Lungsod ng Makati
|— Highly-Urbanized City —|
|City of Makati|
|Nickname(s): The Financial Capital of the Philippines, the Wall Street of the Philippines|
|Motto: Makati, Mahalin Natin, Atin Ito|
|Districts||1st and 2nd districts of Makati City|
|Cityhood||January 2, 1995|
|• Type||Mayor–council government|
|• Mayor||Jejomar Erwin S. Binay, Jr. (United Nationalist Alliance)|
|• Vice Mayor||Romulo V. Peña, Jr. (Liberal)|
|• Makati City Council|
|• Total||21.57 km2 (8.33 sq mi)|
|Elevation||15.4 m (50.5 ft)|
|• Density||24,527/km2 (63,520/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|ZIP Code||1200 to 1299|
The City of Makati (// mə-KAH-tee; Filipino: Makati), in the Philippines, is one of the sixteen cities that make up Metro Manila. Makati is located within the circle of 14′40″ °north and 121′3″ °E right at the center of Metro Manila. According to tradition, the first Governor-General of the Philippines Miguel López de Legazpi, while exploring a swamp near the Pasig River, asked for the name of the place but, because of the language barrier, was misinterpreted by the Tagalog people. Pointing to the receding tide of Pasig River, the Tagalogs answered, “Makati, kumakati na,” literally meaning ebbing tide.
Makati is the financial center of the Philippines, it has a highest concentration of multinational and local corporations in the country. Major banks, corporations, department stores as well as foreign embassies are based in Makati. The biggest trading floor of the Philippine Stock Exchange is situated along the city's Ayala Avenue.
As host for 54 embassies and 35 consulates, Makati has a highly developed foreign transient support institutions.
With a population of 529,039, Makati is the 16th-largest city in the country and ranked as the 41st most densely populated city in the world with 19,336 inhabitants per square kilometer. Although its population is just half a million, the daytime population of the city is estimated to be more than one million during a typical working weekday because of the large number of people who go to the city to work, shop, and do business.
According to tradition, the first Governor-General of the Philippines Miguel López de Legazpi, while exploring a swamp near the Pasig River, asked for the name of the place but, because of the language barrier, was misinterpreted by the Tagalog people. Pointing to the receding tide of Pasig River, the Tagalogs answered, “Makati, kumakati na,” literally meaning ebbing tide.
The city started out as part of the wide municipality of Santa Ana de Sapa (part of Manila today) and in the 1600s began to be developed as a pilgrimage center around the churches of Our Lady of Guadalupe (now Our Lady of Grace) and of Saints Peter and Paul in what is today the city proper, built by the friar orders to attract the faithful, and also as a farming community. It became independent in 1670 as a full-time municipality, then named San Pedro de Macati in honor of Saint Peter, its patron. The town was also from the 18th century onward famous for its pottery industry.
American Commonwealth Period
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2013)|
By 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States after the former's defeat in the Spanish-American War. In 1901, the Americans declared the whole area south of the Pasig River, including the town of San Pedro de Macati, down to Barangay Ayala Alabang, a US military reservation; thus establishing Fort McKinley, which is currently known as Fort Bonifacio. That same year, the whole town, with a population of 25,000, was incorporated from Manila to the province of Rizal with Marcelino Magsaysay serving as the town president. As the 1910s approached the Meralco tranvia lines to Fort McKinley and to the western end of the town were built, opening transport lines for its residents and thus brought along potential investors who opened several businesses including the famous Santa Ana Cabaret at the terminus of the streetcar lines. In February 28, 1914, the The Philippine Legislature passed Act 2390, shortening the name, San Pedro de Macati, to simply Makati. In the 1930s, the first airport in Luzon island, Nielsen Field, opened in what is now the Ayala Triangle, and the tracks of what is now the Philippine National Railways reached the town very early in the decade. During that same period, Santa Ana Park, the nation's second horse racing facility, opened. The Nieslen runway hosted the 1941 first flight of Philippine Airlines to Baguio City, and was home to a flight training school for several years.
