Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
|Duke of Cambridge (more)|
Prince William in 2016
|Born||21 June 1982|
London, United Kingdom
Catherine Middleton (m. 2011)
|Father||Charles, Prince of Wales|
|Mother||Lady Diana Spencer|
|Years of service||2006–2013 |
|Unit||Blues and Royals|
RAF Search and Rescue Force
|Royal family of|
the United Kingdom and the
other Commonwealth realms
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, [fn 1] born 21 June 1982) is a member of the British royal family. He is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. Since birth, he has been second in the line of succession to the British throne.(William Arthur Philip Louis;
William was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and studied for a degree at the University of St Andrews. During a gap year, he spent time in Chile, Belize, and Africa. In December 2006, he completed 44 weeks of training as an officer cadet and was commissioned in the Blues and Royals regiment. In April 2008, William completed pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell, then underwent helicopter flight training and became a full-time pilot with the RAF Search and Rescue Force in early 2009. His service with the British Armed Forces ended in September 2013. He then trained for a civil pilot's licence and spent over two years working as a pilot for the East Anglian Air Ambulance.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Education
- 3 Military and air ambulance service
- 4 Royal duties
- 5 Patronages and interests
- 6 Personal life
- 7 Titles, styles, honours, and arms
- 8 Ancestry
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Prince William was born at Lindo Wing of St Mary's Hospital, London, at 9:03 pm on 21 June 1982 as the first child of Charles, Prince of Wales—heir apparent to Queen Elizabeth II—and Diana, Princess of Wales. His names, William Arthur Philip Louis, were announced by Buckingham Palace on 28 June. He was baptised by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie, in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 4 August, the 82nd birthday of his paternal great-grandmother Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.[fn 2] He was the first child born to a Prince and Princess of Wales since Prince John in 1905. William's parents affectionately called him "Wombat" or "Wills"—a name coined by the press.
Since his birth, William has been second in the line of succession to the British throne. At age seven, he reportedly told his mother he wanted to be a police officer when he was older so that he might be able to protect her; a statement to which his five-year-old brother Harry reportedly replied, "Oh, no you can't. You've got to be King."
William began accompanying his parents on official visits at an early age. In 1983, he accompanied them on a tour to Australia and New Zealand, a decision made by Diana. The decision was considered to be unconventional because the first- and second-in-line to the throne would be travelling together, and because of William's young age. His first public appearance was on 1 March 1991—Saint David's Day—during an official visit of his parents to Cardiff. After arriving by aeroplane, William was taken to Llandaff Cathedral where he signed the visitors' book, showing he is left-handed.
On 3 June 1991, William was admitted to Royal Berkshire Hospital after being accidentally hit on the forehead by a fellow student wielding a golf club. He suffered a depressed fracture of the skull and was operated on at Great Ormond Street Hospital, resulting in a permanent scar. In a 2009 interview, he dubbed this scar a "Harry Potter scar" and said, "I call it that because it glows sometimes and some people notice it—other times they don't notice it at all".
William's mother wanted him and his younger brother Harry to have wider experiences than are usual for royal children. She took them to Walt Disney World and McDonald's, as well as AIDS clinics and shelters for the homeless, and bought them items typically owned by teenagers, such as video games. Diana, who was by then divorced from Charles, died in a car accident in the early hours of 31 August 1997. William, then aged 15, together with his 12-year-old brother and their father, were staying at Balmoral Castle at the time. The Prince of Wales waited until his sons awoke the following morning to tell them about their mother's death. William accompanied his father, brother, paternal grandfather Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and his maternal uncle Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer, at his mother's funeral; they walked behind the funeral cortège from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Abbey.
William was educated at independent schools, starting at Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London. Following this, he attended Ludgrove School near Wokingham, Berkshire, and was privately tutored during summers by Rory Stewart. At Ludgrove, he participated in football, swimming, basketball, clay pigeon shooting, and cross country running. He sat the entrance exam to Eton College and was admitted. There, he studied Geography, Biology, and History of Art at A-Level, obtaining an 'A' in Geography, a 'C' in Biology, and a 'B' in History of Art. At Eton, he took up water polo and continued to play football, captaining his house team.
The decision to place William in Eton went against the family tradition of sending royal children to Gordonstoun, which William's grandfather, father, two uncles, and two cousins all attended. Diana's father and brother both attended Eton. The royal family and the tabloid press agreed William would be allowed to study free from intrusion in exchange for regular updates about his life. John Wakeham, chairman of the Press Complaints Commission, said of the arrangement, "Prince William is not an institution; nor a soap star; nor a football hero. He is a boy: in the next few years, perhaps the most important and sometimes painful part of his life, he will grow up and become a man."
After completing his studies at Eton, William took a gap year, during which he took part in British Army training exercises in Belize, worked on English dairy farms, visited Africa, and for ten weeks taught children in southern Chile. As part of the Raleigh International programme in the town of Tortel, William lived with other young volunteers, sharing in the common household chores—including cleaning the toilet—and also volunteered as a guest disc jockey at a local radio station. His interest in African culture prompted him to teach himself Swahili.
By 2001, William was back in the United Kingdom and had enrolled at the University of St Andrews. News of this caused a temporary increase in the number of applications to St Andrews, mostly from young women who wanted an opportunity to meet him. The extra attention did not deter him; he embarked on a degree course in Art History, later changing his main subject to Geography, and earned a Scottish Master of Arts degree with upper second class honours in 2005. While at university, he represented the Scottish national universities water polo team at the Celtic Nations tournament in 2004. He was known as "Steve" by other students to avoid any journalists overhearing and realising his identity.
William returned to St Andrews in February 2011 as patron of the university's 600th Anniversary Appeal.
