List of sovereign states in 2018

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Sovereign states by year
List of sovereign states in 2017 Events of 2018 List of sovereign states in 2019

Sovereign states[edit]






  •  EcuadorRepublic of Ecuador, UN member state
    Capital: Quito
  •  EgyptArab Republic of Egypt, UN member state
    Capital: Cairo
  •  El SalvadorRepublic of El Salvador, UN member state
    Capital: San Salvador
  •  Equatorial GuineaRepublic of Equatorial Guinea, UN member state
    Capital: Malabo
  •  EritreaState of Eritrea, UN member state
    Capital: Asmara
  •  EstoniaRepublic of Estonia, UN member state
    Capital: Tallinn
  •  EswatiniKingdom of Swaziland (to 19 April), UN member state
    Kingdom of Eswatini (from 19 April), UN member state
    Capital: Mbabane (administrative), Lobamba (royal and legislative)
  •  EthiopiaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, UN member state
    Capital: Addis Ababa


  •  FijiRepublic of Fiji, UN member state
    Capital: Suva
  •  FinlandRepublic of Finland, UN member state
    Capital: Helsinki
  •  FranceFrench Republic, UN member state
    Capital: Paris









  •  NamibiaRepublic of Namibia, UN member state
    Capital: Windhoek
  •  NauruRepublic of Nauru, UN member state
    Capital: Yaren (unofficial, seat of parliament)
  •    NepalFederal Democratic Republic of Nepal, UN member state
    Capital: Kathmandu
  •  NetherlandsKingdom of the Netherlands, UN member state
    Capital: Amsterdam (official), The Hague (seat of government)
  •  New ZealandUN member state
    Capital: Wellington
  •  NicaraguaRepublic of Nicaragua, UN member state
    Capital: Managua
  •  NigerRepublic of Niger, UN member state
    Capital: Niamey
  •  NigeriaFederal Republic of Nigeria, UN member state
    Capital: Abuja
  •  Northern CyprusTurkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (partially recognized de facto independent state)
    Capital: Lefkoşa
  •  NorwayKingdom of Norway, UN member state
    Capital: Oslo


  •  OmanSultanate of Oman, UN member state
    Capital: Muscat



  •  QatarState of Qatar, UN member state
    Capital: Doha







  •  YemenRepublic of Yemen, UN member state
    Capital: Sana'a


  •  ZambiaRepublic of Zambia, UN member state
    Capital: Lusaka
  •  ZimbabweRepublic of Zimbabwe, UN member state
    Capital: Harare

Non-sovereign and freely associated territories[edit]



  •  Hong KongHong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
  •  MacauMacao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China





New Zealand[edit]


United Kingdom[edit]

United States[edit]

Other entities[edit]

  •  Antarctica as a whole had no government and no permanent population. Seven states claimed portions of Antarctica and five of these had reciprocally recognised one another's claims.[8] These claims, which were regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, were neither recognised nor disputed by any other signatory state.[9]
  • European Union The European Union was a sui generis supranational organisation which had 28 member states. The member states had transferred a measure of their legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, and as such the EU had some elements of sovereignty, without generally being considered a sovereign state. The European Union did not claim to be a sovereign state and had only limited capacity for relations with other states.
  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta The Sovereign Military Order of Malta was an entity claiming sovereignty and a United Nations observer. The order had bilateral diplomatic relations with a large number of states, but had no territory other than extraterritorial areas within Rome.[10] The order's Constitution stated: "The Order is a subject of international law and exercises sovereign functions." [11] Although the order frequently asserted its sovereignty, it did not claim to be a sovereign state. It lacked a defined territory. Since all its members were citizens of other states, almost all of them lived in their native countries, and those who resided in the order's extraterritorial properties in Rome did so only in connection with their official duties. The order lacked the characteristic of having a permanent population.


  1. ^ The name "Argentine Nation" is also used for the purposes of legislation.
  2. ^ Armenia is not recognized by Pakistan.
  3. ^ Ireland also had the legal description of "Republic of Ireland", although this is not its constitutional name.
  4. ^ Israel is not recognized by Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Chad, Cuba, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, North Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, or Yemen.
  5. ^ Provisionally referred to by the UN and a number of countries and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", see Macedonia naming dispute.
  6. ^ Commonly known in English as "Burma".
  7. ^ Commonly known in English as "East Timor".
  8. ^ Rogan-Finnemore, Michelle (2005), "What Bioprospecting Means for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean", in Von Tigerstrom, Barbara, International Law Issues in the South Pacific, Ashgate Publishing, p. 204, ISBN 0-7546-4419-7 "Australia, New Zealand, France, Norway and the United Kingdom reciprocally recognize the validity of each other's claims."
  9. ^ CIA – the World Factbook – Antarctica – accessed 19 January 2008
  10. ^ Bilateral relations with countries Archived 2015-12-03 at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved 2011-12-22
  11. ^ Chapter General of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta (1998-01-12). Constitutional Charter and Code of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes, and of Malta, promulgated 27 June 1961, revised by the Extraordinary Chapter General 28–30 April 1997, Article 3 "Sovereignty," Paragraph 1 (PDF). Rome: Tipografia Arte della Stampa. p. 11.