Pumi language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Pumi
Prinmi
Native toPeople's Republic of China
RegionSichuan, Yunnan
EthnicityPumi
Native speakers
54,000 (1999)[1]
none
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
pmi – Northern Pumi
pmj – Southern Pumi
Glottologpumi1242[2]

The Pumi language (also known as Prinmi) is a Qiangic language used by the Pumi people, an ethnic group from Yunnan, China, as well as by the Tibetan people of Muli in Sichuan, China.[3][4] Most native speakers live in Lanping, Ninglang, Lijiang, Weixi and Muli.

The autonym of the Pumi is pʰʐə̃˥mi˥ in Western Prinmi, pʰɹĩ˥mi˥ in Central Prinmi, and pʰʐõ˥mə˥˧ in Northern Prinmi with variants such as pʰɹə̃˥mə˥ and tʂʰə̃˥mi˥˧.[5][6]

In Muli Bonist priests read religious texts in Tibetan, which needs to be interpreted into Prinmi. An attempt to teach Pumi children to write their language using the Tibetan script has been seen in Ninglang.[7] A pinyin-based Roman script has been proposed, but is not commonly used.[8]

Dialects[edit]

Earlier works suggest there are two branches of Pumi (southern and northern), and they are not mutually intelligible. Ding (2014) proposes three major groups: Western Prinmi (spoken in Lanping), Central Prinmi (spoken in southwestern Ninglang, Lijiang, Yulong and Yongsheng) and Northern Prinmi (spoken in northern Ninglang and Sichuan).[9]

Lu (2001)[edit]

Dialects of Pumi include the following (Lu 2001).[10]

Southern (22,000 speakers)
Northern (55,000 speakers)

Sim (2017)[edit]

Sims (2017)[11] lists the following dialects of Pumi.

  • Northern
    • Sanyanlong 三岩龙 [Jiulong County] (B. Huang & Dai 1992)[12]
    • Taoba 桃巴 [Muli County] (Sun 1991)[13]
    • Shuiluo 水洛 [Muli County] (Jacques 2011)[14]
  • Central
    • Wadu 瓦都[15] [Ninglang County] (Daudey 2014)[16]
    • Niuwozi 牛窝子[17] [Ninglang County] (Ding 2001, etc.)[18]
  • Southern
    • Dayang [Lanping County] (Matisoff 1997)[19]
    • Qinghua 箐花 [Lanping County] (Sun 1991; B. Huang & Dai 1992)[13][12]

Sims (2017)[11] reconstructs high tones and low tones for Proto-Prinmi.

Documentation[edit]

Transcribed, translated and annotated audio documents in the Pumi language are available from the Pangloss Collection.[20] They concern Northern dialects of Pumi.

Sounds[edit]

Orthography[edit]

The pinyin-based Roman script for Pumi has been proposed, but yet to be promoted.

Initials:

Letter IPA Letter IPA Letter IPA Letter IPA Letter IPA
b [p] p [pʰ] bb [b] m [m] hm [m̥]
d [t] t [tʰ] dd [d] n [n] hn [n̥]
g [k] k [kʰ] gg [ɡ] h [x] hh [ɣ]
j [tɕ] q [tɕʰ] jj [dʑ] x [ɕ] xx [ʑ]
z [ts] c [tsʰ] zz [dz] s [s] ss [z]
zh [ʈʂ] ch [ʈʂʰ] zzh [ɖʐ] sh [ʂ] ssh [ʐ]
zr [ʈ], [ʈʂ/kʴ] cr [ʈʰ], [ʈʂʰ/kʴʰ] zzr [ɖ], [ɖʐ/ɡʴ] l [l] lh [ɬ]
br [pʴ] pr [pʴʰ] bbr [bʴ] r [ɹ] hr [ɹ̥]
ng [ŋ] hng [ŋ̥] w [w] y [j]

Rimes:

Letter IPA Letter IPA Letter IPA Letter IPA
i [i/iə] u [u] ui [ɥi/wi] e [ə]
ie [jɛ/e] iu [ju] uee [ɥe/we]
ii [ɨ/ə] uu [uə/ʉ] ue [ɥɛ/wɛ/wə] üa [ɥɐ]
in [ĩ/ə̃] ien [(j)ɛ̃/ĩ] uen [ɥɛ̃/wɛ̃/wĩ] uin [ɥĩ]
o [o/ɤ] io [(j)ɐw/ɨɤ] on [õ] ion [jõ]
a [ɑ] ia [jɐ/jɜ] ua [wɑ/wɜ] uan [wɐ̃/wɜ̃]
aa [a] uaa [wa] an [ɐ̃]
ea [ɜ/ɛ] ai [ɜj] uai [wɜj]

Tones:

  • Monosyllabic words
    • f - falling tone
    • v - high tone
    • none - rising tone
  • Polysyllable words
    • f - nonspreading of the high tone
    • v - spreading of the high tone to the next syllable
    • r - rising tone
    • none - default low tone

Grammar[edit]

A reference grammar of the Wadu dialect of Pumi is available online.[21] A grammar of Central Pumi is also available.[22]

Example[edit]

Pumi[by whom?] English
Tèr gwéjè dzwán thèr phxèungphxàr sì.
Timitae llìnggwe zreungzrun stìng.
He has broken several hammers.
This man is crying and shouting all the time.

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ Northern Pumi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Southern Pumi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Pumi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Ding, Picus S. 2003. Prinmi: a sketch of Niuwozi. In Graham Thurgood and Randy LaPolla (eds.) The Sino-Tibetan Languages, pp. 588-601. London: Routledge Press.
  4. ^ Lu, S. 2001. Dialectal Studies of the Pumi Language. Beijing: Nationalities Press.
  5. ^ Pumiyu Fangyan Yanjiu 2001.
  6. ^ Ding, Picus. 2014
  7. ^ Wáng lěi and Shī Xiǎoliàng. 2011. Shínián, xiāngcūn “hánguī” zǒujìn xiànxué “pǔmǐbān”.[1]
  8. ^ Ding, Picus. 2007
  9. ^ Ding, Picus. 2014
  10. ^ Lù, Shàozūn. 2001. Pŭmĭyŭ fāngyán yánjiū [A dialectal study of the Pŭmĭ language]. Beijing: Mínzú Chūbănshè
  11. ^ a b Sims, Nathaniel. 2017. The suprasegmental phonology of proto-Rma (Qiang) in comparative perspective. Presented at the 50th International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics, Beijing, China.
  12. ^ a b Huang Bufan and Dai Qingxia, eds. 1992. Zangmianyuzu yuyan cihui 《藏緬語族語言詞匯》[A Tibeto-Burman Lexicon]. Beijing: Central Institute of Minorities.
  13. ^ a b Sun Hongkai et al. 1991. Zangmianyu yuyin he cihui 《藏缅语语音和词汇》 [Tibeto-Burman phonology and lexicon]. Beijing: Chinese Social Sciences Press.
  14. ^ Jacques, G. (2011). Tonal alternations in the Pumi verbal system. Language and Linguistics, 12(2), 359-392.
  15. ^ http://www.ynszxc.net/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=230994
  16. ^ Daudey, Henriëtte (2014). A grammar of Wadu Pumi. Doctoral dissertation. Melbourne: Department of Linguistics, La Trobe University.
  17. ^ http://www.ynszxc.net/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=223332
  18. ^ Ding, Picus Shizhi. 2001. "The Pitch-accent System of Niuwozi Prinmi." In Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, 24, no. 2: 57-83.
  19. ^ Matisoff, James A. 1997. "Dàyáng Pumi Phonology and Adumbrations of Comparative Qiangic." In The Mon-Khmer Studies Journal, 27: 171-213.
  20. ^ "Pangloss Collection - Pumi corpus".
  21. ^ Daudey, Henriëtte. 2014. A grammar of Wadu Pumi. Victoria: LaTrobe University Ph.D.
  22. ^ Ding, Picus (2014). A grammar of Prinmi: based on the Central dialect of northwest Yunnan, China. Languages of the Greater Himalayan Region. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004279773.
Bibliography