To prepare for his eventual management of the Duchy of Cornwall, in 2014 William enrolled in a vocational agricultural management course at Cambridge, which was organised by the Cambridge Programme for Sustainability Leadership (CPSL), of which his father is patron. According to a CNN report in 2014, the duchy is "a £760 million (about $1.25 billion) entity established in 1337 to provide a private income for use by the reigning monarch's eldest son", which William will inherit when his father becomes king.
Military and air ambulance service
Military training and secondments
Having decided to follow a military career, in October 2005 William attended the four-day Regular Commissions Board at Westbury in Wiltshire, where he underwent selection to judge his suitability to become an army officer. He passed selection and was admitted to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in January 2006. After completing the course, William was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant at Sandhurst on 15 December 2006; the graduation parade was attended by the Queen and the Prince of Wales, along with other members of the Royal Family. William officially received his commission as a lieutenant at midnight. As "Lieutenant Wales"—a name based on his father's title Prince of Wales—he followed his younger brother into the Blues and Royals as a troop commander in an armoured reconnaissance unit, after which he spent five months training for the post at Bovington Camp, Dorset.
Though Major-General Sir Sebastian Roberts, General Officer commanding the Household Division, had said William's deployment was possible, the Prince's position as second-in-line to the throne and the convention of ministers advising against placing that person into dangerous situations cast doubts on William's chances of seeing combat. These doubts increased after Prince Harry's deployment was cancelled in 2007 due to "specific threats". William, instead, went on to train in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force, obtaining his commission as a sub-lieutenant in the former and flying officer in the latter—both broadly equivalent to the army rank of lieutenant. After completing his training, William undertook an attachment with the Royal Air Force, undergoing an intensive, four-month training course at RAF Cranwell. Upon completing the course on 11 April 2008, he was presented with his RAF wings by his father, who had received his own wings after training at Cranwell. During this secondment, William flew to Afghanistan in a C-17 Globemaster that repatriated the body of Trooper Robert Pearson.
William was then seconded to train with the Royal Navy from June to August 2008, during which he spent three weeks at the Britannia Royal Naval College training on units of the surface fleet and submarines, as well as with the Fleet Air Arm and the Royal Marines. He spent a day on submarine HMS Talent. During a five-week deployment on HMS Iron Duke in the Caribbean, he took part in a joint operation with the United States Coast Guard that identified and captured a speedboat carrying 900 kg (2,000 lb) of cocaine worth about £40 million. The ship also took part in other raids.
Because of William's future royal role, a long-term career in the military was considered out of the question; due to his position, his desire to see active service was unlikely to be fulfilled. William originally joined the military on a short-service commission lasting three years. It was announced in September 2008, however, that he would be extending his forces career in 2008 by accepting another secondment that included working at the Ministry of Defence (MOD) and non-operational flying with the Army Air Corps. It was later announced that he would transfer from the Army to the RAF to train as a full-time search and rescue helicopter pilot.
Royal Air Force service
In January 2009, William transferred his commission to the RAF and was promoted to Flight Lieutenant. He trained to become a helicopter pilot with the RAF's Search and Rescue Force. In January 2010, he graduated from the Defence Helicopter Flying School at RAF Shawbury, where he had been under the instruction of Squadron Leader Craig Finch. On 26 January 2010, he transferred to the Search and Rescue Training Unit at RAF Valley, Anglesey, to receive training on the Sea King search and rescue helicopter; he graduated from this course on 17 September 2010. This made him the first member of the British royal family since Henry VII to live in Wales.
It was announced on 15 April 2010 that William would remain at RAF Valley for his operational tour; he was assigned to C Flight No. 22 Squadron and initially performed co-pilot duties. His operational tour was expected to last 30 to 36 months.
William's first rescue mission as co-pilot of an RAF Sea King was a response to an emergency call from the Liverpool Coastguard on 2 October 2010. William—who was excited to take part in an active mission—and the other three crew members, flew from their base at RAF Valley to an offshore gas rig in Morecambe Bay, from where a man who had suffered a suspected heart attack was airlifted to hospital. In November 2011, he participated in a search-and-rescue mission involving a cargo ship that was sinking in the Irish Sea; William, as a co-pilot, helped rescue two sailors.
William was deployed to the Falkland Islands for a six-week tour with No. 1564 Flight from February to March 2012. The Argentine government condemned the Duke's deployment to the islands close to the 30th anniversary of the beginning of the Falklands War as a "provocative act".
In June 2012 Prince William gained a qualification to be captain or pilot in command of a Sea King rather than a co-pilot. His active service as an RAF search-and-rescue pilot ended in September 2013.
Air ambulance pilot
In 2014, it was announced that William would accept a full-time role as a pilot with the East Anglian Air Ambulance (EAAA) based at Cambridge Airport. Despite his qualifications as a military helicopter pilot, William needed a civil pilot's licence and further training before being permitted to take command of the Air Ambulance. Although his position was paid, Kensington Palace announced that William would donate his full salary to the EAAA charity. He underwent part of his training as an EAAA pilot at Norwich Airport. On 13 July 2015, William started his new job, which he felt was a natural progression from his previous role as an RAF search-and-rescue pilot. He left his position with EAAA in July 2017 to assume a more active role in royal duties on behalf of his grandmother the Queen.
Upon graduation from university, William began to undertake his own public duties and privately obtained work experience by interning in land management at Chatsworth House and in banking at HSBC.
At the age of 21, Prince William was appointed as a Counsellor of State; he first served in that capacity when the Queen was in Nigeria attending the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in 2003. For his 21st birthday, William accompanied his father on a tour of Wales, visiting the Anglesey Food Fair and opening a centre for the homeless in Newport. By July 2005, he embarked on his first solo overseas tour, travelling to New Zealand, to participate in World War II commemorations on behalf of Queen Elizabeth II in her role as Queen of New Zealand. For the 30th anniversary of his father's charity The Prince's Trust, William and his brother were interviewed together for the first time by television personalities Ant & Dec.
