Longview, Texas

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Longview, Texas
City of Longview
Downtown Longview
Downtown Longview
Nickname(s): 
Balloon Race Capital of Texas
Motto(s): 
Real East Texas
Location of Longview in Gregg and Harrison counties in the U.S. state of Texas
Location of Longview in Gregg and Harrison counties in the U.S. state of Texas
Map of the U.S.
Map of the U.S.
Longview, Texas
Location of Longview in the contiguous United States
Map of the U.S.
Map of the U.S.
Longview, Texas
Longview, Texas (the United States)
Coordinates: 32°30′33″N 94°45′14″W / 32.50917°N 94.75389°W / 32.50917; -94.75389Coordinates: 32°30′33″N 94°45′14″W / 32.50917°N 94.75389°W / 32.50917; -94.75389
Country United States
State Texas
CountiesGregg, Harrison
Government
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • City ManagerRolin McPhee
 • Assistant City ManagerMaryAnn Hagenbucher
Area
 • City55.93 sq mi (144.85 km2)
 • Land55.83 sq mi (144.59 km2)
 • Water0.10 sq mi (0.26 km2)
Elevation
371 ft (113 m)
Population
 • City81,683
 • Density1,500/sq mi (560/km2)
 • Metro
217,481[2]
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central (CST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
75601–75606
Area code(s)903 and 430
FIPS code48-43888[4]
GNIS feature ID1374716[5]
Websitewww.longviewtexas.gov

Longview is a city in the U.S. state of Texas, and county seat of Gregg County; a small part of Longview extends into the western portion of neighboring Harrison County. Longview is located in East Texas, where Interstate 20 and U.S. highways 80 and 259 converge just north of the Sabine River. According to the 2020 U.S. census, the city had a population of 81,638.[6] Longview is the principal city of the Longview metropolitan statistical area, comprising Gregg, Upshur, and Rusk counties. The population of the metropolitan area as of 2017 census estimates was 217,481.[2]

Longview was established in 1870 in what was at the time southern Upshur County; the town incorporated in 1871. After Gregg County was created in 1873, Longview was voted the county seat. Today, Longview is considered a major hub city for the region, as is the nearby city of Tyler. Companies with significant presence in Longview are Eastman Chemical, Trinity Rail Group, AAON Coil Products and Komatsu Mining. Colleges and universities in the area include LeTourneau University, Kilgore College, and the University of Texas at Tyler's Longview University Center.

History[edit]

The modern-day city of Longview was founded in 1869.[7] In 1870, Methvin sold 100 acres (40 ha) to the Southern Pacific Railroad for one dollar to persuade them to build their line in the direction of land he owned. Later that year, he sold another 100 acres (40 ha) for $500 in gold. He hoped the coming of the railroad would increase the value of the rest of his land.

Methvin coined the name of the town when he stated, "What a long view!" from his home. In June 1871, Longview was incorporated as the first town in Gregg County.[8][7]

In 1884 the Mobberly Hotel opened for business servicing railroad travelers and served as the center of social gatherings for Longview. The hotel featured cherry wood furniture with carved bed posts, marble top washstand, linen table cloths, electric crystal chandeliers and a fireplace in every room. Mobberly was located in the junction part of town near the train depot. The hotel was destroyed by fire on June 13, 1965.

In the Longview race riot in July 1919, a reporter for The Chicago Defender was in Longview looking into the mysterious death of a black man named Lemuel Walters. An armed white mob attacked a home where the reporter, S.L. Jones, was staying and attempted to batter their way in. A gunfight began between the attackers and the men in the house. Eventually, Jones made a getaway. The white men then began to burn buildings in the black section of the town.[9]

In 1942, construction began on the Big Inch pipeline in Longview. From 1943 to 1945, the pipeline transported over 261,000,000 barrels of crude oil to the East Coast.[7] At the time of construction, Big Inch and its smaller twin, Little Inch, comprised the longest petroleum pipeline ever built in the world. Both were integral in supplying the United States war effort in World War II.

