|Highly urbanized city|
|BPI Headquarters, Ayala Avenue, Greenbelt Mall, Ninoy Aquino Statue, MRT-3, EDSA-Guadalupe|
|Nickname(s): The Financial Capital of the Philippines
The Wall Street of the Philippines
|Motto: Makati, Mahalin Natin, Atin Ito|
|Districts||1st and 2nd districts of Makati City|
|Cityhood||January 2, 1995|
|• Type||Mayor–council government|
|• Mayor||Jejomar Erwin S. Binay, Jr. (United Nationalist Alliance)|
|• Vice Mayor||Romulo V. Peña, Jr. (Liberal)|
|• Makati City Council|
|• Total||21.57 km2 (8.33 sq mi)|
|Elevation||15.4 m (50.5 ft)|
|• Density||78,904/km2 (204,360/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|ZIP Code||1200 to 1299|
The City of Makati (// mə-KAH-tee; Tagalog: Lungsod ng Makati), in the Philippines, is one of the sixteen cities that make up Metro Manila. Makati is located within the circle of 14′40″ °north and 121′3″ °E right at the center of Metro Manila. According to tradition, the first Governor-General of the Philippines, Miguel López de Legazpi, while exploring a swamp near the Pasig River, asked for the name of the place but, because of the language barrier, was misinterpreted by the Tagalog people. Pointing to the receding tide of Pasig River, the Tagalogs answered, “Makati, kumakati na,” literally meaning ebbing tide.
Makati is the financial center of the Philippines, it has a highest concentration of multinational and local corporations in the country. Major banks, corporations, department stores as well as foreign embassies are based in Makati. The biggest trading floor of the Philippine Stock Exchange is situated along the city's Ayala Avenue.
With a population of 529,039, Makati is the 16th-largest city in the country and ranked as the 41st most densely populated city in the world with 19,336 inhabitants per square kilometer. Although its population is just half a million, the daytime population of the city is estimated to be more than one million during a typical working weekday because of the large number of people who go to the city to work, shop, and do business.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy and Infrastructure
- 6 Shopping centers
- 7 Education
- 8 Culture and sports
- 9 Future Development
- 10 Transportation
- 11 Local government
- 12 International Relations
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
When the first Governor-General of the Philippines, Miguel López de Legazpi, explored a swamp near the Pasig River, he asked for the name of the place but, because of the language barrier, was misinterpreted by the Tagalog people. Pointing to the receding tide of the Pasig River, the Tagalogs answered, “Makati, kumakati na,” literally meaning ebbing tide. Makati (maka-ti) means "ebbed tide".
The city started out as part of the wide municipality of Santa Ana de Sapa (part of Manila today) and in the 1600s began to be developed as a pilgrimage center around the churches of Our Lady of Guadalupe (now Our Lady of Grace) and of Saints Peter and Paul in what is today the city proper, built by the friar orders to attract the faithful, and also as a farming community. It became independent in 1670 as a full-time municipality, then named San Pedro de Macati in honor of Saint Peter, its patron. The town was also from the 18th century onward famous for its pottery industry, with skilled potters trained by the Jesuit priests making the best pots for everyday use.
In 1851, Don José Bonifacio Roxas (a member of the Ayala Roxas family) purchased the Jesuit estate of "Hacienda de San Pedro de Macati" for 52,800 pesos. Since then, Makati and its development remain close to the Zobel de Ayala family.
American Commonwealth Period
By 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States after the former's defeat in the Spanish-American War. In 1901, the Americans declared the whole area south of the Pasig River, including the town of San Pedro de Macati, down to Barangay Ayala Alabang, a US military reservation; thus establishing Fort McKinley, which is currently known as Fort Bonifacio. That same year, the whole town, with a population of 25,000, was incorporated from Manila to the province of Rizal with Marcelino Magsaysay serving as the town president. As the 1910s approached the Meralco tranvia lines to Fort McKinley and to the western end of the town were built, opening transport lines for its residents and thus brought along potential investors who opened several businesses including the famous Santa Ana Cabaret at the terminus of the streetcar lines. In February 28, 1914, the The Philippine Legislature passed Act 2390, shortening the name, San Pedro de Macati, to simply Makati. In the 1930s, the first airport in Luzon island, Nielsen Field, opened in what is now the Ayala Triangle, and the tracks of what is now the Philippine National Railways reached the town very early in the decade. During that same period, Santa Ana Park, the nation's second horse racing facility, opened to expectations.