According to Tina Brown in her 2007 biography of Diana, Princess of Wales, William had, like his father, expressed a desire to become Governor-General of Australia. Prime Minister of Australia John Howard said, "We have for a long time embraced the idea that the person who occupies that post should be in every way an Australian citizen".
In 2009, the Queen set up a private office for William with Sir David Manning as his adviser. Manning accompanied him in January 2010 as he toured Auckland and Wellington on behalf of the Queen; William opened the new building of the Supreme Court of New Zealand and was welcomed by a Māori chief. William succeeded Lord Attenborough in 2010 as the fifth president of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts.
In March 2011, William visited Christchurch, New Zealand, shortly after the earthquake, and spoke at the memorial service at Hagley Park on behalf of his grandmother. Upon leaving New Zealand, he travelled to Australia to visit areas affected by flooding in Queensland and Victoria. After twice accompanying his parents to Canada, Prince William and his wife toured the country in June and July 2011; they visited the United States and attended Canada Day celebrations on Parliament Hill. On 2 November, the Duke and Duchess visited the UNICEF Supply Division Centre in Copenhagen, Denmark, which supplies food to malnourished African children. In September 2012, they toured Singapore, Malaysia, Tuvalu, and the Solomon Islands as part of the Queen's Diamond Jubilee celebrations.
In April 2014, the Duke and Duchess undertook a royal tour to New Zealand and Australia. From 20–21 September, William took his wife's place on a tour of Malta to mark the 50th anniversary of the island's independence from the United Kingdom. On 21 October, the Duke and Duchess met the President of Singapore, Tony Tan, during his state visit to the UK.
In 2015, Prince William visited the Chinese cities Beijing, Shanghai, and Yunnan from 1 to 4 March. Chinese President Xi Jinping welcomed him as he began the first visit to mainland China by a member of the British royal family in almost three decades.
In June 2018, Prince William visited Israel and Palestine, being the first British royal to visit the area officially since the expiry of the British Mandate. He visited Tel Aviv, meeting with mayor Ron Huldai and touring the beach area and city centre; Jerusalem, meeting with President Reuven Rivlin and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu; and Ramallah, meeting with Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas.
Patronages and interests
Humanitarian and environmental patronages
William became aware of HIV/AIDS in the mid-1990s when he accompanied his mother and brother on visits to shelters and clinics for sufferers. In January 2005, William and his brother volunteered at a British Red Cross aid distribution centre to pack emergency supplies for countries affected by the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami. In September that year, William granted his patronage to Centrepoint, a charity that assists the homeless.
In 2005, William worked in the children's unit at The Royal Marsden Hospital for two days of work experience; he also assisted in the medical research, catering, and fundraising departments. In May that year, he spent two weeks in North Wales with a mountain rescue team. In May 2007, William became patron of both organisations—his mother had also been patron of the Royal Marsden Hospital—and he became attracted to Mountain Rescue England and Wales to "highlight and celebrate the vital, selfless and courageous work of our mountain rescue organisations".
Prince William also became a patron of the Tusk Trust in December 2005, a charity that works towards conserving wildlife and initiating community development, including providing education, across Africa. He became associated with the organisation after he witnessed its work first hand in Africa. Saying "rural African initiatives that foster education, responsibility and participation in the local community light the way to conservation", he carried out his first official duty with the trust in launching a 5,000-mile (8,000 km) bike ride across the African continent in 2007. In 2010, he also became a patron of 100 Women in Hedge Funds Philanthropic Initiatives.
In March 2011, the Duke and Duchess set up a gift fund held by The Foundation of Prince William and Prince Harry to allow well-wishers who wanted to give them a wedding gift to donate money to charities instead. The gift fund supported 26 charities of the couple's choice, incorporating the armed forces, children, the elderly, art, sport and conservation. These causes are close to their hearts and reflected the experiences, passions and values of their lives so far.
In December 2019, after consulting various organisations and experts, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge announced the Earthshot Prize, which will be given to five individuals or organisations who could come up with solutions for environmental problems between 2021 and 2030. The Royal Foundation of The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge will run the project, which is also supported by philanthropists.
William plays polo to raise money for charity, is a fan of football, and supports the English club Aston Villa. He became President of England's Football Association in May 2006 and vice-royal patron of the Welsh Rugby Union (WRU) in February 2007, supporting the Queen as patron. The same year, the WRU's decision to name a new cup for test matches between Wales and South Africa the Prince William Cup caused controversy; some believed it would have been more appropriate to name it after Ray Gravell.
In 2006, William, along with other Sandhurst officers, took part in a one-mile (1.6 km) run to support the charity Sport Relief, as he had done in 2004 with a team from Clarence House. In May 2007, William became patron of the English Schools' Swimming Association. In 2013, he succeeded his grandfather Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, as president of the UK charity Fields in Trust.
In December 2010, William and Prime Minister David Cameron attended a meeting with FIFA vice-president Chung Mong-joon at which Chung suggested a vote-trading deal for the right to host the 2018 World Cup in England. The English delegation reported the suggestion to FIFA's ethics investigator because they considered vote-swapping to be a violation of anti-collusion rules. In 2012, together with the Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry, William launched Coach Core. The program was set up following the 2012 Olympics and provides apprenticeship opportunities for people who desire to pursue a career as a professional coach.
In May 2014, William, like his father and paternal grandfather, became president of the British Sub-Aqua Club (BSAC). He enthusiastically took part in a bandy event in Stockholm in January 2018.
