Comparison of orbital launch systems

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This is a comparison of orbital launch systems. The following exposes the full list of conventional orbital launch systems. For the short simple list of conventional launcher families, see: Comparison of orbital launchers families.

Spacecraft propulsion[note 1] is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. A conventional solid rocket or a conventional solid-fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).[note 2] Orbital launch systems are rockets and other systems capable of placing payloads into or beyond Earth orbit. All current spacecraft use conventional chemical rockets (bipropellant or solid-fuel) for launch, though some[note 3] have used air-breathing engines on their first stage.[note 4]

Current and upcoming rockets[edit]

Legend for orbit abbreviations in table:

Launch system status legend
  Under development
  Operational
Vehicle Origin Manufacturer Mass to… (kg) Launches Date of flight
LEO GTO Other First Last
Angara 1.2  Russia Khrunichev 3,800[1] 0 (+1)[2] 2014
Angara A5  Russia Khrunichev 24,500[3][4] 7,500 with KVTK[5] 5,400 with Briz-M 1 2014
Antares 230  United States Orbital 6,500[6] 3,600 to SSO[6] 1 2016[7]
Ariane 5 ECA  Europe EADS Astrium 21,000[8] 10,730[9] 54[10] [note 5] 2002
Ariane 5 ES  Europe EADS Astrium 21,000[8] 8,000[10] 5[10] 2008
Ariane 6 A62  Europe Airbus Safran Launchers 5,000 7,000 to SSO 0 2020 (planned)
Ariane 6 A64  Europe Airbus Safran Launchers 10,500 0
Atlas V 401  United States United Launch Alliance 9,050[11] 4,950[11] 6,670 to SSO[11] 26[11] 2002
Atlas V 411  United States United Launch Alliance 9,050[11] 6,075[11] 8,495 to SSO[11] 3[11] 2006
Atlas V 421  United States United Launch Alliance 9,050[11] 7,000[11] 9,050 to SSO[11] 3[11] 2007
Atlas V 431  United States United Launch Alliance 9,050[11] 7,800[11] 9,050 to SSO[11] 2[11] 2005
Atlas V 501  United States United Launch Alliance 8,250[11] 3,970[11] 5,945 to SSO
1,500 to GEO[11]
5[11] 2010
Atlas V 511  United States United Launch Alliance 10,950[11] 5,370[11] 7,820 to SSO
1,750 to GEO[11]
0[11]
Atlas V 521  United States United Launch Alliance 13,300[11] 6,485[11] 9,585 to SSO
2,760 to GEO[11]
2[11] 2003
Atlas V 531  United States United Launch Alliance 15,300[11] 7,425[11] 11,160 to SSO
3,250 to GEO[11]
3[11] 2010
Atlas V 541  United States United Launch Alliance 17,100[11] 8,240[11] 12,435 to SSO
3,730 to GEO[11]
3[11] 2011
Atlas V 551  United States United Launch Alliance 18,500[11] 8,700[11] 12,435 to SSO
3,960 to GEO[11]
5[11] 2006
Delta II 7320  United States United Launch Alliance 2,865[note 6][12] 1,651 to SSO[note 6][12] 10[12] 1999 2014[13]
Delta II 7920  United States United Launch Alliance 5,030[note 6][12] 3,123 to SSO[note 6][12] 27[12] 1998 2011
Delta IV Heavy  United States United Launch Alliance 28,790[14] 14,220[14] 8[15] 2004 2016
Delta IV M+(4,2)  United States United Launch Alliance 13,140[14] 6,390[14] 12[15] 2002
Delta IV M+(5,2)  United States United Launch Alliance 11,470[14] 5,490[14] 1[15] 2012
Delta IV M+(5,4)  United States United Launch Alliance 14,140[14] 7,300[14] 4[15] 2009[16]
Dnepr  Ukraine Yuzhmash 3,700[17] 21[17] 1999
Electron  United States
 New Zealand
Rocket Lab 150 to SSO[18] 0
Epsilon  Japan IHI Aerospace[19]      1,200[20] 1 2013
Falcon 9 Full Thrust  United States SpaceX 22,800[21] 8,300[21]

4,020 to TMI[21]