Post-World War II
After the destruction of World War II that brought upon Makati, the town grew rapidly, and real estate values boomed. The first centrally planned communities (in what is now Barangays Forbes Park, Urdaneta, San Lorenzo and Bel-Air) were established in the 1950s with the help and support of the Ayala family, and since the late 1960s, Makati has been the financial and commercial capital of the country especially during the terms of town mayors Maximo Estrella, Rafael Bañola, Jose Luciano and Nemesio Yabut who encouraged the massive development of the town and welcomed foreign and local investors to what was tagged as the nation's number one municipality at that time. Makati's central location on Luzon also made it an industrial hub for major corporations. Partly as a result a new town hall just miles from the old one was built in 1962 just along J.P. Rizal Street (the old hall was later converted into the city museum).
In 1975, Makati was separated from Rizal province along with Caloocan, Malabon, Navotas, Quezon City, Marikina, San Juan, Pasig, Mandaluyong, Pateros, Taguig, Pasay City, Parañaque, Las Piñas, and Muntinlupa, to become part of the National Capital Region as a component city.
In the 1980s, Makati figured prominently in the political history of the Philippines. The community was one of the cradles of Filipino passive resistance against Spanish colonial rule in the 1890s and the Philippine Revolution that followed.
Following the assassination of Ninoy Aquino nearly a century later in 1983, it became the center of the People Power Revolution against the dictatorship of President Ferdinand E. Marcos. The People Power Revolution would happen only several years after the Confetti Revolution events of 1983-84 held in the central business district led partly by employees of major corporations based in the town. After the revolution and the downfall of Marcos’ 20-year presidential regime, Corazon C. Aquino, the wife of the deceased senator Aquino, became the new and first female president of the Republic of the Philippines. After the death of Mayor Nemesio Yabut during the People Power Revolution, she appointed Jejomar Binay as the acting mayor of the town of Makati and was elected as mayor in 1987. His first term as the town executive would see the events of a 1989 coup attempt happen in the town's business district and would help usher the building of the country's first skyscrapers in the early 1990s.
Makati is located within the circle of 14′40″ °north and 121′3″ °E right at the center of Metro Manila. The city is bounded on the north by the Pasig River, facing Mandaluyong City, on the northeast by Pasig City, on the southeast by the municipality of Pateros and Taguig City, on the northwest by the city of Manila, and on the southwest by Pasay City. Makati has a total land area of 27.36 square kilometres (10.56 sq mi); it constitutes 4.3% of Metro Manila's total land area.
Under the Köppen climate classification system, the city of Makati features a tropical monsoon climate. Together with the rest of the Philippines, Makati lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that the temperature range is very small, rarely going lower than 20 °C (68 °F) and going higher than 38 °C (100 °F). However, humidity levels are usually very high which makes it feel much warmer. It has a distinct, albeit relatively short dry season from January through May, and a relatively lengthy wet season from June through December.
|Climate data for Makati, Philippines|
|Average high °C (°F)||37
|Average low °C (°F)||21
|Precipitation mm (inches)||25.4
Makati has a population of 529,039 as of the 2010 census. Makati ranks ninth in population size within Metro Manila municipalities. 88.9% of Makati residents identified their religious affiliation as Roman Catholic. Other religions includes Protestantism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism.
Based on the City’s Transport and Traffic Improvement Plan 2004-2014, the city’s daytime population is estimated to be 3.7 million during weekdays, owing to the large number of people who come to work, do business, or shop.
The daily influx of people into the city provides the skilled labor force that allows Makati to handle the service requirements of domestic as well as international transactions; it also serves as the base of a large consumer market that fuels the retail and service trade in the city. At the same time, however, the large tidal population flows exert pressure on Makati's environment, services, and utilities, most noticeably causing large traffic volumes along the major road corridors leading to the city as well as within and at the periphery of the central business district.
Economy and Infrastructure
The city of Makati remains the richest local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines in terms of income from local sources and on a per capita basis. As of end-2012, Makati had registered over 62,000 business enterprises, which are engaged in financial services, wholesale/retail, services, real estate, export/import, and manufacturing. Makati also boasts of having the highest number of BPO offices in Metro Manila at 1,159 companies to date, as well as the highest number of PEZA-accredited IT Parks and Buildings. The city government of Makati has not increased its tax rates since its new Revenue Code took effect in 2006. For 26 years now, the city enjoys a deficit-free status.
