles" served with minced pork, shrimp, bean sprouts, cilantro, black vinegar, garlic, soy sauce and egg.[5]
Tainan shrimp and pork meatballs 蝦仁肉丸 hê-jîn bah-ôan Shrimp crackers/biscuits are among the most notable local dishes. Another popular dish originating in Tainan is "oily rice" (台南油飯; Tâi-lâm iû-pn̄g), a rice dish containing savory oils and shredded pork meat, mushrooms and dried shrimp.
Tamsui a-gei 阿給 a-geh Deep-fried tofu that have been stuffed with crystal noodles and sealed with fish paste and drizzled with spicy sauce on the outside.[9]
Tamsui Tamsui fish ball 魚丸 hî-ôan Tamsui is near the ocean, therefore, it is a good place to try their fish balls, which are balls of fish paste stuffed with meat and garlic cooked in light broth.
Tamsui iron eggs 鐵蛋 thih-nn̄g Eggs that have been repeatedly stewed in a mix of spices and air-dried. The resulting eggs are dark brown, chewy and more flavorful than ordinary boiled eggs.[5]

Typical dishes[edit]

Gua-bao with traditional fillings
Pig's blood cake (豬血糕, ti-huih-ko) on a stick
Braised pork (炕肉, khòng-bah) to be served with rice
Many flavors of Taiwanese sausages are sold by night market vendors
Pork and shiitake geng over rice from an eatery in Taichung
Common English term Han Characters Taiwanese Hokkien (Tâi-lô) Mandarin Pinyin Influence Description
Gua bao 刈包 koah-pau guàbāo Fujian A flat, clam-shaped steamed white bun with soy sauce braised porkbelly, pickled mustard vegetables, peanut powder, sugar, and cilantro inside.[1]
Cuttlefish geng 魷魚羹 jiû-hî keⁿ yóuyúgēng Local A clear thick soup with cuttlefish covered in fish paste.
Oyster omelette 蚵仔煎 ô-á-chian ézǐjiān Fujian Chewy omelette made with eggs, oysters, tapioca starch and Garland chrysanthemum leaves. It has a soft, sticky texture, and is eaten with a sweet and mildly spicy sauce, topped with cilantro. This dish is very common in night markets as it is the most popular snack in Taiwan.[10]
Oyster vermicelli 蚵仔麵線 ô-á mī-sòaⁿ ézǐ miànxiàn Local A thickened soup made of katsuobushi containing small oysters and steamed Chinese vermicelli.[1]
Bubble tea 珍珠奶茶 zhēnzhū nǎichá Local The original milk tea uses black tea and milk as well as sugar. The pearls or boba are tapioca pearls that are chewy. It is a very popular drink and was invented in Taichung[11]
Pig's blood cake 豬血糕 /
ti-huih-ko /
Fujian A Pig's blood cake made from pork blood and rice. It is usually cut into a rectangular piece and served on a stick, dipped in soy sauce, with the option of adding hot sauce, then topped with powdered peanut and cilantro.
Minced pork rice 滷肉飯/魯肉飯 ló͘-bah-pn̄g lǔròufàn Fujian Minced, cubed, or ground fatty pork, stewed in soy sauce and spices, then served on rice.
Braised pork rice 炕肉飯/爌肉飯 khòng-bah-pn̄g kàngròufàn Fujian Pork chunks, stewed in soy sauce and spices, then served on rice.[1]
Small sausage in large sausage 大腸包小腸 tōa-tn̂g pau sió-tn̂g dàcháng bāo xiǎocháng Local A grilled Taiwanese pork sausage wrapped in a grilled, salty, sticky rice sausage. Usually wrapped with garlic and basil. Customer can also choose the flavor they want, such as black pepper, garlic, chili, butter and chocolate. A Taiwanese snack, common in night markets.
Three cups chicken 三杯雞 sam-poe-koe sānbēijī Jiangxi A chicken dish which literally translates as "three cups chicken", named because the sauce is made of a cup of rice wine, a cup of sesame oil, and a cup of soy sauce. Alternatively, the sauce can also be made of a cup each of rice wine, sugar and soy sauce.[1]
Dried radish omelet 菜脯蛋 chhài-pó͘-nn̄g càifǔdàn Local Finely cut Taiwanese-style preserved white radish cooked into an omelet
olen 黑輪 o-lien' Hēi lún Japan This is used fish cake, a fish sauce made with fish soup, than cooked in a pot with different ingredients, similar to Oden.
Cucumber pork 瓜子肉 koe-á bah guāzǐròu Guangdong Steamed, minced pork with Taiwanese-style pickled cucumber.
Spicy hotpot 麻辣鍋 ba-luah e málàguō Sichuan It is increasingly popular, especially in Taipei. The soup of this hotpot is very spicy, inclusive of Chinese herbs and other special materials. People can cook what they want with this soup.[1]
Eel noodles 鱔魚意麵 siān-hî ì-mī shànyú yìmiàn Local Rice eel with Yi mein in a starch-thickened sweet and sour soup.
Tamsui a-gei 淡水阿給 Tām-chúi a-geh Dànshuǐ āgěi Local Steamed aburaage tofu stuffed with cooked cellophane noodles and covered with surimi
Iron eggs 鐵蛋 thih-nn̄g tiědàn Local Eggs stewed in soy sauce, usually with their shells still on but cracked throughout, until they are flavorful and chewy in texture.
Caozaiguo 草仔粿 chháu-á-kóe / chháu-á-ké cǎozaǐguǒ Fujian A type of kuih made with glutinous rice flour, sugar, and a ground cooked paste of Jersey cudweed or Chinese mugwort. Often filled with dried shrimp, shiitake mushrooms, white radish (菜脯), and deep-fried shallots.

