Polk County, Texas

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Polk County
Polk County Court House
Polk County Court House
Map of Texas highlighting Polk County
Location within the U.S. state of Texas
Map of the United States highlighting Texas
Texas's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 30°48′N 94°50′W / 30.8°N 94.83°W / 30.8; -94.83
Country United States
State Texas
FoundedMarch 30, 1846
Named forJames K. Polk
SeatLivingston
Largest townLivingston
Area
 • Total1,110 sq mi (2,900 km2)
 • Land1,057 sq mi (2,740 km2)
 • Water53 sq mi (140 km2)  4.74%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total50,123
 • Density45/sq mi (17/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
75934, 75936, 75939, 75960, 77326, 77335, 77350, 77351, 77360, 77364
Area code936
Congressional district36th
Websitewww.co.polk.tx.us

Polk County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2020 census, its population was 50,123.[1] Its county seat is Livingston.[2] The county is named after James K. Polk.

The Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation of the federally recognized tribe is in Polk County, where the people have been since the early 19th century. They were forcibly evicted by the federal government from their traditional territory in the Southeast.[3] The 2000 census reported a resident population of 480 persons on the reservation. The tribe reports 1100 enrolled members.

History[edit]

Ike Turner Camp Confederate Monument, Livingston, Texas

Polk County, named for James Knox Polk of Tennessee, President of the United States, was created by an act of the first Legislature of the State of Texas, approved on March 30, 1846, out of Liberty County, and embraced that portion from the part designated as the "Northern Division" of said county. It was one of the first of a series of 23 counties, formulated, constituted, and established by the State of Texas, after annexation to the United States.[4]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18502,348
18608,300253.5%
18708,7074.9%
18807,189−17.4%
189010,33243.7%
190014,44739.8%
191017,45920.8%
192016,784−3.9%
193017,5554.6%
194020,63517.5%
195016,194−21.5%
196013,861−14.4%
197014,4574.3%
198024,40768.8%
199030,68725.7%
200041,13334.0%
201045,41310.4%
202050,12310.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[5]
1850–2010[6] 2010[7] 2020[8]
Polk County, Texas - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010[7] Pop 2020[8] % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 32,830 34,808 72.29% 69.45%
Black or African American alone (NH) 5,153 4,869 11.35% 9.71%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 778 914 1.71% 1.82%
Asian alone (NH) 180 340 0.40% 0.68%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 7 0 0.02% 0.00%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 14 135 0.03% 0.27%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 492 1,712 1.08% 3.42%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 5,959 7,345 13.12% 14.65%
Total 45,413 50,123 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

As of the census[9] of 2000, 41,133 people, 15,119 households, and 10,915 families were residing in the county. The population density was 39 inhabitants per square mile (15/km2). The 21,177 housing units averaged 20 per sq mi (8/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 79.64% White, 13.17% African American, 1.74% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 3.75% from other races, and 1.32% from two or more races. About 9.39% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Of the 15,119 households, 28.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.90% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.80% were not families. About 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50, and the average family size was 2.95.

In the county, the population was distributed as 22.90% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 26.80% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, and 18.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 108.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.50 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $30,495, and for a family was $35,957. Males had a median income of $30,823 versus $21,065 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,834. About 13.30% of families and 17.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.10% of those under age 18 and 12.30% of those age 65 or over.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,110 sq mi (2,900 km2), of which 53 sq mi (140 km2) (4.7%) are covered by water.[10]

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Education[edit]

School districts:

The county is in the district for Angelina College.[11] Polk County College / Commerce Center was completed in 2013 and is located on the U.S. Highway 59 Bypass. Angelina College offers advanced curriculum study and technical training at this location. The facility provides public auditorium space and may be used as a mass shelter in a disaster event .[12]

Government[edit]

Position Name Party
  County Judge Sydney Murphy Republican
  Commissioner, Precinct 1 Guylene Robertson Republican
  Commissioner, Precinct 2 Ronnie Vincent Republican
  Commissioner, Precinct 3 Milton Purvis Republican
  Commissioner, Precinct 4 C.T. "Tommy" Overstreet Republican

Infrastructure[edit]

Polk County Judicial Center, Livingston, Texas

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice Allan B. Polunsky Unit is located in West Livingston.[13][14] This has been the location of the Texas death row since 1999.[15]

Transportation[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Mass transportation[edit]

Greyhound Lines operates the Livingston Station at the Super Stop Food Mart in Livingston.[16]

Airport[edit]

West Livingston has the Livingston Municipal Airport, operated by the City of Livingston.[13][17]

Communities[edit]