Post-World War II
After World War II, the town grew rapidly, and real estate values boomed. The first centrally planned communities (in what is now Barangays Forbes Park, Urdaneta, San Lorenzo and Bel-Air) were established in the 1950s with the help and support of the Ayala family, and since the late 1960s, Makati has been the financial and commercial capital of the country especially during the terms of town mayors Maximo Estrella, Rafael Bañola, Jose Luciano and Nemesio Yabut who encouraged the massive development of the town and welcomed foreign and local investors to what was tagged as the nation's number one municipality at that time. Makati's central location on Luzon also made it an industrial hub for major corporations. As part of that transformation a new town hall was built in 1962 much futher to the west along J.P. Rizal Street (the old hall is now the city museum).
In 1975, Makati was separated from Rizal province along with Caloocan, Malabon, Navotas, Quezon City, Marikina, San Juan, Pasig, Mandaluyong, Pateros, Taguig, Pasay City, Parañaque, Las Piñas, and Muntinlupa, to become part of the National Capital Region as a component city.
In the 1980s, Makati figured prominently in the political history of the Philippines. Following the assassination of Ninoy Aquino in 1983, it became the center of the People Power Revolution against the dictatorship of President Ferdinand E. Marcos. The People Power Revolution would happen only several years after the Confetti Revolution events of 1983-84 held in the central business district, led by mostly the business sector of the town. After the revolution and the downfall of Marcos’ 20-year presidential regime, Corazon C. Aquino, the wife of the deceased senator Aquino, became the new and first female president of the Republic of the Philippines. After the death of Mayor Nemesio Yabut during the People Power Revolution, she appointed Jejomar Binay as the acting mayor of the town of Makati and was elected as mayor in 1987. His first term as the town executive would see the events of a 1989 coup attempt happen in the town's business district and would help usher the building of the country's first skyscrapers in the early 1990s.
By January 2, 1995, Makati became an independent city by virtue of Republic Act 7854 and in the June 30, 1998, The Lone District of Makati City was separated and divided into 2 districts. Lone district Rep. Joker Arroyo became the representative of the first district, while Senator Agapito Aquino was elected representative of second district. Elenita Binay served for only three years (one term) as the first and only female city mayor to date.
Makati is located within the circle of 14′40″ °north and 121′3″ °E right at the center of Metro Manila. The city is bounded on the north by the Pasig River, facing Mandaluyong City, on the northeast by Pasig City, on the southeast by the municipality of Pateros and Taguig City, on the northwest by the city of Manila, and on the southwest by Pasay City. Makati has a total land area of 27.36 square kilometers; it constitutes 4.3% of Metro Manila's total land area.
Under the Köppen climate classification system, the city of Makati features a tropical monsoon climate. Together with the rest of the Philippines, Makati lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that the temperature range is very small, rarely going lower than 20 °C (68 °F) and going higher than 38 °C (100 °F). However, humidity levels are usually very high which makes it feel much warmer. It has a distinct, albeit relatively short dry season from January through May, and a relatively lengthy wet season from June through December.
|Climate data for Makati, Philippines|
|Average high °C (°F)||30
|Average low °C (°F)||21
|Precipitation mm (inches)||25.4
Makati has a population of 529,039 as of the 2010 census. Makati ranks ninth in population size within Metro Manila municipalities. In the last century, Makati has experienced considerable growth. Its population is now over 190 times what it was in the early 1900s, with the 1903 Census estimating the population at only 2,700 residents.
The vernacular language is Filipino, based mostly on the Tagalog language of the surrounding areas. This "Manila form" of Tagalog (a creole dialect greatly mixed with words from other Philippine languages, as well as American English and Spanish) has essentially become the lingua franca of the Philippines, having spread throughout the archipelago through mass media and entertainment. Meanwhile, English is the language most widely used in education and business throughout the Metro Manila region. A number of older residents can still speak basic Spanish, which was a mandatory subject in the curriculum of Philippine universities and colleges. Many children or descendants of Chinese, European (especially Spanish), American, Middle Eastern, Indian, Japanese or other immigrants or expatriates are also multilingual in their ancestral languages, aside from speaking English and/or Filipino.