Vegetarian restaurants are commonplace with a wide variety of dishes, mainly due to the influence of Buddhism and other syncretistic religions like I-Kuan Tao.[2] These vegetarian restaurants vary in style from all-you-can-eat to pay-by-the-weight and of course the regular order-from-a-menu. Vegetarian restaurants and foods are often marked with a left facing swastika.[12]

There is a type of outdoor barbecue called khòng-iô [zh]. To barbecue in this manner, one first builds a hollow pyramid up with dirt clods. Next, charcoal or wood is burnt inside until the temperature inside the pyramid is very high (the dirt clods should be glowing red). The ingredients to be cooked, such as taro, yam, or chicken, are placed in cans, and the cans are placed inside the pyramid. Finally, the pyramid is toppled over the food until cooked.

Many non-dessert dishes are usually considered snacks, not entrees; that is, they have a similar status to Cantonese dim sum or Spanish tapas. Such dishes are usually only slightly salted, with many vegetables accompanying the main meat or seafood item.


A plate of baobing with strawberries and condensed milk
  • Aiyu jelly – a gelatinous dessert made from the seeds of a creeping fig, Ficus pumila var. awkeotsang. Served on ice.[1][5]
  • Baobing (also known as chhoah-peng) – a Chinese shaved ice dessert very common in China, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Vietnam.[1]
  • Bubble tea, aka boba milk tea; also known as pearl milk tea - chewy tapioca balls added to milk tea.[5]
  • Traditional cakes are not always of the same composition depending on the flavor. There is the moon cake which has a thick filling usually made from lotus seed paste or sweetened red bean paste and surrounded by a relatively thin (2–3 mm) crust and may contain yolks from salted duck eggs. It is traditionally eaten during the festival for lunar worship and moon watching. Mooncakes are offered between friends or on family gatherings while celebrating the festival. The Mid-Autumn Festival is one of the four most important Chinese festivals.
There are other cakes that can mix salty ingredients with sweet ones to create a balance while enjoying these delicacies with tea. The crust could be shiny from applying a layer of egg yolk before putting in the oven, or not in that case it is often whiter and the crust has more layers.
  • Grass jelly (Chinese: 仙草; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: sian-chháu) – (Mesona procumbens) Served hot or cold.
  • Moachi (麻糍; môa-chî), a soft rice cake like Japanese daifuku mochi. Flavors of the fillings can vary, ranging from all kinds of beans to nuts.[5]
  • O'ahping (芋仔冰; ō͘-á-peng) – an ice cream made of taro root paste.
  • Pineapple cake - a square short crust pie filled with pineapple filling. One of Taiwan's best known dessert pastries and souvenir of choice.[1]
  • Caozai Guo – Cakes made with a dough from glutinous rice flour and combine with a ground cooked paste of Gnaphalium affine or Mugwort to give it a unique flavor and green color. The dough is commonly filled with ground meat or sweet bean pastes.
  • Douhua (豆花) - Soft tofu served with syrup and toppings such as peanuts, adzuki beans, tapioca, and mung beans. Served hot or cold.
  • Chocolate - Taiwan's cocoa production is centered in Pingtung in Southern Taiwan. As of 2020 approximately 200-300 acres was under cultivation in Pingtung supporting around 30 chocolate making companies.[13][14] Taiwan is one of the few mature chocolate making countries to also be a cocoa producer.[13]

