Help:IPA for Basque

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Basque language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Basque phonology and Basque dialects for a more thorough look at the sounds of Basque.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b bat best
β alaba[1] between baby and bevy
c kuttun roughly like Tuesday in RP
d doa dead
ð adar[1] this
f foru face
ɡ gauak got
ɣ hego[1] between go and ahold
h hamar[2] hot
j jakintsu[3] you
ɟ onddo roughly like due in RP
k ke scan
l lagun lean
ʎ zailenak roughly like million
m maixu mother
n naharo need
ɲ ikurrina roughly like canyon
p piztu spouse
r urre[4] trilled r
ʁ urre[5] roughly like loch (Scottish English)
ɾ zauri ladder in American English
uso sack[6]
zeru
ʃ xehe shine
t talde stand
ts̺ urretsu cats[6]
ts̻ aitzin
tximist choice
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a gela father
e eder bed[7]
i nire see
o aho bore[8]
u hiru food
y hirü roughly like cute (Souletin)


Diphthongs
IPA Examples English approximation
ai bai eye
oi doinu boy
ei leiho ray
au hau house
eu euri eh-oo or ey-oo


Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples English approximant
. gauak [ɡau.ak] moai

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Lenition of /b d g/ occurs in regular speech in most Southern Basque dialects. Hualde (1991:99-100).
  2. ^ Silent in Southern Basque dialects.
  3. ^ /x/ is frequently heard because of its prevalence in Gipuzkoan but the realisation of the grapheme j varies depending on dialect and also includes [j, ʝ, ɟ, , ʒ, ʃ, χ]. The last, which resembles Scottish English loch, is typical of Gipuzkoan, and has extended to Eastern varieties of Biscayan and the Sakana variety of the Upper Navarrese. The standard pronunciation ruled by Euskaltzaindia (see rule 87, on standard Basque formal pronunciation) is /j/.
  4. ^ Southern Basque dialects.
  5. ^ Northern Basque dialects.
  6. ^ a b Basque contrasts two consonants that sound similar to the /s/ of Englishː /s̺/, which is apical, and /s̻/, which is laminal. Similarly, /ts̺/ and /ts̻/ are contrasted in the same way.
  7. ^ The Basque /e/ lines up no English vowel, but the nearest equivalents are the vowel of play (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bed; the Basque vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  8. ^ The Basque /o/ lines up with no English vowel, but the nearest equivalents are the vowel of coat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of raw; the Basque vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.

References[edit]