William's private life became a subject of tabloid speculation, especially around his relationship with Catherine Middleton, one of William's university flatmates whom William began dating in 2003. Middleton attended William's passing-out parade at Sandhurst, which was the first high-profile event that she attended as his guest. Their relationship was followed so closely that bookmakers took bets on the possibility of marriage and the retail chain Woolworths produced memorabilia bearing the likenesses of the couple. Media attention became so intense that William formally asked the press to keep their distance from Middleton.
Marriage and children
On 16 November 2010, Clarence House announced that Prince William and Middleton were to marry; the couple had become engaged in Kenya in October. The engagement ring given by William to Catherine had belonged to his mother.
The wedding took place on 29 April 2011 in Westminster Abbey, London. A few hours before the ceremony, William's new titles Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus were announced.
His wife's first pregnancy was announced on 3 December 2012. She was admitted on 22 July 2013 to the Lindo Wing of St Mary's Hospital, London, where Prince William had been delivered. Later that day, she gave birth to Prince George. On 8 September 2014, it was announced that the Duchess of Cambridge was pregnant with her second child. She was admitted on 2 May 2015 to the same hospital and gave birth to Princess Charlotte. The Duchess's third pregnancy was announced on 4 September 2017; Prince Louis was born on 23 April 2018.
In March 2017, a video of William dancing with an unidentified woman at a nightclub in Verbier, Switzerland, surfaced in the media. At the time, he was on a skiing holiday with his friends. The press criticised William's behaviour because he had failed to attend the Commonwealth Day service at Westminster Abbey, which was attended by other senior members of the royal family.
Privacy and the media
The death of Diana, Princess of Wales, in Paris while being chased by paparazzi in 1997, influenced the Duke's attitude towards the media. The Duke and his wife have asked that, when off-duty, their privacy should be respected.
In September 2012, the French edition of Closer and the Italian gossip magazine Chi, published photographs of the Duchess of Cambridge sun-bathing topless while on holiday at the Château d'Autet (a private château on a 260-ha estate 71 km north of Aix-en-Provence). Analysts from The Times believed the photographs were taken from the D22 (Vaucluse) road half a kilometre from the pool—a distance that would require an 800-mm or a 1000-mm lens. On 17 September 2012, the Duke and Duchess filed a criminal complaint with the French prosecution department and launched a claim for civil damages at the Tribunal de Grande Instance de Nanterre. The following day the courts granted an injunction against Closer prohibiting further publication of the photographs and announced a criminal investigation would be initiated. Under French law, punitive damages cannot be awarded but intrusions of privacy are a criminal offence carrying a maximum jail sentence of one year and a fine of up to €45,000 for individuals and €225,000 for companies. In September 2017, Closer was fined €100,000 and its editor Laurence Pieau and owner Ernesto Mauri were each fined €45,000.
On 14 August 2015, Kensington Palace published a letter detailing what it stated were the "dangerous" and invasive efforts of the media to get paparazzi pictures of Prince George and Princess Charlotte. Jason Knauf, communications secretary to the Cambridges, wrote the letter to media standards organisations in various countries.
Titles, styles, honours, and arms
Titles and styles
- 1982–2011: His Royal Highness Prince William of Wales
- 2011–present: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cambridge
The hereditary titles of Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus were announced on 29 April 2011 and formally patented on 26 May that year.[fn 3] William is a Royal Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter (KG), a Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle (KT), a member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom (PC), and a Personal Aide-de-Camp (ADC) to the Queen.
As a British prince, William does not use a surname for everyday purposes. For formal and ceremonial purposes, children of the Prince of Wales use the title "prince" or "princess" before their forename and follow it with their father's territorial designation. Thus, before his marriage, Prince William was styled "Prince William of Wales". Such territorial designations are discarded by women when they marry and by men if they are given a peerage of their own, such as when Prince William was given his dukedom.
Although the name of the Royal House is Windsor, the surname Mountbatten-Windsor belongs to all the children and male-line descendants of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, and is used, if needed, by those who do not have the style of Royal Highness and the title Prince or Princess; when a female descendant marries, she traditionally takes her husband's surname from that point onward, and their children take their father's.
Both Princes William and Harry used Wales as their surname for military purposes; this continues to be the case for William since his creation as Duke of Cambridge.
- United Kingdom
- 8 January 2006: Officer cadet
- 16 December 2006: Cornet (Second Lieutenant), The Blues and Royals (short service commission)
- 16 December 2006: Lieutenant, The Blues and Royals
- 1 January 2009: Captain, The Blues and Royals (and transferred to a full regular commission)
- 1 January 2016: Major, British Army
Prince William is the 1,000th member of the register of the Order of the Garter, and was officially invested by the Queen on 16 June 2008 at a service at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. The last time a monarch appointed a grandchild into the Order of the Garter was in 1894, when Queen Victoria invested Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
- 23 April 2008: Royal Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter (KG)
- 25 May 2012: Extra Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle (KT)
- 6 February 2002: Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal
- 6 February 2012: Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal
- Since 6 July 2009: Honorary Bencher of the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple.
- Since 23 June 2010: Royal Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS)
- 17 March 2013: Personal Aide-de-Camp to Her Majesty The Queen (ADC)
- 9 June 2016: Member of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council (PC)
- Since 1 March 2017: Royal Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (HonFRSE)
- Since 17 January 2018: Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine (FRSM)
Honorary military appointments
- Since 8 August 2006: Commodore-in-Chief of the Royal Navy Submarine Service
- Since 8 August 2006: Commodore-in-Chief of Scotland
- Since 3 October 2008: Honorary Air Commandant of RAF Coningsby
- Since 10 February 2011: Colonel of the Irish Guards
- Their Royal Highnesses The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge Award, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario
- Duke and Duchess of Cambridge's Parks Canada Youth Ambassadors Program
- Duke of Cambridge Public School, Bowmanville, Ontario
In September 2013, the Queen granted to the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge a conjugal coat of arms consisting of their individual arms displayed side-by-side beneath a helm and coronet denoting the Duke's status as grandson of the Sovereign.