Night market dishes[edit]

Popiah, the wheat-based wrapper of which is unfried.
Grilled squid sold at a night market.
Taiwanese fried chicken (popcorn chicken)

Taiwan's best-known snacks are present in the night markets, where street vendors sell a variety of different foods, from finger foods, drinks, sweets, to sit-down dishes. In these markets, one can also find fried and steamed meat-filled buns, oyster-filled omelets, refreshing fruit ices, and much more. Aside from snacks, appetizers, entrees, and desserts, night markets also have vendors selling clothes, accessories, and offer all kinds of entertainment and products.[15]

In 2014 The Guardian called Taiwan's night markets the "best street food markets in the world".[15]

Common English term Han Characters Taiwanese Hokkien (Tâi-lô) Mandarin Pinyin Influence Description
Takoyaki 章魚燒 Japanese A ball-shaped snack that is filled with diced octopus and fried in a flour-based batter, and it can be eaten with condiments such as wasabi. They are commonly found at night markets.[16]
Wheel cake 車輪餅 chhia-lûn-piáⁿ chēlúnbǐng Japanese Pancake batter is poured into hot-metallic molds and gets quickly cooked into small cakes of various shapes. Countless variations exist. Sometimes the cakes have fillings ranging from cream, red bean paste, to peanut butter. Similar to Imagawayaki or Taiyaki
Stinky tofu 臭豆腐 chhàu-tāu-hū chòudòufǔ Chinese Stinky tofu is popular in Taiwan. It is called as "Stinky tofu" because of its strong unpleasant odour.[5] Back in the Qing dynasty, Stinky tofu was already a dish in the royal family's meal. Besides, it was also one of the favorite foods of the Empress Dowager Cixi. Stinky tofu can generally be classified into two main kinds, which are soft stinky tofu (臭豆腐乳) and dried stinky tofu (臭豆腐乾).
Taiwanese meatball 肉圓 bah-oân ròuyuán Local A sticky gelatinous tapioca dough filled with pork, bamboo shoots, shiitake mushrooms, and served with a savory sweet and spicy sauce.
Maize 玉米 yùmǐ American Vendors may specialize in one type of corn or they could offer varieties between savory/salty and sweet corn. The corn is either steamed, grilled, boiled, etc.
Taiwanese sausages 香腸 ian-chhiâng (煙腸) xiāngcháng Chinese Fatty pork sausages with a mild sweet taste. There are several different kinds. Kaoliang wine is sometimes used in the sausage recipe. In night markets they are often served on a stick with many different condiments. Sometimes, they are wrapped in glutinous rice. In the very early 1980s, when resources were still relatively scarce, the standard serving is one sausage link on a toothpick garnished with a clove of garlic.
Green onion pancake 蔥油餅 cōngyóubǐng Chinese Spring onion flour pancake with many thin layers, made with scallions (chopped green onions). Cheese and egg are popular additional fillings.[5] A snack originating in the Chinese mainland.
Tanghulu 糖葫蘆 tánghúlú Chinese Red candy coated bite-sized fruit served on a stick. Sometimes the fruit is stuffed with preserved plums, and then candied. Cherry tomatoes and strawberries are also used.
Grilled squid 烤花枝 kǎo huāzhī Japanese Grilled squid often marinated and basted while grilled.
Shaved ice 礤冰/剉冰/刨冰 chhoah-peng cuòbīng/bàobīng Local Finely shaven ice with a variety of toppings (peanuts, fruit, azuki beans, sweetened corn, and so on). Sometimes served drizzled with condensed milk.[5]
Tempura 甜不辣 tiánbùlà Japanese Deep-fried surimi and fish cakes simmered in broth and served with a sweet sauce. It is similar to Satsuma-age, which in some regions in Japan is called Tempura. Otherwise, it is not related to Japanese Tempura, similar to Japanese Oden.[5]