After World War II Longview's population grew from 24,502 to 40,050 in 1960, its growth fueled by migration from rural Gregg County and the annexation of Greggton and Spring Hill.[10]

Geography[edit]

Longview is bordered to the west by the city of White Oak.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Longview, Texas (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1902–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 86
(30)
90
(32)
97
(36)
95
(35)
103
(39)
110
(43)
108
(42)
113
(45)
109
(43)
101
(38)
93
(34)
93
(34)
113
(45)
Average high °F (°C) 57.6
(14.2)
62.0
(16.7)
69.5
(20.8)
76.7
(24.8)
83.9
(28.8)
90.2
(32.3)
93.6
(34.2)
94.2
(34.6)
88.8
(31.6)
79.0
(26.1)
67.9
(19.9)
59.5
(15.3)
76.9
(24.9)
Daily mean °F (°C) 46.0
(7.8)
49.8
(9.9)
57.2
(14.0)
64.2
(17.9)
72.8
(22.7)
79.8
(26.6)
83.0
(28.3)
83.0
(28.3)
76.9
(24.9)
66.2
(19.0)
55.4
(13.0)
47.8
(8.8)
65.2
(18.4)
Average low °F (°C) 34.3
(1.3)
37.7
(3.2)
44.9
(7.2)
51.8
(11.0)
61.7
(16.5)
69.5
(20.8)
72.5
(22.5)
71.7
(22.1)
64.9
(18.3)
53.3
(11.8)
43.0
(6.1)
36.2
(2.3)
53.5
(11.9)
Record low °F (°C) −4
(−20)
−5
(−21)
17
(−8)
20
(−7)
37
(3)
52
(11)
56
(13)
53
(12)
38
(3)
25
(−4)
18
(−8)
2
(−17)
−5
(−21)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.27
(108)
4.07
(103)
4.68
(119)
4.34
(110)
4.92
(125)
4.33
(110)
2.50
(64)
2.84
(72)
3.48
(88)
4.33
(110)
3.78
(96)
4.64
(118)
48.18
(1,224)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 0.4
(1.0)
0.3
(0.76)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.7
(1.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 8.5 8.8 8.8 7.3 8.0 7.3 5.5 5.8 5.7 6.7 7.4 9.0 88.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4
Source: NOAA[11][12]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18801,525
18902,03433.4%
19003,59176.5%
19105,15543.6%
19205,71310.8%
19305,036−11.9%
194013,758173.2%
195024,50278.1%
196040,05063.5%
197045,54713.7%
198062,76237.8%
199070,31112.0%
200073,3444.3%
201080,4559.7%
202081,6381.5%
U.S. Decennial Census
[13][failed verification] 2020[3]
Longview racial composition as of 2020[14](NH = Non-Hispanic)[a]
Race Number Percentage
White (NH) 40,599 49.73%
Black or African American (NH) 19,173 23.49%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 255 0.31%
Asian (NH) 1,309 1.6%
Pacific Islander (NH) 30 0.04%
Some Other Race (NH) 219 0.27%
Mixed/Multi-Racial (NH) 3,115 3.82%
Hispanic or Latino 16,938 20.75%
Total 81,638

At the 2010 census, Longview had a population of 80,455. The median age was 34. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 56.2% non-Hispanic white, 22.6% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 9.5% from some other race, 2.3% from two or more races and 18.0% Hispanic or Latino.[17] In the census[4] of 2000, 73,344 people, 28,363 households, and 19,116 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,341.8 people per square mile (518.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 70.10% White, 22.11% African American, 0.50% Native American, 0.83% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 4.92% from other races, and 1.51% from two or more races; Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 10.31% of the population.

By the 2020 United States census, Longview's population grew to 81,683.[6] Its racial and ethnic makeup per the 2020 census was 49.73% non-Hsiapnic white, 23.49% Black or African American, 0.31% American Indian or Alaska Native, 1.6% Asian alone, 0.27% some other race, 3.82% multiracial, and 20.75% Hispanic or Latino of any race.[14] Among its population at the 2020 American Community Survey, 52.7% of its population was non-Hispanic white, 22.4% Black or African American, 0.1% American Indian or Alaska Native, 1.4% Asian alone, 0.2% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 0.1% some other race, 2.7% two or more races, and 20.3% Hispanic of Latino American of any race.[18] The 2020 census and 2020 survey reflected nationwide demographic trends of greater diversification among traditional minority populations.[19][20]

Of the 28,363 households at the 2000 census, 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.6% were not families. About 27.9% of all households were individuals who lived alone, and 10.7% of all households were 65 years of age or more and living alone. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.06. Among the estimated 31,450 households at the 2020 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.49; there were 19,965 families with an average size of 3.13.[21] Of the households and families estimated, 53.6% were in owner-occupied housing units and 46.4% were renter-occupied.

