Livingston, Texas

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Livingston, Texas
Livingston City Hall at 220 West Church Street
Livingston City Hall at 220 West Church Street
Location of Livingston, Texas
Location of Livingston, Texas
Coordinates: 30°42′34″N 94°56′4″W / 30.70944°N 94.93444°W / 30.70944; -94.93444Coordinates: 30°42′34″N 94°56′4″W / 30.70944°N 94.93444°W / 30.70944; -94.93444
Country United States
State Texas
CountyPolk
Government
 • TypeCouncil / Manager
 • MayorJudy B. Cochran
 • City ManagerBill Wiggins
Area
 • Total8.74 sq mi (22.64 km2)
 • Land8.73 sq mi (22.61 km2)
 • Water0.01 sq mi (0.03 km2)
Elevation
167 ft (51 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total5,640
 • Density600.46/sq mi (231.85/km2)
Time zoneUTC-6 (Central (CST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
77351, 77399
Area code936
FIPS code48-43132[2]
GNIS feature ID1361573[3]
WebsiteLivingston City website
Locomotive No 5 – Livingston, Texas
The Fain Theater In Livingston, Texas
Courthouse Polk County Texas – In Livingston
The Courthouse Whistle Stop Cafe is located across from the courthouse in downtown Livingston.
Historic downtown Livingston
Livingston water tower
Central Baptist Church in Livingston

Livingston is a town in and the county seat of Polk County, Texas. With a population of 5,640 at the 2020 census, it is the largest city in Polk County.[4] It is located about 46 miles south of Lufkin and was originally settled in 1835 as Springfield. Its name was changed in 1846 to Livingston, when it was designated as the county seat of Polk County.[5]

The Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation is located to the east of Livingston. This people traditionally occupied territory in what is now east Texas and Louisiana. The 2000 census reported a resident population of 480 persons within the reservation. The tribe has nearly 1200 enrolled members.

Geography[edit]

Livingston is located at 30°42′34″N 94°56′4″W / 30.70944°N 94.93444°W / 30.70944; -94.93444 (30.709518, –94.934443).[6]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 8.4 square miles (22 km2), of which, 8.4 sq mi (22 km2) are land and 0.12% is covered by water. However, the town of Livingston is about 10 mi (16 km) east of Lake Livingston, which is the largest drinking-water reservoir in Texas.

Elevation: 148 ft

The zip code is 77351 for the general area of Livingston.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880135
1920928
19301,16525.5%
19401,85158.9%
19502,86554.8%
19603,39818.6%
19703,96516.7%
19804,92824.3%
19905,0191.8%
20005,4338.2%
20105,335−1.8%
20205,6405.7%
U.S. Decennial Census[7]
Livingston racial composition as of 2020[8]
(NH = Non-Hispanic)[a]
Race Number Percentage
White (NH) 3,103 55.02%
Black or African American (NH) 997 17.68%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 28 0.5%
Asian (NH) 96 1.7%
Some Other Race (NH) 20 0.35%
Mixed/Multi-Racial (NH) 199 3.53%
Hispanic or Latino 1,197 21.22%
Total 5,640

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 5,640 people, 1,951 households, and 1,268 families residing in the town.

The population in the 2010 census was 5,335, and was estimated to be 5,128 in 2018.[11] As of the census[2] of 2000, the population density was 649.9 inhabitants per square mile (250.9/km2). The 2,358 housing units averaged 282.1 per square mile (108.9/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 70.38% White, 18.50% African American, 0.64% Native American, 0.83% Asian, 8.08% from other races, and 1.56% from two or more races. About 13.90% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Of the 2,048 households, 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.4% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.5% were not families. About 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.13.

In the town, the population was distributed as 27.7% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, and 17.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.2 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $31,424, and for a family was $37,868. Males had a median income of $30,318 versus $21,774 for females. The per capita income for the town was $17,214. About 18.2% of families and 22.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.7% of those under age 18 and 17.4% of those age 65 or over.

In the 2010 Census, Livingston lost 1.8% of its population.2010 Census for Livingston, Texas

Government and infrastructure[edit]

The United States Postal Service operates the Livingston Post Office.[12]

The Livingston Municipal Airport, operated by the City of Livingston, is located in West Livingston.[13][14]

Nearby West Livingston has the Texas Department of Criminal Justice Allan B. Polunsky Unit.[13][15][16] Since 1999 this prison has been the location of Texas's death row.[17]

A few miles outside of Livingston is the IAH Polk County Secure Adult Detention Center, which houses around 700 immigrant men daily who have been detained by federal agents of Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Run by the private-prison company Community Education Centers, the facility has frequently been criticized for its subpar treatment of migrants. It is ranked as one of the 10 worst detention centers in the nation, which are the subject of a nationwide campaign by activists to close them.[18]

Local government[edit]

Livingston has a manager-council system of government.[19] It elects a mayor at-large, and has a city council made up of members elected from [single-member district]]s. The city council hires a professional city manager to handle operations. The current mayor is Judy Cochran.[20]

Economy[edit]

The major employers in Livingston are lumber operations and the Polunsky Unit state prison in West Livingston.[21]

Livingston is the headquarters to two regional bank systems, the First National Bank and the First State Bank.

First State Bank has its main office in downtown Livingston and branches in Livingston (west side of town on Highway 190), Onalaska, and Shepherd.

First National Bank has its main office on Highway 190 and branches in downtown Livingston and Onalaska.