Personal flag for Canada
In 2011, the Canadian Heraldic Authority introduced a personal heraldic flag for the Duke of Cambridge's use in Canada. It is the Royal Arms of Canada in banner form defaced with a blue roundel surrounded with a wreath of gold maple leaves and shells within which is a depiction of a "W" surmounted by a coronet. Above the roundel is a white label of three points, charged with a red shell.
Prince William is a member of the House of Windsor. Patrilineally, he descends from the House of Oldenburg, one of Europe's oldest royal houses; and more specifically the cadet branch known as the House of Glücksburg.
Through his mother, William descends from the Earls Spencer—a cadet branch of the Spencer family descended from the Earls of Sunderland; the senior branch are now also Dukes of Marlborough; the Barons Fermoy; and more anciently from Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton, and Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond—two illegitimate sons of King Charles II. As king, William would be the first monarch since Anne to descend from Charles I and the first to descend from Charles II.
William descends matrilineally from Eliza Kewark, a housekeeper for his eighteenth-century ancestor Theodore Forbes—a Scottish merchant who worked for the East India Company in Surat. She is variously described in contemporary documents as "a dark-skinned native woman", "an Armenian woman from Bombay", and "Mrs. Forbesian". Genealogist William Addams Reitwiesner assumed Kewark was Armenian. In June 2013, BritainsDNA announced that genealogical DNA tests on two of William's distant matrilineal cousins confirm Kewark was matrilineally of Indian descent.
|Ancestors of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge|
- Royal William, a German red rose named after Prince William shortly after his birth
- As a member of the Royal Family entitled to be called His Royal Highness, William does not normally use a surname. He has used both Mountbatten-Windsor, and – at university and in his military career – Wales. According to letters patent of February 1960, his house and family name is Windsor. The middle name Louis is pronounced //.
- William had six godparents: former King Constantine II of Greece (his paternal second cousin once removed); Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Mrs Ogilvy (his paternal first cousin twice removed); the Duchess of Westminster; Lady Susan Hussey; Lord Romsey (his paternal second cousin once removed); and Sir Laurens van der Post.
- The Letters Patent formalising these titles were signed and passed under the Great Seal on 26 May 2011.
- Lichfield, John (19 September 2012). "William and Kate win legal battle – but lose war to keep topless photos under wraps". The Independent. London. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Duke of Cambridge to deploy to Falklands". Ministry of Defence. 10 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- Withnall, Adam (12 September 2013). "Prince William completes last shift as RAF pilot to take up full-time job of being royal". The Independent. London. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Prince William to swap armed forces for royal and charity duties". BBC News. 12 September 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- "Prince William's his name". The Evening News. London. AP. 28 July 1982. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- "The Duke of Cambridge – Biography". Office of the Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 23 April 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "No. 49027". The London Gazette. 21 June 1982. p. 8215.
- "William baptized". The Palm Beach Post. London. AP. 5 August 1982. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "Yvonne's Royalty Home Page – Royal Christenings". Uniserve. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Princess Diana enters hospital in early labor". Youngstown Vindicator. London. AP. 21 June 1982. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- Dateline NBC, NBC, 6 October 2007
- "The Saint that looked after Wills". The Sunday Herald. 26 June 2005.
- "Succession". Royal Household. 30 May 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
- Bates, Stephen (26 April 2011). "Prince William: how he has coped with a life in the spotlight". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- "The Prince of Wales – Countries Visited". Princeofwales.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "Prince William Biography". People. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "The young royals: Prince William". BBC News. 3 May 2005. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
- "Prince William marks the end of the first term of his third university year with an interview". Prince of Wales. 14 December 2003. Archived from the original on 25 October 2008. Retrieved 31 May 2008.
- Pierce, Andrew (18 March 2009). "Prince William has 'Harry Potter' scar from golf accident". The Telegraph. UK.
- "Timeline: How Diana died". BBC News. 14 December 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "BBC ON THIS DAY – 6–1997: Diana's funeral watched by millions". BBC News. London. 6 September 1997. Retrieved 26 March 2009.
- "Wetherby Pre-Preparatory School". London Pre-Prep. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- Stratton, Allegra (26 October 2009). "Former royal tutor Rory Stewart selected for safe Tory seat". The Guardian. London.
- "Prince William gives an interview at the start of his university career". 22 September 2001. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012.
- "What is it like at Eton College?". BBC News. 4 July 2005. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
- Bates, Stephen (18 August 2000). "William makes the grade". The Guardian.
- "The Prince of Wales – Interests". Princeofwales.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 16 June 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "Rugged prince scores PR triumph". BBC News. 11 December 2000. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Prince of Wales.gov personalprofiles Archived 2 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine & royal.gov The Duke of Cambridge Retrieved 8 February 2012
- "Prince William Celebrates 21st Birthday With African-Themed Party". Fox News. 21 June 2003. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- Summerskill, Ben (23 September 2001). "Welcome to Will's new world". The Observer. London. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- Howie, Michael (24 June 2005). "William Wales M.A. collects his degree". The Scotsman. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "The Prince of Wales – Prince William gives an interview at the start of his university career". Princeofwales.gov.uk. 22 September 2001. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "Prince William graduates from university". The Daily Telegraph. 23 June 2005. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
- Price Brown, Sarah (24 June 2005). "Prince William Gets His Degree". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
- St-Andrews University (charity registered No SC013532) News/archive Archived 21 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine – Andreea Nemes thesaint-online Retrieved 27 January 2012
- Victoria Arbiter (8 January 2014). "Opinion: Why Prince William is right to go back to school". CNN. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Prince William begins agriculture course at Cambridge". BBC News. 7 January 2014.