Taiwanese spring roll 潤餅 jūn-piáⁿ / lūn-piáⁿ rùnbǐng Fujian The Taiwanese spring roll is a semi-crispy super-thin flour crepe filled with a variety of filling, such as powdered sugar, peanut powder, egg, vegetables, pork and even seafood. Taiwanese spring rolls are made from the same dough as Western crêpes.
Shawarma 沙威馬 shāwēimǎ Western Asian A sandwich usually made from spiced, grilled chicken and served on a leavened, white flour bun with julienned cabbage, a slice of tomato, sliced onions, ketchup and mayonnaise. Brought over from Turkey decades ago, the seasoning is quite different from the seasoning used in making shawarma in Turkey.
Popcorn chicken 鹹酥雞/鹽酥雞 kiâm-so͘-ke / kiâm-so͘-koe xiánsūjī / yánsūjī American Popcorn chicken made from spiced, deep-fried chicken topped with salt and pepper and seasoned with fragrantly cooked basil. It is a delicious decadence loved by all for its juicy and tender texture.[5]
Fried chicken fillet 炸雞排 zhá jīpái American Fried chicken fillet is one of the most popular snacks in Taiwan.[5] Fried chicken fillets first appeared in Taiwan over 20 years ago but have changed over the years as vendors have concocted new flavors and preparation methods. Unlike the fried chicken served in most fast-food restaurants, this treat is made of chicken breast that has been pounded flat, marinated, battered and deep-fried. After cooking, a generous sprinkling of ground pepper is applied. It is crispy on the outside, tender and juicy on the inside.
  • Various drinks are also often sold, ranging from bubble tea stands to various juice and tea stands.[5]
  • Crêpes - Adapted from the original French version, a thin cooked pancake, it has a much crispier texture, rather like a cracker. They were popular in the early 2000s.
  • Fruit or bean smoothies - milk or ice is blended on the spot with fresh papaya, mango, watermelon, azuki bean, or mung bean.
  • Fried glutinous rice balls - slightly sweet.

Food of the Taiwanese Aborigines[edit]

Taiwan's food and food culture is very much diversified and largely influenced by the exodus of Han people. However, one part of the Taiwanese food culture that remains integral is that of the Taiwanese indigenous peoples. Though the indigenous population only make up less than 2% of Taiwan's overall population, it is notable that their foods eaten and ways of preparation are distinguishable from the more typical Chinese-influenced cuisine.

The aborigines' diet very much depends on nature. With profuse vegetation and wild animals, the aborigines were natural hunter-gatherers. Essentially, much of what Aborigines ate depended on their environment – that is, whether they lived in coastal or mountainous areas. Tribes like Amis, Atayal, Saisiyat and Bunun hunt what they can, and gather what they cultivate. On the other hand, tribes like the Yamis and the Thao have fish as a predominant source of food. Most foods consisted of millet, taro, sweet potato, wild greens and game like boar and rat. This is in contrast to the main foods eaten by the Han, which consisted of rice and chicken.

Game meats for those living in the mountainous areas include deer, and flying squirrel intestines, a delicacy as regarded by the Bunun people. Another is 'stinky' meat – that is, 'maggoty game' that has begun to rot, which is then barbecued, fried, seasoned with garlic and ginger then served with spicy sauce.