8[22] 2015
Falcon Heavy  United States SpaceX 54,400[21] 22,200[21] 13,600 to TMI[21] 0 2017 (planned)
GSLV Mk.II  India ISRO 5,000[23] 2,500[23] 3[24] 2010 2015
H-IIA 202  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 10,000[25] 3,800[25] 19[25] 2001 2016
H-IIA 204  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 5,800[25] 2[25] 2006 2015
H-IIB  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 16,500[26] 8,000[27] 4[28] 2009
H3  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 6,500[29] 0 2020 (planned)[29]
ITS launch vehicle  United States SpaceX 550,000[30][31] 450,000 to TMI[note 7][31][32] 0 2022 (planned)
Kuaizhou  China CALT[citation needed] 400[33] 2[33] 2013[33] 2014[33]
KSLV-2  South Korea KARI 1,500 at 600–800 km[34] 0 2021 (planned)[34]
Long March 2C  China CALT 3,850 41[35] 1982[35] 2014
Long March 2D  China CALT 3,500 29[35] 1992[35] 2016
Long March 2F  China CALT 8,400 13[35] 1999[35] 2016[35]
Long March 3A  China CALT 6,000[36] 2,600[36] 25[37] 1994[37] 2016
Long March 3B  China CALT 11,200[36] 5,100[36] 12[37] 1996[37] 2012
Long March 3B/E  China CALT 11,500[36] 5,500[36] 24[37] 2007[37] 2016
Long March 3C  China CALT 9,100[36] 3,800[36] 14
[37]
2008[37] 2016
Long March 4B  China CALT 4,200[38] 28[38] 1999[38] 2016
Long March 4C  China CALT 4,200[39] 20[40] 2006[40] 2016
Long March 5  China CALT 25,000[41] 14,000[41] 8,000 to TLI 1 2016 2016
Long March 6  China SAST 1,080 to SSO[42] 1 2015[42] 2015
Long March 7  China CALT 13,500[43] 5,500 to SSO[43] 1 2016[44] 2016
Long March 9[45]  China CALT 130,000[46] 50,000 to TLI[47] 0 2025 (planned)
Long March 11  China CALT 700[48] 1 2015[49] 2015
LVM3 (GSLV Mk.III)  India ISRO[50] 8,000[51] 4,000[51] 0 (+1)[note 8] 2014 2014
Minotaur I  United States Orbital 580[52] 10[53] 2000 2013
Minotaur IV  United States Orbital 1,735[54] 3 (+2)[55] 2010[55] 2011[55]
Minotaur V  United States Orbital 640 447 to TLI 1[55] 2013[55]
Minotaur-C[56]  United States Orbital 1,450[57] 1,050[57] to SSO 9[58] 1994 2011[58]
Naga-L  China CALT 1,590 from Indonesia[59] 820 to SSO from China[59] 0 2017 (planned)[59]
New Glenn  United States Blue Origin 35,000–70,000 (estimated)[60] 0 2020 (planned)[61]
Pegasus  United States Orbital 443[62] 42[63] 1990 2013[63]
Proton-M / M+  Soviet Union
 Russia
Khrunichev 23,000 (M+)[64]
21,600 (M)[65]
6,920 (M+)[64]
6,150 (M)[65]
96[66][67][68] 1999[68]
Proton Light  Russia Khrunichev 3,600[69] 1,450 to GSO[69] 0 2019 (planned)[70]
Proton Medium  Russia Khrunichev 5,000[69] 3,300 to GSO[69] 0 2018 (planned)[70]
PSLV-G  India ISRO 3,200[71] 1,050[71]