Even though Makati's population is somewhat more than 500,000, the daytime population is believed to be over 1 million because of the high number of people who commute or visit the city's financial district.
Economy and Infrastructure
Makati remains the richest local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines in terms of income from local sources and on a per capita basis. As of end-2012, Makati had registered over 62,000 business enterprises, which are engaged in financial services, wholesale/retail, services, real estate, export/import, and manufacturing. Makati also boasts of having the highest number of BPO offices in Metro Manila at 1,159 companies to date, as well as the highest number of PEZA-accredited IT Parks and Buildings. The city government of Makati has not increased its tax rates since its new Revenue Code took effect in 2006. For 26 years now, the city enjoys a deficit-free status.
The city is known for its developed business district. It is bound by EDSA, Gil Puyat Avenue, Antonio Arnaiz Avenue/Pasay Road, and Chino Roces Avenue. It mainly encompasses Legazpi Village, Salcedo Village, the Ayala Center, and parts of the Bel-Air neighborhood. It mainly encompasses Legazpi Village, Salcedo Village, the Ayala Center, and parts of the Bel-Air neighborhood.
The Ayala Triangle is located inside the Ayala Center, it is a sub-district of the Makati central business district, comprising the parcel of land between Ayala Avenue, Makati Avenue and Paseo de Roxas, as well as the buildings on those streets. Ayala Avenue and Paseo de Roxas also house the distinction of being the runways of the former Nielson Field, Metro Manila's main airport in the 1930s.
One of the trading floors of the Philippine Stock Exchange is housed in Ayala Tower One and at the old Makati Stock Exchange Building, both also along Ayala Avenue.
PBCom Tower along Ayala Avenue is the country's tallest building, reaching up 259 meters. It is the headquarters of the Philippine Bank of Communications, or PBCom. The PBCom Tower is an office skyscraper ranked officially as the tallest building in the Philippines from 2000 until the topping-out of The Gramercy Residences in 2012. It has a total ground to architectural top height of 259 meters (850 ft), with 52 stories including an 8-level radio tower.
Makati is known for being one of the most popular and well-known shopping destinations in Metro Manila. The city is also known for being a major shopping hub, it is home to various shopping centers offering both international and local retail shops, high-end boutiques, dining outlets and entertainment facilities.
The Ayala Center which is located at the heart of the central business district of Makati still remains as one of the most famous and well-known shopping hubs of the country. It is also considered as a premier recreational, entertainment and shopping district in the metropolis. The Ayala Center is home to a cluster of shopping malls which include Glorietta, Greenbelt, The Landmark, Rustan's, The Link, and SM Makati.
Apart from the Ayala Center, the Rockwell Center is also a popular shopping district in Makati. The Rockwell Center is home to the Power Plant Mall, an upscale shopping mall, and is also home to high-rise office buildings, condominium towers and schools.
Apart from shopping malls, Makati is also home to the Salcedo Saturday Market and Legazpi Sunday Market. These are two open-air community markets set under large trees in parks at the villages of Salcedo and Legazpi.
Makati is home to the Asian Institute of Management (AIM), the Ateneo Professional Schools, and the Mapúa Institute of Technology on Gil Puyat Avenue. In 2005, the Centro Escolar University Makati opened in Gil Puyat Avenue. The university opened another unit in Legaspi Village in 2007. Far Eastern University opened its Makati campus in 2010.
Other notable colleges and universities in Makati are the Asian Seminary of Christian Ministries (ASCM), Don Bosco Technical Institute, Makati, Assumption College San Lorenzo, Colegio San Agustin, Makati Hope Christian School, Saint Paul College of Makati, Our Lady of Guadalupe Minor Seminary, Asia Pacific College, and the University of Makati. Assumption College, in San Lorenzo Village, is a popular women's college. The University of Makati is a university run by the city government. Also in the city are the Makati Science High School and Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino High School, both city-run high schools. Remedios Trinidad Romualdez Memorial Schools, named after Doña Remedios Romualdez, the mother of the former first-lady Imelda Marcos, is part of the Makati Medical Center serving the needs of nursing students.