In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $33,858, and for a family was $42,378. Males had a median income of $33,078 versus $21,400 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,676. About 13.0% of families and 16.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.7% of those under age 18 and 10.6% of those age 65 or over. By 2020, the median household income for Longview residents grew to $50,019, and monthly housing costs were $854.[22]

Economy[edit]

Longview's tallest building, the 10-story VeraBank
CHRISTUS Good Shepherd Medical Center
Looking west on Tyler Street in downtown Longview

Longview is one of several cities in East Texas that serves as a center for the "patent troll" industry, due to a perception that the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas is a favorable venue for patent infringement plaintiffs.[23] As such, it is also one of the major economic hubs for Northeast Texas alongside Tyler.[24]

Largest employers[edit]

According to the municipal Fiscal Year 2018–2019 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[25] the top employers in the city were:

# Employer # of Employees Type of Business
1 CHRISTUS Good Shepherd Medical Center 2,532 Medical/Hospital Services
2 Eastman Chemical 1,447 Chemical
3 Longview Independent School District 1,400 Public Schools
4 Longview Regional Medical Center 1,125 Medical/Hospital Services
5 Walmart 1,057 Retail
6 Trinity Rail, LLC 960 Railway Cars
7 City of Longview 912 Government
8 Pine Tree Independent School District 680 Public Schools
9 Komatsu 604 Manufacturing
10 Gregg County 575 Government

Arts and culture[edit]

Longview Public Library operates a main branch, and the Broughton Branch.[26][27]

Longview’s cultural district—a 320-acre (130 ha) area in downtown Longview which includes museums, restaurants, parks, live music, theater, and historic buildings—was designated by the Texas Commission on the Arts in 2019.[28]

The 29-acre (12 ha) Longview Arboretum and Nature Center opened in 2019.[29][30] Among other centers, the city has a vast trail system that is being connected to create 10 consecutive miles of connected walking/biking trails.[31]

Government[edit]

Local government[edit]

Longview Municipal Building

According to the 2007 comprehensive annual financial report, the city's various funds had $75.9 million in revenues, $87.7 million in expenditures, $47.6 million in total assets, $9.0 million in total liabilities, and $12.2 million in cash in investments.[32]

The current city manager is Rolin McPhee.[33] Bonds retired January 31, 2022 and Rolin McPhee became the city manager on February 1.[34] With the addition of McPhee as city manager, the city of Longview underwent some restructuring namely adding an assistant city manager, MaryAnn Hagenbucher.[34]

State government[edit]

Longview is represented in the Texas Senate by Republican Bryan Hughes, District 1, and in the Texas House of Representatives by Republican Jay Dean, District 7. The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Longview District Parole Office in Longview.[35]

Federal government[edit]

Longview is part of Texas's 1st congressional district, which is currently represented by Republican Louie Gohmert. Gohmert announced he is not seeking reelection in 2022. Gohmert has represented Longview since 2004.

Education[edit]

S.E. Belcher, Jr. Chapel and Performance Center at LeTourneau University

Colleges and universities[edit]

The city of Longview is home to three institutions of higher learning and two trade (cosmetology) schools:

Public school districts[edit]

Longview is served by four school districts.

Media[edit]

TV stations[edit]

The Gregg County portion of Longview is part of the Tyler-Longview-Lufkin-Nacogdoches Designated Market Area,[citation needed] and the Harrison County portion of Longview is within the Shreveport-Texarkana market.[36]

KLGV-LD broadcasts from Longview.

