|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2010)|
Livingston City Hall at 220 West Church Street
Location of Livingston, Texas
|• Total||8.4 sq mi (21.7 km2)|
|• Land||8.4 sq mi (21.7 km2)|
|• Water||0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)|
|Elevation||167 ft (51 m)|
|• Density||649.9/sq mi (250.9/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (CST) (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|ZIP codes||77351, 77399|
|GNIS feature ID||1361573|
Livingston is a town in Polk County, Texas, United States. The population was 5,335 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Polk County. It is seventy-five miles north of Houston. This town was settled in 1835 as Springfield. Its name was changed to Livingston and became the county seat of Polk County in 1846.
Livingston has one hospital, the Memorial Medical Center at Livingston, and recently, a new free-standing emergency room, Dow Emergency, was erected. The latter has a plan to grow into a fully functioning, state of the art inpatient hospital in the future.
Livingston is located at (30.709518, -94.934443).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 8.4 square miles (22 km2), of which, 8.4 sq mi (22 km2) of it is land and 0.12% is covered by water. However, the town of Livingston is about 10 mi (16 km) east of Lake Livingston, which is the largest drinking-water reservoir in the state of Texas.
Elevation: 148 ft
The zip code 77399 is used exclusively by a mail service called Escapees for those who full-time live in their RVs.
As of the census of 2000, 5,433 people, 2,048 households, and 1,341 families resided in the town. The population density was 649.9 inhabitants per square mile (250.9/km²). There were 2,358 housing units at an average density of 282.1 per square mile (108.9/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 70.38% White, 18.50% African American, 0.64% Native American, 0.83% Asian, 8.08% from other races, and 1.56% from two or more races. About 13.90% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Of the 2,048 households, 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.4% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.5% were not families. About 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.13.
In the town, the population was distributed as 27.7% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, and 17.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.2 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $31,424, and for a family was $37,868. Males had a median income of $30,318 versus $21,774 for females. The per capita income for the town was $17,214. About 18.2% of families and 22.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.7% of those under age 18 and 17.4% of those age 65 or over.
In the 2010 Census, Livingston lost 1.8 percent of its population.2010 Census for Livingston, Texas
Government and infrastructure
A few miles outside of Livingston is the IAH Polk County Secure Adult Detention Center, which houses around 700 immigrant men daily who have been detained by Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Run by private-prison company Community Education Centers, the facility has frequently been criticized for its sub-par treatment of migrants and is currently under fire in a nationwide campaign calling for the closure of ten of the worst detention centers in the nation.
Livingston uses a manager-council system of government. The current mayor is Clarke Evans.
First National Bank has its main office on Highway 190 and branches in downtown Livingston and Onalaska.
Greyhound Lines operates the Livingston Station at the Super Stop Food Mart. The city's airport, Livingston Municipal Airport (LMA) is located to the southwest of the city. It is classified as a general aviation facility serving private aircraft.
- U.S. Highway 59
- U.S. 59 is scheduled to be upgraded to Interstate 69.
- U.S. Highway 190
- State Highway 146
The City of Livingston is served by the Livingston Independent School District.
Lake Evelyn is within the borders of Camp Cho-Yeh, which began operation in the 1940s continues to function as a summer camp and retreat center to this day. Cho-Yeh means, 'land of tall pines' and was labeled that because of the large pine trees on the property.
Notable people from Livingston include:
- Paul Carr: NFL and University of Houston DB and LB. Moved to Livingston as the elementary school physical education coach.
- Colita: principal chief of the Coushatta Indians after Long King in the early 19th century; Colita's Village preceded the development of Livingston.
- Billy Eli: Musician, songwriter
- Senator Clem Fain, Jr: Texas state senator, Honorary Chief of and Texas agent for the Alabama-Coushatta Indians
- Percy Foreman: notable criminal defense attorney
- Annette Gordon-Reed, law and history professor, winner of the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for History and 2010 MacArthur Fellow
- Lyda Green, Alaskan State Senator for 14 years
- Margo Jones: American stage director who launched the careers of Tennessee Williams and Ray Walston, and directed Williams' The Glass Menagerie on Broadway
- Long King: principal chief of the Coushatta Indians; preceded Colita
- Sally Mayes: Award-winning Broadway actress and singer. Livingston named a street in her honor.