Housing and Residences
Makati is home to numerous hotels, condominium towers, and gated communities. Makati city is divided into 33 barangays (the smallest local government units) which handles governance in a much smaller area. Makati has two congressional districts. Congressional District I occupies the western half of the city, while District II covers the eastern half.
The Forbes Park neighborhood, originally developed in 1948, and Dasmariñas Village, first developed in the 1960s, are notable residences in Makati. A number of gated communities such as San Lorenzo, Urdaneta, San Antonio, Bel-Air, San Miguel and Magallanes Village are also located within the city.
Ayala Center is home to numerous international hotel chains that include Ascott Makati, Dusit Thani Hotel, Raffles and Fairmont Makati, Holiday Inn and Suites Makati, InterContinental Manila, New World Hotel. Across Ayala Avenue are The Peninsula Manila and the Mandarin Oriental Manila.
The largest hotel in Makati is the Makati Shangri-La, Manila, a 5-star hotel managed by Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts, and is also the largest Shangri-La hotel in terms of room numbers, with 699 guest rooms and suites.
Makati has fine art museums, Spanish colonial-era churches and recreation areas. Along the south-eastern border of Makati are the Manila Golf Club and the Manila Polo Club. The Makati Sports Club and Makati Coliseum are also notable sport landmarks.
The Ayala Museum is a private fine arts and history museum located at the corner of Makati Avenue and De la Rosa Street. One of the prominent collections in the museum is the "Gold of Ancestors," an exhibition of more than one thousand gold objects that celebrate the sophisticated cultures that existed in the Philippines before colonization in the 16th century.
Yuchengco Museum is also a private history museum located at the corner Senator Gil Puyat Avenue, Bel-Air, Makati. Museo ng Makati (Museum of Makati) is a repository of Makati's heritage, historical properties, collections and culture.
Spanish colonial-era churches include the Our Lady of Guadalupe church and the Nuestra Señora de Gracia (Our Lady of Grace) in the old town. The Santuario de San Antonio is a popular church for weddings. The National Shrine of the Sacred Heart is located in San Antonio Village. Makati also houses the country's only Jewish synagogue, Beth Yaacov.
Located at the corner of Paseo de Roxas and Ayala Avenue is the Ninoy Aquino monument, a bronze statue by sculptor Peter de Guzman which commemorates the slain of former senator and Filipino hero Benigno “Ninoy” S. Aquino Jr., the father of the current President of the Philippines, Benigno “Noynoy” Aquino III. Ninoy Aquino is one of the leaders in the opposition against the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos in the 1980s.
Along the northbound lane of Makati Avenue is the statue dedicated to Pío del Pilar, known as the “Hero of Makati,” a leader of the Katipunan, who later became a general during the Philippine Revolution. Across it is the statue of one of the most prominent Filipino leaders in Mindanao in the 1600s, Sultan Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat. Farther south at the corner of Ayala and Makati Avenues lies the statue of the Filipina revolt leader Gabriela Silang.
Ayala Land and the Makati Tourism Foundation launched a year-long campaign titled Make It Makati to increase Makati's visibility as an arts and culture destination. The campaign is part of Ayala’s ongoing 60 billion peso (US$1.5 billion) redevelopment masterplan for Makati, which began in 2011 and divides the city into six distinct hubs for business, lifestyle, entertainment and transport.
Major roads in Metro Manila surrounds Makati, such as Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), located in the southeast part of the city, the South Luzon Expressway (SLEX), which intersect EDSA at the Magallanes Interchange, and the Skyway which is built on top of the SLEX.