Cities[edit]

Towns[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Ghost town[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Politics[edit]

United States Congress[edit]

Senators Name Party First Elected Level
  Senate Class 1 John Cornyn Republican 1993 Senior Senator
  Senate Class 2 Ted Cruz Republican 2012 Junior Senator
Representatives Name Party First Elected Area(s) of Polk County Represented
  District 36 Brian Babin Republican New district created with 2010 census. First elected 2014. Entire county
United States presidential election results for Polk County, Texas[22]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 18,573 76.79% 5,387 22.27% 226 0.93%
2016 15,176 76.45% 4,187 21.09% 489 2.46%
2012 14,071 73.54% 4,859 25.39% 204 1.07%
2008 13,731 68.15% 6,230 30.92% 188 0.93%
2004 13,778 66.09% 6,964 33.41% 104 0.50%
2000 11,746 61.84% 6,877 36.21% 371 1.95%
1996 6,473 45.44% 6,360 44.65% 1,411 9.91%
1992 5,390 37.81% 5,942 41.69% 2,922 20.50%
1988 5,831 48.88% 5,943 49.82% 155 1.30%
1984 5,987 60.36% 3,898 39.30% 33 0.33%
1980 3,771 46.51% 4,213 51.96% 124 1.53%
1976 2,529 36.30% 4,384 62.93% 54 0.78%
1972 3,048 63.13% 1,760 36.45% 20 0.41%
1968 1,013 22.18% 1,841 40.31% 1,713 37.51%
1964 1,199 32.41% 2,492 67.35% 9 0.24%
1960 1,268 37.74% 2,037 60.63% 55 1.64%
1956 1,663 52.89% 1,465 46.60% 16 0.51%
1952 1,454 39.36% 2,238 60.58% 2 0.05%
1948 317 13.96% 1,422 62.64% 531 23.39%
1944 154 6.83% 1,817 80.61% 283 12.56%
1940 280 9.58% 2,642 90.42% 0 0.00%
1936 141 8.01% 1,618 91.93% 1 0.06%
1932 110 4.93% 2,117 94.98% 2 0.09%
1928 508 33.73% 994 66.00% 4 0.27%
1924 272 12.70% 1,839 85.85% 31 1.45%
1920 255 19.84% 810 63.04% 220 17.12%
1916 107 9.39% 918 80.60% 114 10.01%
1912 41 5.26% 615 78.85% 124 15.90%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Polk County, Texas". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ Howard N. Martin, "ALABAMA-COUSHATTA INDIANS", Handbook of Texas Online, uploaded 9 June 2010, accessed 18 November 2014
  4. ^ Ike Turner Camp, U. C. V. (1901). Historical Polk County, Texas: Companies and Soldiers Organized in and Enrolled From Said County in Confederate States Army and Navy—1861–1865, Organization Ike Turner Camp, U. C. V., Unveiling, Etc. Livingston, Texas: Polk County Enterprise, Printers. pp. 3–4. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. ^ "Decennial Census of Population and Housing by Decades". US Census Bureau.
  6. ^ "Texas Almanac: Population History of Counties from 1850–2010" (PDF). Texas Almanac. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
  7. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Polk County, Texas". United States Census Bureau.
  8. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Polk County, Texas". United States Census Bureau.
  9. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  10. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
  11. ^ Texas Education Code, Sec. 130.165. ANGELINA COUNTY JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT SERVICE AREA..
  12. ^ [1], Polk County College Archived February 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ a b "West Livingston CDP, Texas Archived 2011-06-06 at the Wayback Machine." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 9, 2010.
  14. ^ "Polunsky Unit Archived 2010-07-25 at the Wayback Machine." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 7, 2010.
  15. ^ "Death Row Facts" Archived 2009-08-06 at the Wayback Machine, Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 7, 2010.
  16. ^ ""Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)." Greyhound Lines. Retrieved on July 29, 2012. NOTE: The information for Livingston appears as a pop-up window.
  17. ^ "Municipal Airport Archived 2010-05-06 at the Wayback Machine." City of Livingston. Retrieved on May 9, 2010.
  18. ^ "Tribal History", Alabama-Coushatta website
  19. ^ "Margaret Virginia Margo Jones", Texas Escapes website
  20. ^ "René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle", Handbook of Texas Online, accessed 18 November 2014
  21. ^ Randy Hill, "A Southern Homecoming" Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine, n.d., USA Deep South website
  22. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved July 29, 2018.

External links[edit]

Media related to Polk County, Texas at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 30°48′N 94°50′W / 30.80°N 94.83°W / 30.80; -94.83