1,600 to SSO

11[71] 1993[71]
PSLV-CA  India ISRO 2,800[71] 1,100 to SSO[71] 11[71] 2007
PSLV-XL  India ISRO 3,800[71] 1,300[71] 1,750 to SSO 15[71] 2008[71]
Rokot  Russia Khrunichev 1,950[72] 1,200 to SSO 25[73][74] 1990
Safir  Iran Iranian Space Agency 50[75] 4[76][77] 2008 2015[77]
Shavit  Israel IAE 160[78] 9 1988 2014
Simorgh  Iran Iranian Space Agency 100–350[79] 0 (+1) 2016
SLS Block 1  United States NASA / Boeing (core)
Orbital ATK (SRBs)
70,000[80] 25,000 to TLI[81] 0 2018 (planned)
SLS Block 1B  United States NASA / Boeing (core)
Orbital ATK (SRBs)
105,000[82] 0 2022 (planned)
SLS Block 2  United States NASA / Boeing (core)
Orbital ATK (SRBs)
130,700[80] 52,000 to TLI[83] 0
Soyuz-U  Soviet Union
 Russia
TsSKB-Progress 6,650 from Baikonour[84]
6,150 from Plesetsk[84]
786[85] 1973 2017 (planned)
Soyuz-FG  Russia TsSKB-Progress 6,900[86] 58[85][87] 2001 2016
Soyuz-2.1a  Russia TsSKB-Progress 7,020 from Baikonour[88] 23 (+1) [89][90][91] 2004[note 9] 2016
Soyuz-2.1b  Russia TsSKB-Progress 8,200 from Baikonour[88] 2,400[92] 21[93][94][95] 2006 2016
Soyuz ST-A  Russia
 Europe
TsSKB-Progress ESA 7,800 from Kourou[96] 2,810 with Fregat[97] 4[98] 2011 2016
Soyuz ST-B  Russia
 Europe
TsSKB-Progress ESA 9,000 from Kourou[99] 3,250 with Fregat-MT[97] 11[100] 2011 2016
Soyuz-2-1v  Russia TsSKB-Progress 2,850[101] 2[102] 2013 2015
Strela  Russia Khrunichev 1,400[103] 3[104] 2003 2014
Tronador II  Argentina CONAE 250[105] 0
Tsyklon-4  Ukraine Yuzhmash 5,500[106] 1,700[106] 0
Unha  North Korea KCST 100[107] 3 2009
ULV  India ISRO 15,000[108] 6,000 0
Vega  Europe ESA/ASI
  • 1,430 to polar[109]
  • 1,330 to SSO[109]
6[110] 2012[111]
Vulcan 561 with ACES  USA United Launch Alliance 15,100[112] 7,300 to GSO[112] 0 2019 (planned)
Vulcan Heavy  USA United Launch Alliance 23,000[112] 0
Zenit-2M (2SLB)  Ukraine Yuzhnoye 13,920[113] 1 2007
Zenit-3F  Ukraine Yuzhnoye[note 10] 1,740 to GEO[114] 2[115] 2011
Zenit-3SL  Ukraine Yuzhmash
RKK Energia [note 11]
6,000[116] 36[115] 1999
Zenit-3SLB  Ukraine Yuzhmash
RKK Energia [note 10]
3,750[115] 5[115] 2008

Retired rockets[edit]