The city is known for its developed business district. It is bound by EDSA, Gil Puyat Avenue, Arnaiz Avenue/Pasay Road, and Chino Roces Avenue. It mainly encompasses Legazpi Village, Salcedo Village, the Ayala Center, and parts of Bel-Air Village.
The Ayala Triangle is a sub-district of the Makati central business district, comprising the parcel of land between Ayala Avenue, Makati Avenue and Paseo de Roxas, as well as the buildings on those streets. Many multinational companies, banks and other major businesses are located within the triangle. A few upscale boutiques, restaurants and a park called Ayala Triangle Gardens are also located in the area. Ayala Avenue and Paseo de Roxas also house the distinction of being the runways of the former Nielson Field, Metro Manila's main airport in the 1930s.
The biggest trading floor of the Philippine Stock Exchange is housed in Ayala Tower One and at the old Makati Stock Exchange Building, both along Ayala Avenue.
The Makati Business Club is composed of over 800 chief executive officers and senior executives representing almost 450 of the largest and most dynamic corporations in the Philippines.
Most of the tallest skyscrapers in the Philippines are located in Makati such as the Gramercy Residences, PBCom Tower and G.T. International Tower. PBCom Tower along Ayala Avenue is the country's tallest building, reaching up 259 meters. It is the headquarters of the Philippine Bank of Communications, or PBCom. The PBCom Tower is an office skyscraper ranked officially as the tallest building in the Philippines from 2000 until the topping-out of The Gramercy Residences in 2012. It has a total ground to architectural top height of 259 meters (850 ft), with 52 stories including an 8-level radio tower.
Makati City is one of the most well-known shopping hub of Metro Manila. Various shopping centers, offering both international and local retail shops, high-end boutiques, dining outlets and entertainment facilities can be found around the city.
The Ayala Center is a major commercial development operated by Ayala Land, it is located at the central business district of Makati, the center is known for its wide array of shopping, entertainment and cultural offerings, making it a premier shopping and cultural district in the metropolis. Shopping malls that are located at the Ayala Center include Greenbelt, Glorietta, Park Square, and The Link. The Ayala Center is also home to 3 department stores which include SM Makati, Rustan's, and The Landmark.
Aside from the Ayala Center, the Rockwell Center is also a popular shopping district in Makati, it is home to the Power Plant Mall. The Salcedo Saturday Market and Legazpi Sunday Market are popular open-air community markets. These markets offers organic products, specialty foods, fruits, vegetables, fish, gourmet items and antiques.
The University of Makati, a public, non-profit university, is the city's flagship university. Other institutions of higher education include the Asian Institute of Management (AIM), the Ateneo Professional Schools, the Mapúa Institute of Technology, Lyceum of the Philippines University-Makati, Centro Escolar University Makati, Far Eastern University- Makati, Asian Seminary of Christian Ministries (ASCM), Don Bosco Technical Institute, Makati, Assumption College San Lorenzo, Colegio San Agustin, Makati Hope Christian School, Saint Paul College of Makati, Our Lady of Guadalupe Minor Seminary, Asia Pacific College, Assumption College among others.
Culture and sports
Makati is home to a number of fine art museums, colonial-era churches and recreation areas.
Along the south-eastern border of Makati beyond Forbes Park are the Manila Golf Club and the Manila Polo Club. The Manila Golf Club features an 18-hole golf course. The Manila Polo Club counts among its polo enthusiasts some of the country's wealthiest people. The Makati Sports Club in Salcedo Village is another popular place for sports. The Makati Coliseum is another famous sports landmark in the city, where some of the biggest sports gatherings are held.
The Ayala Museum is a private fine arts and history museum housing various exhibitions such as the "Gold of Ancestors," an exhibition of more than one thousand golden pre-Hispanic artifacts. Other popular museums also in Makati also include the Yuchengco Museum and the Museo ng Makati.
Makati has several Spanish-era churches, such as the Our Lady of Guadalupe and the Nuestra Señora de Gracia (Our Lady of Grace) in the old town. At the Greenbelt Park stands the modern domed chapel of the Sto. Niño de la Paz. Between Forbes Park and Dasmariñas Village is the Santuario de San Antonio, a popular church for weddings in the Makati area. The National Shrine of the Sacred Heart is located in San Antonio Village. Makati also houses the country's only Jewish synagogue, Beth Yaacov.