The Amis, apart from meat, had much greens to eat, largely due to the belief that anything a cow ate, was also edible by humans. The Bununs, who are primarily hunters of wild animals, would dine on stone-grilled pork, boar, deer, and hog roast. The Yami tribe, located off Taitung coast, fed on many types of fish, including the prized 'flying fish' (or Alibangbang). A speciality includes rice, mixed with river fish and wild vegetables, served in large bamboo trunks.

Apart from being a staple-food, millet was always produced as wine. Not just for drinking, millet wine played an important role in being used as offerings during festivals, births and weddings. Millet wines are all made in the homes of the Aborigines. Sticky rice is put into a wooden steamer after being soaked in water. Once cooled, the rice is put into a pot of water, then pulled out and combined with rice yeast. After four or five days of being placed in a large jar, the rice is placed in a sieve or rice bag, whilst the alcoholic liquid drips out and is stored away.

Also important to the Indigenous Taiwanese people's cuisine are the sweet potato and taro, favored for their perennial nature and low maintenance. The cultivation of root vegetables rather than typical seedling plants was notably prominent, with archaeological evidence suggesting as early as fourth millennium BC, from the Dapenkeng site, in Guanyin Mountain, New Taipei City.

Given the versatility of both vegetables, they were usually boiled or steamed, and eaten by itself or as ingredients in soups and strews. Without the need for advanced agricultural technology, taro and sweet potatoes were a prime preference for farming. Canadian missionary George MacKay said of 19th century Taiwan: 'the bulb of the sweet potato is planted in March. In about six weeks the vines are cut into pieces eight inches long, which are planted in drills, and from these vine-cuttings the bulbs grow and are ripe about the end of June. A second crop is planted in a similar way in July and is ripe in November.' (Ibid). The influence of sweet potatoes and taro has been vast. They are still widely present in modern-day Taiwan, be it on the streets, night markets, or in successful food chains like 'Meet Fresh' (or 鮮芋仙).

Due to the absence of contemporary culinary utensils such as the refrigerator, gas stovetops and ovens, the Indigenous resorted to other means to prepare their food. Upon bringing back hunted game meat, the Aborigines would preserve the meat with either millet wine or salt. Another cooking technique involved the heating up of stones by fire, which are then placed inside a vessel with other certain meats and seafood, which are cooked from the heat of the stones. Foods were mostly prepared by steaming, boiling or roasting, in order to infuse flavors together, yet preserve the original flavors. This again is contrasted with the Han, who adopted skills like stir-frying and stewing. Meat was also put on a bamboo spit and cooked over the fire.

A cookbook published in 2000 by the CIP and National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism, listed some foods of the main Taiwanese Aboriginal tribes, showing the Aborigines' adherence and passion for natural foods.

  • Amis Nation: Alivongvong (meat and sticky rice dumpling packed in leaves) (阿里鳳鳳); Stir-fried wild vegetables
  • Atayal Nation: Grilled meat on stone (石板烤肉); Langying (steamed sticky rice cake) (朗應)
  • Bunun Nation: Bunun millet cake (布農粿); Millet rice (小米飯)
  • Paiwan Nation: Millet Qinafu (millet and pork meat-ball) (小米奇那富); Jinbole (Sorghum and pork dumpling packed in a banana leaf) (金伯樂)
  • Puyuma Nation: Yinafei mountain cake (以那馡山地粿); Fried wild rat with basil (九層野鼠)
  • Rukai Nation: Qinabu (taro and meat dumpling) (奇那步); Grilled boar
  • Saisiyat Nation: Grilled boar with papaya (木瓜拌山豬肉); Assorted wild flowers (野花拼盤); Cassava and spareribs soup (樹薯排骨湯)
  • Tsou Nation: Bamboo cooked rice (竹筒飯); Banana cake (香蕉糕)
  • Yami Nation: Boiled taro and crab (芋泥加蟹肉); Grilled fish Steamed dried fish (蒸魚乾)