- Mark Moseley: Super Bowl XVII and the 1982 National Football League Most Valuable Player Award as a placekicker
- Lt. James N. Parker, Jr.: Co-pilot of Crew #9 in the Doolittle Raid (aka Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo), awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross
- Gene Phillips: professional basketball player
- Captain (Ike) Isaac Newton Turner: Captain in the Civil War with Hood's Brigade
- Capt. (later Brig. Gen.) Samuel M. Whitside: commanded Camp Livingston in the late 1860s during the reconstruction period.
- Brad Womack: star of ABC's The Bachelor "Season 11 and Season 15"
- Eric D. Johnson: Served in the United States Marine for 20 years, which includes 9 combat tours to various locations including Iraq and Afghanistan. Also served at the White house , Pentagon and State Capital in Washington D.C. The first student in Livingston High School history to qualify for State in powerlifting 1993.
- KCTL Television
- KETX Television
- KXAX Radio (104.3 & 102.5 KXAX-LP) Kxax Radio Website for local news and events.
- KETX Radio (1440 KETX (AM) and 92.3 KETX-FM)
- KDOL Radio (96.1 KDOL-FM)
- PolkCountyToday.com (Up-to-date news website) PolkCountyToday.com (online version of the "PolkCountyToday.com")
- Polk County Enterprise (newspaper)
- East Texas News (online version of the "Polk County Enterprise")
High School Football:
- Livingston Dunbar (1A-PVIL) state champions 1953
- Livingston Dunbar (1A-PVIL) state champions 1954
- Livingston Dunbar (1A-PVIL) state champions 1958
- Livingston Dunbar (1A-PVIL) state runner Up 1959
High School Basketball:
- Livingston High (All schools in one division) 1939
- Livingston Dunbar (1A-PVIL) Runner Up 1952
- Lake Livingston
- Lake Livingston State Park
- Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation
- Annual Pow-Wow
- Trade Days
- Light of Saratoga
- 391 Historical Markers 
- Polk County Museum
- Swartout: Former River Ferry Town, now a ghost town
- Trinity Neches Livestock show and Rodeo (founded in 1945)
- Polk County Fireworks on Lake Livingston
- Annual Jingle Bell Fun Run and Walk
- 5k Dam Run
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- City of Livingston, Texas, Information, History
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "Post Office Location - LIVINGSTON." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 16, 2010.
- "West Livingston CDP, Texas." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 9, 2010.
- "Municipal Airport." City of Livingston. Retrieved on May 9, 2010.
- "Polunsky Unit." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 7, 2010.
- Rainwater, Mary. "Death row inmate: No justice by execution." Rapid City Journal. May 5, 2010. Retrieved on May 9, 2010. "are heavy on the mind of 41-year-old former South Dakota resident Kevin Scott Varga, who sits on death row in the Polunsky Unit in Livingston, Texas."
- "Death Tow Facts." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 7, 2010.
- Expose & Close
- Hannaford, Alex. "Inmates Aren’t the Only Victims of the Prison-Industrial Complex" (Archive). The Nation. September 16, 2014. Retrieved on January 20, 2016.
- "Livingston, Texas." Greyhound Lines. Retrieved on May 16, 2010.
- "Alabama-Coushatta Indians", Texas Handbook Online
- Doolittle Raiders Online
- Russell, Major Samuel L., "Selfless Service: The Cavalry Career of Brigadier General Samuel M. Whitside from 1858 to 1902." MMAS Thesis, Fort Leavenworth: U.S. Command and General Staff College, 2002.
- Friday Night History - PVIL Past Football Champions - Texas High School Football
- UIL: Athletics - Champions Archives and Records
- THC - Atlas - County Search
- Livingston city website
- Livingston-Polk County Chamber of Commerce
- Livingston ISD
- Lake Livingston Recreational Home Page