Ayala Land and the Makati Tourism Foundation launched a year-long campaign titled "Make It Happen, Make it Makati" to increase Makati's visibility as an arts and culture destination. The campaign is part of Ayala’s ongoing US$1.5 billion redevelopment masterplan for Makati, which began in 2011 and divides the city into six distinct hubs for business, lifestyle, entertainment and transport.
In 2013, Ayala Land unveiled its plans for a P20-billion project that will transform the old Sta. Ana race track into a mixed-use development, featuring entertainment and sports facilities. It will sit on a 21-hectare property - the last available sprawling landbank in Makati City and will be dubbed as "Circuit Makati" in honor of the Sta. Ana race track, which is part of Makati's heritage as a former racing circuit. There will be a FIFA-sized football turf which will be used for games and for football workshops. It will feature a 2-hectare open-air events ground, which can accommodate up to 20,000 people. It will have links to the Makati central business district (CBD) through Ayala Avenue Extension and South Avenue, other future road linkages or potentially even a revived Pasig River ferry service.
Major roads in Metro Manila surrounds Makati, such as Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), located in the southeast part of the city, the South Luzon Expressway (SLEX), which intersect EDSA at the Magallanes Interchange, and the Skyway which is built on top of the SLEX.
Two of Metro Manila's main arteries pass through Makati. The Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) pass along the southeast part of Makati and connects Makati with the cities of Mandaluyong and Pasay. The South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) runs through the western part of Makati and connects the city with Manila to the north and with southern Metro Manila. The Skyway, an elevated highway built on top of SLEX, provides residents coming from southern Metro Manila a fast way to reach Makati. SLEX and EDSA intersect at the Magallanes Interchange, which is the most complex system of elevated roadways in Metro Manila.
Buses plying the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA/C-4) route from Baclaran in Parañaque to Quezon City and Caloocan pass through the central business/financial district daily. Jeepneys ply Makati's inner roads and connect the city to its surrounding towns and cities.
The country’s first-ever e-jeepney and hybrid bus services were piloted in Makati City. The buses are parallel electric hybrids, powered by an electric motor and a Euro 3 diesel motor. The hybrid buses will ply the route from Buendia (Tramo/LRT Taft) to Kalayaan Avenue (C5), which are considered among the busiest in the city’s central business district, cutting through other major roads like South Superhighway; Chino Roces, Ayala and Makati Avenues; Paseo de Roxas and Edsa.
Other major roads in Makati include Buendia Avenue, also called Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue, which connects EDSA and SLEX in the north; Ayala Avenue, an important street that runs through the central business/financial district; and Makati Avenue, which connects Ayala Avenue with Buendia Avenue, also extending north to cross the Pasig River to Mandaluyong City. At the center of Makati is the Ayala Triangle, a park built on the former Nielsen Air Base.
In 2013, the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) worked on a feasibility study for a $1.75 billion monorail project. The proposed 12.56-kilometer elevated monorail is envisioned to connect Makati City, Bonifacio Global City, Pasay City through the Metro Rail Transport (MRT) system as well as the Ninoy Aquino International Airport. The present alignment being considered starts from the MRT 3 (Guadalupe Station), enter Bonifacio Global City through the north gate and end at Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 3 building. If approved, the monorail project can be completed by 2016.
The city is 20 minutes away from the Ninoy Aquino International Airport.
The current mayor for the 2010–2013 term is Jejomar Erwin S. Binay, the only son of former mayor and now Vice President Jejomar Binay. Romulo “Kid” Peña is the city's incumbent vice-mayor. The vice-mayor heads a legislative council consisting of 18 members: 8 Councilors from the First District, 8 Councilors from the Second District, the President of the Sangguniang Kabataan (Youth Council) Federation, representing the youth sector, and the President of the Association of Barangay Chairmen (ABC) as barangay sectoral representative. The council is in charge of creating the city's policies in the form of Ordinances and Resolutions. Current district representatives of the city are Monique Yazmin Q. Lagdameo, representing the 1st district and Mar-len Abigail S. Binay, daughter of Jejomar Binay, for the 2nd district.