Though Taiwan is home to many cuisines, there are still restaurants which keep the spirit of Aborigine cuisine alive. Whilst chefs in such restaurants may need to tweak traditional recipes to suit contemporary tastebuds, emphasis of natural foods is still extant. The annual Indigenous Peoples Healthy Cuisine and Innovative Beverage Competition, partly sponsored by the Council of Indigenous Peoples and the Tourism Bureau provides prize money to contestants who creatively use traditional indigenous ingredients in healthy ways. Other similar competitions are held by local governments (such as Kaohsiung City). In Tainan, indigenous people may sell their food at the Cha Ha Mu Aboriginal Park. Such trends are all to promote the wonderful taste of Aboriginal Taiwanese cuisine.


There are more than 15,000 coffee shops in Taiwan.[17]


Beer is a popular beverage in Taiwan. Taiwan both imports and produces a wide variety of beers from mass market lagers to niche craft ales.[18]


Taiwanese tea is considered among the best in the world and the country has a unique tea culture.[19]


Taiwan has young but thriving whisky industry buoyed by a massive domestic market for whisky, especially single malt scotch. Taiwan is the only whisky market which drinks more single malt whisky than blended whisky.[20]


Independent winemaking was illegal in Taiwan for a long time due to the monopoly granted to the Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation.[21] Independent winemakers became legal in 2002 and in 2014 a Taiwanese wine won its first gold medal at an international competition.[22] In 2019 a red wine from Taichung was awarded a gold medal at the 25th Vinalies Internationales in France.[23] Two of the most acclaimed wineries are Domaine Shu Sheng and Weightstone Vineyard Estate & Winery.[24] Although it was once largely lost Taiwan’s indigenous winemaking culture is staging a comeback.[25]

Fine dining[edit]

Fine dining in Taiwan is often of a mixed identity. For example wedding banquets in Taiwan typically feature sashimi as the first course with tradition Taiwanese and Chinese dishes following.[26]

The Michelin Guide began reviewing restaurants in Taipei in 2018 and Taichung in 2020. The 2020 Michelin awarded stars to 30 restaurants in Taiwan, four in Taichung and 26 in Taipei. With three stars the cantonese restaurant Le Palais is the country's highest rated restaurant. The 2020 list also bestowed the Bib Gourmand on 54 restaurants in Taipei[27] and 21 in Taichung.[28]

Foreign cuisine in Taiwan[edit]


Fusion cuisine is very popular in Taiwan. Many Taiwanese dishes are a result of cultural fusion, such as the Taiwanese version of pastel de nata which are a legacy of Portuguese colonialism.[29]


Italian cuisine has been popular in Taiwan for a long time, but the country had few authentic Italian restaurants and even fewer Italian chefs until the late 1990s and early 2000s. Due to the Financial crisis of 2007–08, a large number of Italians emigrated from Italy to healthier economies. This led to a rapid increase in both the number of Italian restaurants and the number of Italian expats in Taiwan. While most restaurants follow the traditional Italian course style, the meal proportions are influenced by Italian-American cuisine. Taiwanese diners are seen as increasingly passionate and discerning about Italian cuisine.[30] Michael de Prenda was one of the innovators of Italian cuisine in Taiwan, starting multiple restaurants, a market, and a farm.[31]


Along with the fleeing KMT came White Russian refugees who had sought shelter from the Russian Revolution in China. George Elsner founded the first Russian restaurant, The Café Astoria, in Taiwan in 1949. The Café Astoria was a center of Russian expat life in Taiwan during its early years with Chiang Ching-kuo and his Russian wife Faina Vakhreva often bringing their children with them to eat there. Elsner died stateless in Taiwan.[32]


Nordic haute cuisine is popular in Taiwan's major cities with restaurants offering both authentic Nordic cuisine and Nordic cuisine adapted to local ingredients and tastes.[33][34]

Hong Kong[edit]

The increase in immigration from Hong Kong following the pro-democracy protests brought an increased focus on Hong Kong cuisine, along with a fusion between Hong Kong and Taiwan cuisines. Taiwan is considered a safe haven for Hongkongers with many opening shops and restaurants to serve food they were unable to find in Taiwan, or which they did not feel was up to Hong Kong standards.[35]