Vehicle Origin Manufacturer Mass to… (kg) Launches Date of flight
LEO GTO Other First Last
Antares 110  United States Orbital 5,100[117] 2[118] 2013 2013
Antares 120  United States Orbital 4,600[119] 1,500 to SSO[119] 2[118] 2014 2014
Antares 130  United States Orbital 5,100[119] 1 2014 2014
Ariane 1  Europe Aérospatiale 1,400 1,830[120] 11[120] 1979 1986
Ariane 2  Europe Aérospatiale 2,270[120] 6[120] 1986 1989
Ariane 3  Europe Aérospatiale 2,650[120] 11[120] 1984 1989
Ariane 4 40  Europe Aérospatiale 4,600[120] 2,740 to SSO
1,900 to GTO[120]
3[120] 1990 1993
Ariane 4 40 H10+  Europe Aérospatiale 2,020[120] 1[120] 1995 1995
Ariane 4 40 H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 2,105[120] 3[120] 1995 1999
Ariane 4 42L  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[120] 4,500 to SSO
3,200 to GTO[120]
1[120] 1993 1993
Ariane 4 42L H10+  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[120] 3,350[120] 1[120] 1994 1994
Ariane 4 42L H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[120] 3,480[120] 11[120] 1995 2002
Ariane 4 42P  Europe Aérospatiale 6,000[120] 2,600[120] 3,400 to SSO[120] 2[120] 1990 1992
Ariane 4 42P H10+  Europe Aérospatiale 2,740[120] 4[120] 1992 1994
Ariane 4 42P H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 2,930[120] 9[120] 1994 2002
Ariane 4 44L  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[120] 4,200[120] 6,000 to SSO[120] 11[120] 1989 1992
Ariane 4 44L H10+  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[120] 4,460[120] 5[120] 1992 1994
Ariane 4 44L H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[120] 4,720[120] 24[120] 1995 2003
Ariane 4 44LP  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[120] 3,700[120] 5,000 to SSO[120] 7[120] 1988 1993
Ariane 4 44LP H10+  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[120] 4,030[120] 6[120] 1992 1995
Ariane 4 44LP H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[120] 4,220[120] 13[120] 1995 2001
Ariane 4 44P  Europe Aérospatiale 6,500[120] 3,000[120] 4,100 to SSO[120] 2[120] 1991 1991
Ariane 4 44P H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 3,465[120] 9[120] 1995 2001
Ariane 5 G  Europe EADS Astrium 18,000[10] 6,900[10] 16[10] 1996 2003[121]
Ariane 5 G+  Europe EADS Astrium 7,100[10] 3[10] 2004 2004[121]
Ariane 5 GS  Europe EADS Astrium 16,000[122] 6,600[10] 6[10] 2005 2009[121]
ASLV  India ISRO[123] 150[124] 4[124] 1987 1994
Athena I  United States Lockheed Martin 795[125] 515 4[126] 1995 2001
Athena II  United States Lockheed Martin 1,800[127] 3[128] 1998 1999[129]
Atlas-Centaur  United States Lockheed 1,134[130] 2,222[131] 148 1962 1983
Atlas G  United States Lockheed 5,900[132] 2,222 1,179 to HCO[132] 7[132] 1984 1989
Atlas H/MSD  United States Lockheed 3,630[133] 5 1983 1987
Atlas I  United States Lockheed Martin 5,900[132] 2,340[132] 11[132] 1990 1997
Atlas II  United States Lockheed Martin 6,780[132] 2,810 2,000 to HCO[132] 10[132] 1991 1998
Atlas IIA  United States Lockheed Martin 7,316[132] 3,180 2,160 to HCO[132] 23[132] 1992 2002
Atlas IIAS  United States Lockheed Martin 8,618[132] 3,833 2,680 to HCO[132] 30[132] 1993 2004
Atlas IIIA  United States Lockheed Martin 8,686[132] 4,060 2,970 to HCO[132] 2[132] 2000 2004
Atlas IIIB/DEC  United States Lockheed Martin 10,759[132] 4,609[132] 1[132] 2002 2002
Atlas IIIB/SEC  United States Lockheed Martin 10,218[134] 4,193[132] 3[132] 2003 2005
Black Arrow  United Kingdom RAE 73[135] 2 1969[note 12] 1971
Titan IIICommercial Titan III  United States Martin Marietta 13,100[136] 4 1990 1992
Delta 0300  United States McDonnell Douglas 340[137] 747 to SSO[138] 3[12] 1972 1973[139]
Delta 0900  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,300[140] 818 to SSO[12] 2[12] 1972 1972
Delta 1410  United States McDonnell Douglas 340[141] 1[12] 1975 1975
Delta 1604  United States McDonnell Douglas 390[142] 2[12] 1972 1973
Delta 1900  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,800[12] 1[12] 1973 1973
Delta 1910  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,066[143] 1[12] 1975 1975