- Rayner, Gordon (30 December 2013). "Duke of Cambridge to study agriculture at Cambridge University". Telegraph Media.
- Davies, Caroline (22 October 2005). "Prince William to join his brother at Sandhurst". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "William joining Harry's regiment". BBC News. 21 September 2006. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
- "William begins new life in Army". BBC. 8 January 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
- "Prince William ready for Search and Rescue role". meeja.com.au. 16 September 2008. Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
- Pierce, Andrew (13 January 2009). "Prince William starts as a search and rescue helicopter pilot". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 18 January 2009.
- Staff (12 April 2008). "Kate watches William get his wings". Deutsche Presse-Agentur (via The Sydney Morning Herald). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "Prince William awarded RAF wings". BBC News. 11 April 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
- "William visits Afghanistan troops". BBC News. 30 April 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
- "William's Navy posting revealed". BBC News. 31 May 2008. Retrieved 31 May 2008.
- Allen, Nick (20 June 2008). "Prince William in secret submarine mission". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
- "Prince William helps bust $80m drug smuggling boat". CNN. 2 July 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "William's ship seizes drugs haul". BBC News. 3 July 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
- Browning, Eliza (28 July 2008). "Prince William in Caribbean Drug Bust". ABC News. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
- "Prince William: Military Secondments in Autumn, 2008". princeofwales.gov.uk. 31 July 2008. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
- Pierce, Andrew (15 September 2008). "Prince William to become pilot in RAF search and rescue service". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
- Bonnett, Tom (15 January 2010). "Royal Heir Force: Prince's Career Takes Off". Sky News. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- "Prince William starts RAF rescue training on Anglesey". BBC News. 26 January 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
- "The Tatler List – Duke of Cambridge". Tatler. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Palmer, Richard (12 September 2013). "Preparing to be King: Prince William says goodbye to RAF after more than seven years". Sunday Express. London. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Bingham, John (15 April 2010). "Prince William to be posted to RAF base on Anglesey". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "Prince William set to join RAF Search and Rescue". Royal Air Force. 15 September 2008. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
- "Co-pilot Prince William rescues man from oil rig". BBC News. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- Bingham, John; Bunyan, Nigel (27 November 2011). "Prince William spearheads rescue for stricken Russian sailors". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Prince William to deploy to Falkland Islands". CTV News. Associated Press. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "Prince William arrives in the Falkland Islands". The Guardian. Press Association. 3 February 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Argentina condemns Prince William Falklands posting". BBC News. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Goñi, Uki (1 February 2012). "Argentina criticises Prince William's tour of duty of Falkland Islands". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Prince William to command search and rescue missions". BBC News. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Prince William to join East Anglian Air Ambulance". BBC News. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- Rosa McMahon. "Prince William starts training for East Anglian Air Ambulance job at Norwich airport". Eastern Daily Press.
- "Prince William starts new job as air ambulance pilot". The Guardian.
- "Prince William pilots last East Anglian Air Ambulance shift". BBC News. 27 July 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- "The Prince of Wales: Prince William: Biography: Growing Up". Clarence House. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
- "Australian leaders dismiss the idea of Prince William as governor-general". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "William for GG not on: PM". The Sydney Morning Herald. 29 June 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
- Nikkhah, Roya (10 February 2011). "Mentor helps Kate Middleton prepare for Royal life". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- "Prince William's royal magic captures the crowds". The New Zealand Herald. New Zealand Press Association. 18 January 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- "Prince William Appointed Academy President". BAFTA. 21 February 2010. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Manhire, Toby (17 March 2011). "Prince William tours Christchurch earthquake damage". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- Booker, Jarrod (18 March 2011). "Service inspires weary Cantabrians". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- Mclean, Tamara (19 March 2011). "Prince William heads to Queensland". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Christchurch quake memorial service: As it happened". TVNZ One News. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- Campion-Smith, Bruce (16 February 2011). "Royal newlyweds are coming to Canada, but not Toronto". Toronto Star. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- "Queen calls Canada 'example to the world'". CBC. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- "William and Kate visit Unicef famine relief depot in Copenhagen". BBC News. 2 November 2011.
- "Photo story: William and Kate visit UNICEF Supply Centre". unicef.org.uk. 2 November 2011. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- Singh, Anita (15 December 2011). "Jubilee: royal trip to paradise for Duke and Duchess". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- "Prince William visits Malta in place of pregnant Kate". BBC News. 20 September 2014.
- "Singapore State Visit programme". Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- "Prince William holds first talks with President Obama". BBC News.
- "Prince William arrives in China and invites President Xi for state visit". The Telegraph. Reuters. 2 March 2015. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
- Nadav, Eyal (26 June 2018). "The British interest behind Prince William's Israel visit". ynetnews.co.il. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
- "The Royal Family – HRH The Prince of Wales – Prince William – Charities and Patronages". Buckingham Palace. Archived from the original on 4 February 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "The Prince of Wales – Prince William – At Work – Charities and Patronages". Clarence House. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Centrepoint – Our patron". Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "About Us". Tusk Trust. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
- "Cycle of Life: News". Cycle of Life. 2007. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Prince William to become Patron of 100 Women in Hedge Funds' philanthropic initiatives". Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "The Prince William & Miss Catherine Middleton Charitable Gift Fund". royalweddingcharityfund.org. Archived from the original on 18 March 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- Ward, Victoria (16 March 2011). "William and Kate ask for charity donations in lieu of wedding gifts – Prince William and Kate Middleton have asked wedding guests and well wishers to donate to their own special charitable fund rather than give them presents, St James's Palace has announced". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- Holden, Michael (16 March 2011). "William and Catherine set up royal wedding charity fund". Reuters. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- [dead link] "William and Catherine set up royal wedding charity fund". China Daily. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- Staff (17 March 2011). "William and Catherine's gift to Christchurch". Fairfax NZ News (via stuff.co.nz). Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- Garton, Christie (29 April 2011). "No wedding gifts, please: William and Catherine request charity donations instead". USA Today. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- "Earthshot Prize: William and Kate launch prize to 'repair the Earth'". BBC. 31 December 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
- "Prince George to support Aston Villa, says William". BBC News. 26 October 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
- "Prince William to watch namesake cup tie". WalesOnline. 24 November 2007. Archived from the original on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "UK Parliament – Early Day Motion 230". UK Parliament. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Prince watches Wales lose his cup". BBC News. 24 November 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Royal Patronage". Fields in Trust.