Makati city is divided into 33 barangays (the smallest local government units) which handles governance in a much smaller area. These barangays are grouped into two congressional districts where each district is represented by a congressman in the country's House of Representatives. Congressional District I occupies the western half of the city, while District II covers the eastern half.
|Barangay||Population (2004)||Population (2010)||Area (km2)||District|
|Pio del Pilar||22,495||27,035||1.20||1st|
|Post Proper North||1,475||6,010||0.45||2nd|
|Post Proper South||25,037||45,310||1.87||2nd|
List of former mayors
- Marcelino Magsaysay (1901-1903)
- Eusebio Arpilleda (1903-1908)
- Hermogenes Santos (1908-1911)
- Urbano Navarro (1911-1913)
- Jose Magsaysay (1913-1916)
- Pedro Domingo (1917-1919)
- Ricardo Arpilleda (1919-1920)
- Igmidio Flores (1920-1922)
- Nicanor Garcia (1922-1934)
- Jose Villena (1935-1941, 1948-1954)
- Pablo Cortez (1945-1947)
- Ignacio Babasa (1954)
- Bernardo Umali (1954)
- Maximo Estrella (1956-1969)
- Jose Luciano (1969–1971)
- Cesar Alzona (1971–1972)
- Nemesio I. Yabut (1972–1986)
- Jejomar Binay (1986–1998)
- Elenita Binay (1998–2001)
- Jejomar Binay (2001–2010)
- Jejomar Erwin S. Binay, Jr. (2010–present)
Seal of Makati City
The official seal of Makati City depicts a silhouette of the territory of Makati. At the bottom is the Pasig River, located on the northern border of the city. The Guadalupe Church stands on the river and is the oldest church in Makati; a reference to Spanish religious influences. Behind the church rises the modern skyscrapers, for which Makati is well-known. Behind the skyscrapers are 33 rays representing the barangays of Makati.
Recently, Makati and Taguig have fought over the jurisdiction of the Fort Bonifacio district (barangays Post Proper Northside and Post Proper Southside). This Philippine military base, most of which has been converted to a modern commercial and residential development area, lies in an ambiguous area. A portion of the base, including the Libingan ng mga Bayani (Cemetery of the Heroes) and the Manila American Cemetery and Memorial lies within Taguig, while the northern portion where the development center is now located used to be considered part of Makati. A 2003 ruling by a judge in the Pasig Regional Trial Court has upheld the jurisdiction of Taguig over the whole of Fort Bonifacio, including the Bonifacio Global City development. On August 5, 2013 the Court of Appeals has declared portions of Fort Bonifacio, including the high-end locale of Bonifacio Global City, as being part of Makati City and not Taguig City. The Court overturned the ruling of the Pasig City Regional Trial Court that gave Taguig City jurisdiction over the disputed area. 
Countries that have set up permanent missions or offices in the city include:
- "Province: NCR, FOURTH DISTRICT". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- "2010 Census of Population and Housing: National Capital Region". National Statistics Office of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- "About Makati City in the Philippines". Makaticity.com. 2012-11-28. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "About Makati, Philippines". Makaticity.com. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- "Makati Business Club". Mbc.com.ph. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION (NCR) > Makati City". Department of Tourism. 2009. Retrieved 2013-05-23.
- "Tourist information and services on Makati City Philippines". Touristcenter.com.ph. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "History of Makati City". Manila Info Blogspot. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- "This week in Ayala history". Filipinas Library. www.filipinaslibrary.org.ph. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "History - Pioneers". Ayala Group Official Website. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Makati City Climate". Retrieved 2011-04-25.
- "Household Population by Religious Affiliation". City Government of Makati. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- "Daytime Population". City Government of Makati. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- "Makati Still ‘Richest City’". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- "Ayala Triangle Gardens". Make it Makati. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- Filinvest Official Website PBCom Tower page.
- "Makati Shopping". Make it Makati. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
- "Ayala Center". Make it Makati. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
- Manila Polo Club | 100 years. Manilapolo.com.ph. Retrieved on 2011-10-08.
- "About the Museum". The Ayala Museum. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
- "Makati shows off entertainment and events side". TTGmice.
- by (2013-01-13). "Ayala transforms race track into Broadway, football hub". Rappler.com. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- "Hybrid buses to roll out in Ph". Retrieved 2013-06-25.
- "Makati BGC NAIA monorail project". Retrieved 2013-06-25.
- "Rich get richer: Makati gains while Taguig loses Fort Boni in court decision | News | GMA News Online". Gmanetwork.com. 2013-08-05. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
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