Delta 1913  United States McDonnell Douglas 328[144] 1[12] 1973 1973
Delta 1914  United States McDonnell Douglas 680[145] 2[12] 1972 1973
Delta 2310  United States McDonnell Douglas 336[146] 3[12] 1974 1981
Delta 2313  United States McDonnell Douglas 243 to GEO[147] 3[12] 1974 1977
Delta 2910  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,887[12] 6[12] 1975 1978
Delta 2913  United States McDonnell Douglas 2,000[148] 700[148] 6[12] 1975 1976
Delta 2914  United States McDonnell Douglas 724[12] 30[12] 1974 1979
Delta 3910  United States McDonnell Douglas 2,494[12] 1,154 with PAM-D[12] 10[12] 1980 1988
Delta 3913  United States McDonnell Douglas 816[149] 1[12] 1981 1981
Delta 3914  United States McDonnell Douglas 954[12] 13[12] 1975 1987
Delta 3920  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,452[12] 1,284 with PAM-D[12] 10[12] 1982 1989
Delta 3924  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,104[12] 4[12] 1982 1984
Delta 4925  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,400[150] 1,312[12] 2[12] 1989 1990
Delta 5920  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,848[151] 1[12] 1989 1989
Delta II 6920  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,983[12] 3[12] 1990 1992
Delta II 6925  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,447[12] 14[12] 1989 1992
Delta II 7326  United States Boeing IDS 934 636 to TLI
629 to HCO[note 6][12]
3[12] 1998[152]
Delta II 7420  United States United Launch Alliance 3,185[note 6][12] 1,966 to SSO[note 6][12] 13[12] 1998 2010
Delta II 7425  United States Boeing IDS 1,100 804 to HCO[note 6][12] 4[12] 1998 2002
Delta II 7426  United States Boeing IDS 1,058 734 to TLI
711 to HCO[note 6][12]
1[12] 1999 1999
Delta II 7925  United States Boeing IDS 1,819 1,177 to TLI
1,265 to HCO[note 6][12]
69[12] 1990 2009
Delta II-H 7920H  United States United Launch Alliance 6,097[note 6][12] 3[12] 2003 2011
Delta II-H 7925H  United States United Launch Alliance 2,171 1,508 to HCO[note 6][12] 3[12] 2003 2007
Delta III 8930  United States Boeing IDS 8,292[12] 3,810[12] 3[12] 1998 2000
Delta IV M  United States Boeing IDS 9,440[14] 4,440[14] 3[15] 2003 2006
Diamant  France SEREB 107[153][154] 12 1965 1975
Energia[note 13]  Soviet Union NPO Energia 100,000[155] 20,000 to GEO[155]
32,000 to TLI[155]
1 (failed to orbit)[156] 1987 1988
Energia-Buran  Soviet Union NPO Energia (Launcher)
NPO Molniya (Orbiter)
30,000[155]
[note 14]
1 1988 1988
Falcon 1  United States SpaceX 420[157] 5 2006 2009[158]
Falcon 1e[158]  United States SpaceX 1,010 to LPEO[159] 0
Falcon 9 v1.0  United States SpaceX 10,450[160][161][162] 5[163] 2010 2013[164]
Falcon 9 v1.1  United States SpaceX 13,150[note 15][165][166] 4,850[165] 15[22] 2013 2016
GSLV Mk.I(a)  India ISRO[23] 5,000[167] 1 2001 2001
GSLV Mk.I(b)[23][168]  India ISRO 5,000[23] 2,500[169] 4[24] 2003 2007[24]
GSLV Mk.I(c)  India ISRO 5,000[23] 2,500[23] 1[24] 2010 2010[24]
H-I  Japan
 United States
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 1,400[170] 9 1986 1992
H-II  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 10,060[171] 5[172][note 16] 1994 1998
H-IIA 2022  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 4,200[25] 3[25] 2005 2007
H-IIA 2024  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 11,000[173] 7[25] 2002 2008
H-II/SSB  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 3,930[174] 1[172] 1995 1995
H-IIS  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 4,000[175] 1[note 17][172] 1999 1999
J-I  Japan IHI Corporation
Nissan Motors[176]
1,000[177] 0 (+1) 1996 1996
Kaituozhe-1  China CALT 100[178] 2 2002 2003
Kosmos-3M  Soviet Union
 Russia
NPO Polyot 1,500[179] 442[180] 1967 2010
Lambda 4S  Japan Nissan Motors[176] 26[20] 5 1966 1970
Long March 1  China CALT 300[181] 2[182] 1970[182] 1971[182]
Long March 1D  China CALT 740[183] 0 (+3) 1995[note 18] 2002
Long March 2A  China CALT 2,000[184] 4[35] 1974[35] 1978[35]
Long March 2E  China CALT 9,500 7[35] 1990 1995[35]
Long March 3  China CALT 5,000 14[37] 1984[37] 2000[37]
Long March 4A  China CALT 4,000 2[40] 1988[40] 1990[40]
M-V  Japan Nissan Motors[176] (-2000)