Taiwanese cuisine abroad[edit]

A pork keⁿ, a thick soup with tofu and surimi-coated pork

Taiwanese cuisine has a global presence.[36] Taiwanese chefs have been extremely successful abroad cooking both Taiwanese and international cuisine. Well known chefs include André Chiang.[37]


Taiwanese immigrant restaurateurs were largely responsible for the shift of American Chinese food from Cantonese-focused cuisine to diverse cuisine featuring dishes from many regions in China. The immigration of Taiwanese chefs to the United States began in the 1950s. At the time, cooks in Taiwan were trained in traditional Chinese regional cooking as this fit the chosen identity of the KMT. Taiwanese restaurateurs changed the food landscape of many American cities, including New York City, and pioneered innovations such as picture menus and food delivery. During this period, many United States immigrants had been born in mainland China and fled to Taiwan with the retreating KMT, particularly former residents of the Dachen Islands who had been evacuated in 1955.[38]

Traditionally, Taiwanese food has been hard to differentiate from Chinese and Japanese food abroad, since many Taiwanese chefs cooked simplified or westernized versions of traditional Taiwanese, Japanese, or Chinese dishes. In 2018, there was a rapid growth in the number of authentic Taiwanese restaurants in New York City[39][40] and across the country, which coincided with an increased interest in regional Chinese food and greater interest in Taiwan itself.[41]

Taiwanese American cuisine is emerging as a full cuisine in its own right. Myers + Chang in Boston was one of the first restaurants to explicitly describe their food as such. In 2018, James Beard Award-winning chef Stephanie Izard opened a Taiwanese snack/dessert shop in Chicago.[42]

Culinary education[edit]

Historically, culinary education was informal with apprentices learning from a master for many years before they practice the craft on their own. The first college level course in cooking was implemented in 1986 at Danshui Technical College.[36]