- "Prince William and David Cameron caught up in Fifa corruption scandal". The Daily Telegraph. 27 June 2017.
- "Video: David Cameron and Prince William implicated in FIFA corruption probe". Belfast Telegraph. 28 June 2017.
- "Prince William in Cardiff to launch WRU Coach Core scheme". BBC. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
- "Biking runs in Royal blood". Motorcycle News. 21 February 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 2014-11-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Jolley, Ben. "Lyn of Littleport invited to Stockholm to watch Duke and Duchess of Cambridge play bandy". Ely Standard. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
- "Prince William, girlfriend end their relationship". CTV News. 14 April 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
- "'Paparazzi chase' concerns prince". BBC News. 5 October 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- "His Royal Highness Prince William of Wales and Miss Catherine Middleton are engaged to be married" (Press release). Website of the Royal Family. 16 November 2010.
- "Crowds cheer newly-wed couple". BBC News. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Announcement of titles". Buckingham Palace. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Kate and William become Duke and Duchess of Cambridge". BBC News. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- Beckford, Martin (29 April 2011). "Prince William and Kate Middleton's new titles revealed". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- Beckford, Martin (29 April 2011). "Royal wedding: Prince William and Kate Middleton become Duke and Duchess of Cambridge". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Duchess of Cambridge pregnant". BBC News. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- Saul, Heather (24 July 2013). "Royal baby: The prince meets his people in world media frenzy". The Independent. London. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Royal baby: Kate gives birth to boy". BBC News. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- "Royal baby: Prince William and Kate expecting second child". BBC News. 8 September 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- "Royal baby: Duchess of Cambridge gives birth to daughter". BBC News. 2 May 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "Royal baby: Duchess of Cambridge expecting third child". BBC News. 4 September 2017.
- "Royal baby: Duchess of Cambridge gives birth to boy". BBC News. 23 April 2018.
- Nicholl, Katie (16 March 2017). "Kate Middleton Is "Less than Pleased" with Prince William's Ski-Trip Behavior". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- Gillett, Francesca (15 March 2017). "Prince William was caught 'dad dancing' in a Swiss nightclub". Business Insider. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "Paparazzi's role in Diana accident". BBC News. 9 April 2000. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- Cowell, Alan; Burns, John F. (14 September 2012). "Royal Couple Sue Over Photos of Topless Duchess". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- As measured using Michelin Route Planner.
- Malvern, Jack; Connolly, Sue (15 September 2012). "Spying photographers may have taken their shots of a secluded chateau from the road". The Times. pp. 6–7.
- "Kate and William to make criminal complaint over topless shots". BBC News. 16 September 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- "Kate topless photos: French injunction against magazine". BBC News. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Insurance/Reinsurance Bulletin August 2011 – Insurance and punitive damages in France". Holman Fenwick Willan, solicitors. 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "French Legislation on Privacy". Embassy of France in Washington. 2 December 2007. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- Schofield, Hugh (17 September 2012). "Kate topless pictures: Criminal and legal cases". BBC News. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- "Kate topless pics: Closer magazine to pay royals in €100k damages". Sky News. 5 September 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "A letter from Kensington Palace". www.princeofwales.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
- "New appointments to the Order of the Thistle, 29 May 2012". Official website of the British royal family.
- Duke and Duchess of Cambridge – visit the Emirates Arena Archived 6 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine "The Duke and Duchess, known as the Earl and Countess of Strathearn when in Scotland..." (Accessed 24 July 2013)
- Prince of Wales – Dumfries House Archived 26 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine (Section: April 5th Official Opening of the Tamar Manoukian Outdoor Centre) "...Their Royal Highnesses The Prince Charles, Duke of Rothesay and the Earl and Countess of Strathearn..." (Accessed 24 July 2013)
- Prince William, Kate Middleton, and Prince Charles have different names when they go to Scotland and Ireland — here's what they are Archived 15 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine – website of UK Business Insider
- The Duchess of Cambridge has a different name in Scotland and Northern Ireland Archived 25 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine – website of Country Living UK
- "No. 59798". The London Gazette. 1 June 2011. p. 10297.
- "The Duke of Cambridge: Styles and Titles". Royal. Archived from the original on 14 April 2012.
- "Duke of Cambridge becomes Aide-de-Camp to the Queen". The Telegraph. 17 March 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- "Titles and succession: Royal Family name". Royal. Archived from the original on 4 August 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "The Royal Family Name". The Official Website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
- "A working day in the life of Flight Lieutenant Wales". Clarence House. 20 November 2012. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
The Duke of Cambridge – who is known in his Royal Air Force working life as Flight Lieutenant Wales
- Pace, Gina. "Prince William Begins Military School". CBS News. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
- "No. 58245". The London Gazette (Supplement). 13 February 2007. p. 2075.
- "No. 58941". The London Gazette (Supplement). 6 January 2009. p. 119.
