Named after the small settlement with the same name adjoining the station, the Railway station also caters to the bigger region of Nanganallur. This station came into being in the 1970s and lies between St.Thomas Mount and Meenambakkam railway stations. This serves as the railway node to the famous 32 feet Anjaneyar temple and the adjoining temples of Nanganallur. Close to it, is the Palavanthangal subway which serves as the main road entry to Nanganallur from the GST Road.
Palavanthangal was anglicised from its original name Pallavan Thaangal. The area and its neighborhoods were ruled by Pallava rulers; there was a water tank which was dug by one of the Pallava rulers during his regime. The place around the water tank was called as Thaangal in Tamil. As it was built by a Pallava king, the place was known as Pallavanthaangal and presently Pazhavanthangal.
Air India colony a Quarters for the employees of Air India, Kendriya Vidyalaya School,Trident Hotel (5 star) all these are located near pazhavanthangal Station.