Newspaper[edit]

Radio[edit]

FM stations[edit]

101.9 K270AW Longview Translator of KDOK Classic Hits
105.7 KYKX Longview Primary Country

AM station[edit]

Frequency (kHz) Call letters Licensed location Type Format
1370 KFRO Longview Primary Fox Sports Radio

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Airport[edit]

East Texas Regional Airport is located south of Longview.

Public transportation[edit]

The city's public transit system, Longview Transit, runs daily routes, excluding Sundays and holidays. Its fixed routes provide transportation to key districts throughout the city.[37]

City of Longview Transit (COLT) provides transportation demand-response transportation services for those who are unable to use the regular Longview Transit fixed-route service.[38]

Rail service[edit]

Amtrak passenger rail service is available on the Texas Eagle through a downtown terminal. Longview's Amtrak station is the fifth-busiest in Texas and the fourth-busiest station along the Texas Eagle route.[39] Daily trains between Chicago and San Antonio stop each morning (Chicago–San Antonio) and each evening (San Antonio–Chicago). Monday, Wednesday and Friday, the Longview station serves the Chicago to Los Angeles trains. The return train, Los Angeles to Chicago, stops in Longview on Sunday, Tuesday, and Friday. It serves about 20–50 passengers per day. From the station, passengers can connect to Nacogdoches, Lufkin, Houston, and Galveston, as well as Shreveport, Louisiana, by motorcoach. A proposal is in the works for a high-speed rail system from Dallas/Fort Worth to Shreveport along the I-20 corridor, bringing passenger rail service to that corridor for the first time since the Texas and Pacific's unnamed successor to the Louisiana Eagle in the late 1960s.[40][41][42]

Longview is served by Amtrak, the BNSF Railway, and the Union Pacific Railroad.[43]

Roads[edit]