- "No. 61462". The London Gazette (Supplement). 4 January 2016. p. 107.
- "No. 58580". The London Gazette (Supplement). 15 January 2008. p. 493.
- "No. 58941". The London Gazette (Supplement). 6 January 2009. p. 117.
- "No. 61462". The London Gazette (Supplement). 4 January 2016. p. 106.
- "No. 58580". The London Gazette (Supplement). 15 January 2008. p. 496.
- "No. 58941". The London Gazette (Supplement). 6 January 2009. p. 123.
- "RAF – Senior Appointments".
- "No. 61462". The London Gazette (Supplement). 4 January 2016. p. 108.
- "Media Centre > Buckingham Palace press releases > Appointment of a new Garter Knight". Royal. Archived from the original on 4 June 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "William made Knight of the Garter". BBC News. 16 June 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "Prince William is appointed to the Order of the Garter". Prince of Wales. 23 April 2008. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "No. 27113". The Edinburgh Gazette. 29 June 2012. p. 1789.
- "No. 60195". The London Gazette. 29 June 2012. p. 12473.
- "New appointments to the Order of the Thistle". Royal. 25 May 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Palmer, Richard (30 March 2017). "William and Kate to receive highest Tuvalu award... for just VISITING the nation". Express.
- "Prince William becomes honorary barrister". The Daily Telegraph. 7 July 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
- Office of the Prince of Wales (23 June 2010). "Prince William becomes a Royal Fellow of the Royal Society". Queen's Printer. Archived from the original on 7 May 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- "Orders for 9 June 2016" (PDF). Privy Council Office.
- "RSE Welcomes 60 New Fellows". rse.org.uk. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
- "Prince William receives Honorary Fellowship from Royal Society of Medicine – Royal Central". royalcentral.co.uk. Archived from the original on 23 May 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
- Department of Canadian Heritage. "2009 Official Royal Visit > Ontario (Toronto, Hamilton and Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ottawa, Petawawa)". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 5 November 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
- "The Royal Family: Members of the Royal Family: HRH The Prince of Wales: Prince William – Military Career". Buckingham Palace. Archived from the original on 4 August 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- "RAF Regiment Association Official Site". Rafregt.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "No. 59740". The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 March 2011. p. 5860.
- "Prince William appointed as Colonel of the Irish Guards, 10 February 2011". Buckingham Palace. Archived from the original on 13 February 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
- The Canadian Press (26 July 2011). "UW award honours Duke and Duchess of Cambridge". CTV. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- "University of Waterloo offers Their Royal Highnesses The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge Award". Canada News Wire. 26 July 2011. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- Parks Canada (16 January 2012). "Minister Kent invites young Canadians to apply for Duke and Duchess of Cambridge Parks Canada Ambassador Program". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
- "Duke of Cambridge Public School". Kawartha Pine Ridge District School Board. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
- "Prince William–Emblems". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "The coat of arms of HRH Prince William of Wales". The College of Arms, London. Archived from the original on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 24 October 2008.
- Rayner, Gordon (27 September 2013). "Duke and Duchess of Cambridge get a joint coat of arms". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
- "New Flags for The Prince of Wales and The Duke of Cambridge". Office of the Governor General. 29 June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- "Canadian Flags of the Royal Family". Canadian Crown. Government of Canada. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- "Prince William, Duke of Cambridge". Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges. Office of the Governor General of Canada: Canadian Heraldic Authority. Archived from the original on 6 February 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- Huberty, Michel (1994). L'Allemagne dynastique. Volume 7 ("Oldenbourg"). Le Perreux-sur-Marne: Giraud. ISBN 2-901138-07-1, ISBN 978-2-901138-07-5.
- Sinha, Kounteya (16 June 2013). "Hunt on for Prince William's distant cousins in Surat". The Times of India. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- Williamson, D (1981) "The Ancestry of Lady Diana Spencer". Genealogist's Magazine 20(6): 192–199; 20(8): 281–282
- Reitwiesner, William Addams (2006). "The Ethnic ancestry of Prince William". wargs.com. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- "A Royal Revelation". BritainsDNA. Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- Brown, David (14 June 2013). "Revealed: the Indian ancestry of William". The Times. p. 1.
- Hern, Alex (14 June 2013). "Are there ethical lapses in the Times' story on William's 'Indian ancestry'?". New Statesman. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
Although Eliza Kewark was indeed thought of as Armenian, it's not particularly surprising that she would have had Indian ancestors; the Armenian diaspora had been in India for centuries at the time of her birth, and even the most insular communities tend to experience genetic mixing over that timescale.
- The Duke of Cambridge at the official website of the British royal family
- The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge profile at the official website of the Prince of Wales
- Prince William, duke of Cambridge at the Encyclopædia Britannica
- Prince William, Duke of Cambridge on IMDb
- Campbell, Alastair (29 May 2017). "Prince William on Diana, Princess of Wales". GQ (British ed.). Archived from the original on 6 June 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
- Hedges, Mark (21 November 2018). "The Duke of Cambridge on the countryside, wildlife and passing on his father's inspiring example to George, Charlotte and Louis". Country Life.
Prince William, Duke of CambridgeBorn: 21 June 1982
|Lines of succession|
The Prince of Wales
| Succession to the British throne
2nd in line
Prince George of Cambridge
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
4th creation extinct in 1904
Title last held byPrince George
| Duke of Cambridge
Prince George of Cambridge
|Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom|
The Earl of Wessex
The Duke of Cambridge
The Duke of Sussex
The Prince of Wales,
Duke of Rothesay
in current practice
The Duke of York
The Duke of York
| President of The Football Association
The Lord Attenborough
| President of BAFTA|
Sir Sebastian Roberts
| Colonel of the Irish Guards