Two of Metro Manila's main arteries pass through Makati. The Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) pass along the southeast part of Makati and connects Makati with the cities of Mandaluyong and Pasay. The South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) runs through the western part of Makati and connects the city with Manila to the north and with southern Metro Manila. The Skyway, an elevated highway built on top of SLEX, provides residents coming from southern Metro Manila a fast way to reach Makati. SLEX and EDSA intersect at the Magallanes Interchange, which is the most complex system of elevated roadways in Metro Manila.
Buses plying the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA/C-4) route from Baclaran in Parañaque to Quezon City and Caloocan pass through the central business/financial district daily. Jeepneys ply Makati's inner roads and connect the city to its surrounding towns and cities. The Metro Rail Transit (MRT-3) on EDSA has four stations located in Makati: Guadalupe, Buendia, Ayala and Magallanes. The Philippine National Railways has three stations: Buendia, Pasay Road and EDSA.
Other major roads in Makati include Buendia Avenue, also called Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue, which connects EDSA and SLEX in the north; Ayala Avenue, an important street that runs through the central business/financial district; and Makati Avenue, which connects Ayala Avenue with Buendia Avenue, also extending north to cross the Pasig River to Mandaluyong City. At the center of Makati is the Ayala Triangle, a park built on the former Nielsen Air Base.
The city is 20 minutes away from the Ninoy Aquino International Airport.
The current mayor for the 2010–2013 term is Jejomar Erwin S. Binay, the only son of former mayor and now Vice President Jejomar Binay. Romulo “Kid” Peña is the city's incumbent vice-mayor. The vice-mayor heads a legislative council consisting of 18 members: 8 Councilors from the First District, 8 Councilors from the Second District, the President of the Sangguniang Kabataan (Youth Council) Federation, representing the youth sector, and the President of the Association of Barangay Chairmen (ABC) as barangay sectoral representative. The council is in charge of creating the city's policies in the form of Ordinances and Resolutions. Current district representatives of the city are Monique Yazmin Q. Lagdameo, representing the 1st district and Mar-len Abigail S. Binay, daughter of Jejomar Binay, for the 2nd district.
Makati city is divided into 33 barangays (the smallest local government units) which handles governance in a much smaller area. These barangays are grouped into two congressional districts where each district is represented by a congressman in the country's House of Representatives. Congressional District I occupies the western half of the city, while District II covers the eastern half.
|Barangay||Population (2004)||Population (2010)||Area (km2)||District|
|Pio del Pilar||22,495||27,035||1.20||1st|
|Post Proper Northside||1,475||6,010||0.45||2nd|
|Post Proper Southside||25,037||45,310||0.60||2nd|
List of former mayors
- Jose Luciano (1969-1971)
- Cesar Alzona (1971-1972)
- Nemesio I. Yabut (1972-1986)
- Jejomar Binay (1986-1998)
- Elenita Binay (1998-2001)
- Jejomar Binay (2001–2010)
- Jejomar Erwin S. Binay, Jr. (2010–present)
Seal of Makati City
The official seal of Makati City depicts a silhouette of the territory of Makati. At the bottom is the Pasig River, located on the northern border of the city. The Guadalupe Church stands on the river and is the oldest church in Makati; a reference to Spanish religious influences. Behind the church rises the modern skyscrapers, for which Makati is well-known. Behind the skyscrapers are 33 rays representing the barangays of Makati.
Recently, Makati and Taguig have fought over the jurisdiction of the Fort Bonifacio district (barangays Post Proper Northside and Post Proper Southside). This Philippine military base, most of which has been converted to a modern commercial and residential development area, lies in an ambiguous area. A portion of the base, including the Libingan ng mga Bayani (Cemetery of the Heroes) and the Manila American Cemetery and Memorial lies within Taguig, while the northern portion where the development center is now located used to be considered part of Makati. A 2003 ruling by a judge in the Pasig Regional Trial Court has upheld the jurisdiction of Taguig over the whole of Fort Bonifacio, including the Fort Bonfacio Global City development.
Countries that have set up permanent missions or offices in the city include:
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