  • Interstate 20, an east–west freeway, connects Longview to Dallas, about 125 mi (201 km) to the west and to Shreveport, Louisiana, around 60 mi (97 km) to the east.
  • U.S. Highway 80 runs through the central district of Longview. U.S. Hwy 80 was once a coast-to-coast highway from Tybee Beach near Savannah, Georgia, and ran continuously across the southern part of the United States to San Diego, California. Today, its western terminus is in Dallas, making the length only 1,032 mi (1,661 km).
  • U.S. Highway 259 is a 250-mile-long (400 km) north/south highway providing an alternate route to U.S. 59 between Nacogdoches, Texas, and the Oklahoma/Arkansas border just south of Fort Smith, Arkansas. Before Interstate 20, US 259 went through the center of Longview on a route now designated Texas State Highway 31 and Spur 502.
  • Texas Highway 31 runs 143.3 miles (230.6 km) east/west between Longview and Waco, Texas.
  • Texas Highway 149, 33.9 mi (54.6 km) long, connects Longview with Carthage.
  • Texas Highway 300 is a short (18.62-mile (29.97 km)) highway connecting Longview to U.S. 271 in Gilmer.
  • Texas Highway 281 is a 19.3-mile (31.1 km) loop highway that circumnavigates much of Longview from its east connection at I-20 east of the Gregg/Harrison county line to I-20 in Longview. It runs northward, westward, southward and eastward around the city.
  • Spur 502 connects north/south traffic between U.S. Hwy 80 in central Longview and U.S. Hwy 259 north of Longview.
  • Spur 63 runs north/south through Longview connecting TX Hwy 31 at its Longview terminus with Spur 502 north of TX Loop 281.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.[15][16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015 – United States – Metropolitan Statistical Area (GCT-PEPANNRES)". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  3. ^ a b "QuickFacts: Longview city, Texas". United States Census Bureau. March 31, 2022. Retrieved March 31, 2022.
  4. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  5. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  6. ^ a b "2020 Race and Population Totals". data.census.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-20.
  7. ^ a b c Eugene W. McWhorter, "LONGVIEW, TX (GREGG COUNTY)", Handbook of Texas Online [1], accessed April 12, 2013. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
  8. ^ Beth Holloway Dodson, "METHVIN, OSSAMUS HITCH, SR.", Handbook of Texas Online <https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fme57>, accessed April 12, 2013. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
  9. ^ Onion, Rebecca. "Red Summer". Slate. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
  10. ^ W., MCWHORTER, EUGENE (June 15, 2010). "LONGVIEW, TX". tshaonline.org. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
  11. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 20, 2021.
  12. ^ "Station: Longview, TX". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 20, 2021.
  13. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  14. ^ a b "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-22.
  15. ^ https://www.census.gov/[not specific enough to verify]
  16. ^ "About the Hispanic Population and its Origin". www.census.gov. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  17. ^ 2010 general profile of population and housing characteristics of Longview from the U.S. census
  18. ^ "2020 Demographic and Housing Estimates". data.census.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-20.
  19. ^ "Census data shows widening diversity; number of White people falls for the first time". The Washington Post.
  20. ^ Passel, Jeffrey S.; Lopez, Mark Hugo; Cohn, D’Vera. "U.S. Hispanic population continued its geographic spread in the 2010s". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 2022-05-20.
  21. ^ "2020 Households and Families Estimates". data.census.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-20.
  22. ^ "2020 Financial Characteristics". data.census.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-20.
  23. ^ Roberts, Jeff (October 14, 2011). "How A Texas Dog Park Became A New Front In America's Patent Wars". Gigaom. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  24. ^ "At the Heart of Texas: Tyler–Longview". www.dallasfed.org. Retrieved 2022-05-20.
  25. ^ CAFR FY 18-19, retrieved January 29, 2021 Archived October 16, 2020(Date mismatch), at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "Longview Public Library". www.longviewlibrary.org. Retrieved 2022-05-22.
  27. ^ "Broughton Branch Library | Longview, TX". www.longviewtexas.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-22.
  28. ^ "About Arts!Longview | Visit Longview TX". www.visitlongviewtexas.com. Retrieved 2021-02-25.
  29. ^ "About | Longview Arboretum". www.longviewarboretum.org. Retrieved 2022-04-23.
  30. ^ Reports, From Staff. "Phase 1 of Longview Arboretum and Nature Center to open Nov. 2". Longview News-Journal. Retrieved 2022-04-23.
  31. ^ "Facilities | Longview, TX". www.longviewtexas.gov. Retrieved 2021-02-24.
  32. ^ City of Longview 2007–08 CAFR Retrieved June 7, 2009 Archived October 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ City of Longview, retrieved December 2, 2021 Archived November 28, 2020, at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ a b "Longview council appoints new city manager, splits on reorganization".
  35. ^ "Parole Division Region I." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 15, 2010. Archived September 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ "Shreveport/Texarkana Market" (PDF). www.ktbs.com. January 20, 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 9, 2012.
  37. ^ City of Longview website Archived November 15, 2004, at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ Source: City of Longview website Archived October 24, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ Amtrak, State of Texas factsheet, Fiscal Year 2019, page 1 https://www.amtrak.com/content/dam/projects/dotcom/english/public/documents/corporate/statefactsheets/TEXAS19.pdf
  40. ^ Streamliner Schedules, Louisiana Eagle, 1952 http://www.streamlinerschedules.com/concourse/track9/louisianaeagle195208.html
  41. ^ Texas & Pacific September 1960 timetable http://streamlinermemories.info/South/T&P60TT.pdf
  42. ^ "Missouri Pacific Lines, Table 2". Official Guide of the Railways. National Railway Publication Company. 101 (1). June 1968.
  43. ^ "Transportation". longviewusa.com. LEDCO. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  44. ^ "Chris Davis Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  45. ^ The official website of Kristy Hawkins
  46. ^ Olano, Joseph A. (14 April 2010). "Retiree speaks of experiences as a Tuskegee Airman". Air Force Print News Today. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  47. ^ Montana Jordan - Young Sheldon Cast Member, retrieved 2021-07-09
  48. ^ "Malcolm Kelly". databaseFootball.com. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  49. ^ "Lee Lacy Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  50. ^ "Charlie Neal Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  51. ^ "Robert Newhouse". databaseFootball.com. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  52. ^ "Diane Porter Patrick". intelius.com. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
  53. ^ "Longview legend Monte Pittman returns to Texas". Longview News-Journal. December 2, 2021.
  54. ^ "James Scott". databaseFootball.com. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  55. ^ "Sam West Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference. Retrieved December 16, 2014.

External links[edit]