IHI AEROSPACE[19] (-2006)
1,850[20] 7 1997 2006
Molniya  Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,800[185] 24[87] 1960 1965[87]
Molniya-M  Soviet Union
 Russia
RSC Energia 2,400[186][187] 275 1964 2010
Mu-3C  Japan Nissan Motors[176] 195[20] 4 1974 1979
Mu-3H  Japan Nissan Motors[176] 300[20] 3 1977 1978
Mu-3S  Japan Nissan Motors[176] 300[20] 4 1980 1984
Mu-3SII  Japan Nissan Motors[176] 770[20] 8 1985 1995
Mu-4S  Japan Nissan Motors[176] 180[20] 4 1971 1972
N1  Soviet Union NPO Energia 95,000[note 19] [188][189][190] 4[191] (never reached orbit) 1969 1972
N-I  Japan
 United States
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 1,200[192] 7 1975 1982
N-II  Japan
 United States
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 2,000[193] 8 1981 1987
Naro-1  South Korea
 Russia
KARI/Khrunichev 100[194] 3 2009 2013
Paektusan  North Korea KCST 700[195] 1 1998
Polyot  Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,400 2 1963 1964
Proton-K  Soviet Union
 Russia
Khrunichev 19,760[196] 4,930[197] 311[198] 1965 2012
Saturn I  United States Chrysler (S-I)
Douglas (S-IV)
9,000[199] 10[200] 1961 1965[200]
Saturn IB  United States Chrysler (S-IB)
Douglas (S-IVB)
18,600[201] 9[202] 1966 1975
Saturn V  United States Boeing (S-IC)
North American (S-II)
Douglas (S-IVB)
140,000[203][204] 47,000 to TLI[205] 13[206][207] [note 20] 1967 1973
Scout  United States US Air Force/NASA 174[208] 125 1961 1994
Shtil'  Russia Makeyev 280–420[209] 2[210] 1998 2006
SLV  India ISRO 40[211] 4[211] 1979 1983[211]
Soyuz  Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,450 30 1966 1975
Soyuz-L  Soviet Union RSC Energia 5,500 3 1970 1971
Soyuz-M  Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,600 8 1971 1976
Soyuz-U2  Soviet Union
 Russia
TsSKB-Progress 7,050 72[85] 1982 1995
Space Shuttle  United States Alliant Techsystems (SRBs)
Martin Marietta (ET)
Rockwell International (Orbiter)
24,400[note 14]
  • 4,944 with IUS[212]
  • 1,200 with PAM-D[213]
3,550 to escape with IUS[212] 135[214] 1981 2011
Sputnik 8K71PS  Soviet Union RSC Energia 500[215] 2 1957 1957
Sputnik 8A91  Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,327 2 1958 1958
Start-1  Russia MITT 532 350 to SSO[216] 5[217] 1993 2006
Titan II GLV  United States Martin Marietta 3,600[218] 11 (+1) 1964 1966
Titan II(23)G  United States Martin Marietta 3,600[219] 13 1988 2003
Titan IIIA  United States Martin Marietta 3,100[220] 4 1964 1965
Titan IIIB  United States Martin Marietta 3,000[221] 70 1966 1987
Titan IIIC  United States Martin Marietta 13,100[222] 36 1965 1982
Titan IIID  United States Martin Marietta 12,300[223] 22 1971 1982
Titan IIIE  United States Martin Marietta 15,400[224] 7 1974 1977
Titan 34D  United States Martin Marietta 4,515[225] 15 1982 1989
Titan IVA  United States Martin Marietta 17,110[226] 4,944 with IUS[226]
  • 14,090 to SSO[226]
  • 4,540 to GSO with Centaur[226]
  • 3,550 to escape with IUS[226]
22[227] 1989 1998
Titan IVB  United States Lockheed Martin 21,682[228] 5,761[228]
(9,000 with upper stage)
17[227] 1997 2005
Tsyklon-2A  Soviet Union Yuzhmash 3,350[229] 8[230] 1967 1969
Tsyklon-2  Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Yuzhmash 2,820[231] 106[232] 1969 2006[232]
Tsyklon-3  Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Yuzhmash 1,920[233] 122[234] 1977 2009[234]
Vanguard  United States Martin 9[235] 11 (+1) 1957 1959
VLS-1  Brazil AEB, INPE 380[236] 2[note 21] 1997 2003
Volna  Russia Makeyev 100[237] 1 (+5)[210] 1995[note 22] 2005[210]
Voskhod  Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,000[238] 306 1963 1976
Vostok-L  Soviet Union RSC Energia 390 to TLI[239] 4 1960 1960
Vostok-K  Soviet Union RSC Energia 2,460[240] 16 1960 1964
Vostok-2  Soviet Union RSC Energia 4,730[241] 45 1962 1967
Vostok-2M  Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,300[242] 93 1964 1991
Soyuz/Vostok  Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,000[243] 2 1965 1966
Zenit-2  Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Yuzhnoye 13,740[113] 37[28] 1985 2004[244]