Transportation[edit]

The city's airport, Livingston Municipal Airport (LMA) is located to the southwest of the city. It is classified as a general-aviation facility serving private aircraft.

Major highways:

Education[edit]

The City of Livingston is served by the Livingston Independent School District.

The Texas Legislature designated Polk County as within the boundary of Angelina College's district.[22] Polk County Community College opened in the fall of 2014. The college offers various classes and two-year associate degrees.[23]

Recreation[edit]

Camp Cho Yeh -- Livingston, Texas

Lake Evelyn is within the borders of Camp Cho-Yeh, which began operation in the 1940s; it continues to operate as a summer camp and retreat center. Cho-Yeh means 'land of tall pines', and was so named because of the large pine trees on the property. Cho-Yeh is also used by Texas A&M Galveston for their yearly Fish Camp to introduce TAMUG students to the traditions of the university system.[24][citation needed]

Notable people[edit]

Media[edit]

  • KCTL Television
  • KETX Television
  • STRYK TV – Video Country Locally owned & operated by Mouser Media
  • KETX Radio (1440 KETX (AM)
  • KEHH
  • PolkCountyToday.com (news website)
  • Polk County Enterprise (newspaper), East Texas News (online version of the "Polk County Enterprise")
  • Livingston Dunbar (1A-PVIL) state champions 1954
  • Livingston Dunbar (1A-PVIL) state champions 1958
  • Livingston Dunbar (1A-PVIL) state runner-up 1959

High-school basketball:

  • Livingston High (all schools in one division) 1939
  • Livingston Dunbar (1A-PVIL) Runner Up 1952

Tourism and recreation[edit]

Destinations[edit]

Attractions[edit]

Events[edit]

  • Trinity Neches Livestock show and Rodeo (founded in 1945)
  • Polk County Fireworks on Lake Livingston
  • Annual Jingle Bell Fun Run and Walk
  • Hometown Christmas
  • 5k Dam Run

Entertainment references[edit]

Lake Livingston was featured on the third episode of the first season of the television show, River Monsters, which airs on Animal Planet. The host, Jeremy Wade, was searching for alligator gar.[36]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
  2. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  3. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  4. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  5. ^ "City of Livingston, Texas, Information, History". Archived from the original on 2007-09-11. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
  6. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  7. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  8. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-25.
  9. ^ http://www.census.gov[not specific enough to verify]
  10. ^ "About the Hispanic Population and its Origin". www.census.gov. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  11. ^ Bureau, U. S. Census. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  12. ^ "Post Office Location - LIVINGSTON Archived 2011-10-26 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 16, 2010.
  13. ^ a b "West Livingston CDP, Texas Archived 2011-06-06 at the Wayback Machine." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 9, 2010.
  14. ^ "Municipal Airport Archived 2010-05-06 at the Wayback Machine." City of Livingston. Retrieved on May 9, 2010.
  15. ^ "Polunsky Unit Archived 2010-07-25 at the Wayback Machine." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 7, 2010.
  16. ^ Rainwater, Mary. "Death row inmate: No justice by execution," Rapid City Journal. May 5, 2010. Retrieved on May 9, 2010. "are heavy on the mind of 41-year-old former South Dakota resident Kevin Scott Varga, who sits on death row in the Polunsky Unit in Livingston, Texas."
  17. ^ "Death Row Facts Archived 2009-08-06 at the Wayback Machine." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 7, 2010.
  18. ^ Expose & Close
  19. ^ "City Council | Livingston, TX". cityoflivingston-tx.com. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
  20. ^ "Mayor | Livingston, TX". cityoflivingston-tx.com. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
  21. ^ Hannaford, Alex. "Inmates Aren't the Only Victims of the Prison-Industrial Complex" (Archive). The Nation. September 16, 2014. Retrieved on January 20, 2016.
  22. ^ Texas Education Code Sec. 130.165. ANGELINA COUNTY JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT SERVICE AREA..
  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-07-10. Retrieved 2010-09-01.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ "Houston-Area Summer Camp for Kids - Camp Cho-Yeh". Camp Cho-Yeh. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
  25. ^ "Paul Carr Stats". Pro-Football-Reference.com.
  26. ^ Walsh, Colleen (4 May 2017). "Annette Gordon-Reed's personal history, from East Texas to Monticello". Harvard Law Today. Harvard Law School. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  27. ^ "Tennessee Williams' Texas Director Margaret Virginia Jones".
  28. ^ "Alabama-Coushatta Indians", Texas Handbook Online
  29. ^ Doolittle Raiders Online
  30. ^ "Doolittle Raid Crew Roster". Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2010-04-12.
  31. ^ Thirty_Seconds_Over_Tokyo
  32. ^ http://www.historicmarkers.com/Texas/Polk_County_Texas/Captain_Isaac_Newton_Moreland_Turner%2C_C._S._A.__TX10428/
  33. ^ "Southern (USA) history - Randy Hill - Confederate soldier". Archived from the original on 2008-05-13. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
  34. ^ Russell, Major Samuel L., "Selfless Service: The Cavalry Career of Brigadier General Samuel M. Whitside from 1858 to 1902." MMAS Thesis, Fort Leavenworth: U.S. Command and General Staff College, 2002.
  35. ^ THC - Atlas - County Search Archived 2013-02-25 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ "River Monsters : Alligator Gar : Animal Planet". Archived from the original on 2010-06-22. Retrieved 2010-05-10.
  1. ^ Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.[9][10]

External links[edit]