Culinary schools[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Nguyen-Okwu, Leslie. "16 Dishes That Define Taiwanese Food". eater.com. Eater. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  2. ^ a b c Goossaert, Vincent; David A. Palmer (2011). The Religious Question in Modern China. University of Chicago Press. pp. 281–283. ISBN 9780226304168.
  3. ^ Lin, Sean. "History behind Taiwanese cuisine revealed". Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  4. ^ Chang, Meg (31 July 2009). "Groupers help boost nation's aquaculture industry". taiwantoday.tw. Taiwan Today. Archived from the original on 7 June 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Hiufu Wong, Maggie. "40 of the best Taiwanese foods and drinks". www.cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  6. ^ Lin, Ming-teh (2006). "Popular Food Culture in Taiwan". Government Information Office. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
  7. ^ Amster-Burton, Matthew. "The saucy comforts of Taiwanese turkey rice". thetakeout.com. The Takeout. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  8. ^ Craddock, Kat. "Taiwan's Coffin Bread Perfects the Art of the Bread Bowl". www.saveur.com. Saveur. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  9. ^ "A-Gei". tour.ntpc.gov.tw. New Taipei City. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  10. ^ "Oyster omelet the nation's favorite". Taipei Times. CNA. 2 June 2007. p. 2. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  11. ^ Martin, Laura C. (2007). Tea: The drink that changed the world. Rutland: Tuttle Publishing. p. 219. ISBN 9780804837248.
  12. ^ Somekh, Simone. "Hungry for Kosher Food in Taiwan? Look for the Swastikas". tabletmag.com. Tablet. Archived from the original on 4 July 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  13. ^ a b Cheung, Han. "Tree to bar to gold". www.taipeitimes.com. Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 17 September 2020. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  14. ^ Su, Lynn. "A Sweet Vision: Taiwanese Chocolate's Road to the World". www.taiwan-panorama.com. Taiwan Panorama. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  15. ^ a b Gillan, Audrey. "Taiwan, home to the best street food markets in the world". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 May 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  16. ^ Joe, Melinda (24 February 2018). "In Taiwan, top chefs are building on a long history of culinary exchange with Japan". Japan Times. ISSN 0447-5763. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
  17. ^ Desk, News. "Coffee culture on the rise in Taiwan". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  18. ^ Chou, Cybil Huichen. "How Taiwanese craft beers are finding fans in Asia and the West". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 18 September 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  19. ^ Crook, Steven. "Exploring the World of Taiwanese Tea". topics.amcham.com.tw. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  20. ^ Koutsakis, George. "Can Taiwan's premium gin producers take on the world – and Taiwanese drinkers who prefer foreign liquor?". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 23 November 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  21. ^ Whithead, Richard. "Tropical terroir made to produce award-winning wines". www.beveragedaily.com. Beverage Daily. Archived from the original on 9 May 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  22. ^ Cheung, Han (21 March 2020). "Vina Formosa comes of age". www.taipeitimes.com. Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  23. ^ Hui-ning, Hu. "Taichung red wine wins gold medal in France". www.taipeitimes.com. Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  24. ^ Huichen Chou, Cybil. "Why Hong Kong connoisseurs – and Michelin-star chefs – are taking note of Taiwan's wines". www.scmp.com. SCMP. Archived from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  25. ^ Wang, Ann. "Taiwan's award-winning winemaker aims to revive fading tradition". www.thejakartapost.com. Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  26. ^ Haggerty, Nicholas. "Beyond the Michelin Guide: What Is Real Taiwanese Gourmet?". thenewslens.com. The News Lens. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  27. ^ Sontag, Elazar. "Michelin Announces 2020 Stars for Taiwan". www.eater.com. Eater. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  28. ^ Hsin-Yin, Lee. "Michelin Guide releases Bib Gourmand list for Taipei, Taichung". focustaiwan.tw. Focus Taiwan. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  29. ^ Chen, Lina. "Origins of Taiwanese Fusion Cuisine: It's Not That Simple". thenewslens.com. The News Lens. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  30. ^ Fulco, Matthew. "Discovering a Little Italy in Taipei". topics.amcham.com.tw. Taiwan Business Topics. Archived from the original on 18 June 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  31. ^ Chou, Min. "An Italian Entrepreneur Realizing 'His Meaning of Life' in Taiwan". english.cw.com.tw. Commonwealth. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  32. ^ Strong, Matthew. "Taiwan's Café Astoria inherits spirit of Russia". Taiwan News. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  33. ^ Alamin, Jasmine. "How this young Singaporean chef is making culinary waves in Taiwan". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 31 December 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  34. ^ Sgarbi, Giulia. "Asia's Highest Climber Mume brings Taiwanese produce into the global spotlight". theworlds50best.com. The World’s 50 Best. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  35. ^ GLAUERT, RIK. "Hong Kong protesters revolutionize Taiwan restaurant scene". asia.nikkei.com. Nikkei. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  36. ^ a b c d "Taiwanese cuisine reflects nation's historical odyssey". taiwantoday.tw. Taiwan Today. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  37. ^ Koutsakis, George. "What Makes A Great Chef? Andre Chiang on Cuisine, Growth, And Taiwan's Culinary Beauty". Forbes. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  38. ^ Pio Kuo, Chunghao. "Taiwaneze immigrand spark a golden age fore Chinese food". nyfoodstory.com. NY Food Story. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  39. ^ Wu, Stephenie. "Taiwanese food is finally having a moment in New York City's crowded restaurant scene". mic.com. Mic. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  40. ^ Gross, Matt. "New York City's Taiwanese-Food Boom (It's About Time)". tastecooking.com. Taste. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  41. ^ Moskin, Julia. "A New Generation of Chefs Reframes Taiwanese Cuisine in America". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  42. ^ Erway, Cathy. "How Today's Taiwanese-American Chefs Rewrote the Rules and Made a New Cuisine". foodandwine.com. Food and Wine. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.

Further reading[edit]

Crook, Steven; Hung, Katy Hui-wen (2018), A Culinary History of Taipei: Beyond Pork and Ponlai, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-1538101377

External links[edit]