Proposed and design concepts[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ There are many different methods. Each method has drawbacks and advantages, and spacecraft propulsion is an active area of research. However, most spacecraft today are propelled by forcing a gas from the back/rear of the vehicle at very high speed through a supersonic de Laval nozzle. This sort of engine is called a rocket engine.
  2. ^ The first medieval rockets were solid-fuel rockets powered by gunpowder; they were used by the Chinese, Indians, Mongols and Arabs, in warfare as early as the 13th century.
  3. ^ Such as the Pegasus rocket and SpaceShipOne.
  4. ^ Most satellites have simple reliable chemical thrusters (often monopropellant rockets) or resistojet rockets for orbital station-keeping and some use momentum wheels for attitude control. Soviet bloc satellites have used electric propulsion for decades, and newer Western geo-orbiting spacecraft are starting to use them for north-south stationkeeping and orbit raising. Interplanetary vehicles mostly use chemical rockets as well, although a few have used ion thrusters and Hall effect thrusters (two different types of electric propulsion) to great success.
  5. ^ A full listing of the Ariane 5 launch history is in its main article.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l With 9.5 foot (2.9 metre) fairing
  7. ^ with transfer on orbit
  8. ^ In 2014 ISRO conducted a suborbital test flight of the LVM3 rocket without the CUS (cryogenic upper stage).
  9. ^ Suborbital test flight in 2004, first orbital launch in 2006
  10. ^ a b Operated by Land Launch
  11. ^ Operated by Sea Launch
  12. ^ Suborbital test in 1969, first orbital launch attempt in 1970
  13. ^ Without Buran, and assuming payload providing orbital insertion
  14. ^ a b The US Space Shuttle Transportation System and the Soviet Energia-Buran system, consist of launch vehicle rockets and returnable spaceplane orbiter. Payload values listed here are for the mass of the payload in cargo bay of the spaceplanes, excluding the mass of the spaceplanes themselves.
  15. ^ The SpaceX website lists the F9 payload to LEO as 13,150kg. The payload to GTO is listed as 4,850kg. However, SpaceX has stated that these numbers include a 30% margin to accommodate re-usability.
  16. ^ Not including two launches made using the H-II/SSB and H-IIS configurations
  17. ^ Only launch failed to achieve orbit
  18. ^ Suborbital test flights in 1995, 1997 and 2002, no orbital launches attempted
  19. ^ The N1 rocket was initially designed for 75mt LEO capacity and launch attempts were made with this version, but there were studies to increase the payload capacity to 90—95 mt, if a liquid-hydrogen upper stage engine could be developed.
  20. ^ The Saturn V made 13 launches, 12 of which reached the correct orbits, and the other (Apollo 6) reached a different orbit than the one which had been planned; however, some mission objectives could still be completed; NASA, Saturn V News Reference, Appendix: Saturn V Flight History (1968). For more information, see the Saturn V article. The Saturn V launch record is usually quoted as having never failed, e.g. "The rocket was masterminded by Wernher Von Braun and did not fail in any of its flights", Alan Lawrie and Robert Godwin; Saturn, but the Apollo 6 launch should be considered a partial mission failure. The 13th launch of Saturn V was in special configuration (SA-513) with the Skylab.
  21. ^ A third rocket exploded before launch
  22. ^ First orbital launch attempt in 2005

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