|Highly urbanized city|
|City of Makati|
|Nickname(s): The Financial Capital of the Philippines
The Wall Street of the Philippines
Selfie Capital of the World
|Motto: Makati, Mahalin Natin, Atin Ito|
|Districts||1st and 2nd districts of Makati City|
|Cityhood||January 2, 1995|
|• Type||Mayor–council government|
|• Mayor||Jejomar Erwin S. Binay, Jr. (United Nationalist Alliance)|
|• Vice Mayor||Romulo V. Peña, Jr. (Liberal)|
|• Makati City Council|
|• Total||21.57 km2 (8.33 sq mi)|
|Elevation||15.4 m (50.5 ft)|
|• Density||22,101/km2 (57,240/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|ZIP Code||1200 to 1299|
Makati (// mə-KAH-tee Tagalog pronunciation: [maˈkati]), officially the City of Makati (Filipino: Lungsod ng Makati), in the Philippines, is one of the sixteen cities that make up Metro Manila. Makati is located within the circle of 14′40″ °north and 121′3″ °E right at the center of Metro Manila.
Makati is the financial center of the Philippines; it has the highest concentration of multinational and local corporations in the country. Major banks, corporations, department stores as well as foreign embassies are based in Makati. The biggest trading floor of the Philippine Stock Exchange is situated along the city's Ayala Avenue. Makati is also known for being a major cultural and entertainment hub in Metro Manila.
With a population of 609,123 Makati is the 16th-largest city in the country and ranked as the 41st most densely populated city in the world with 19,336 inhabitants per square kilometer. Although its population is just half a million, the daytime population of the city is estimated to be more than one million during a typical working day because of the large number of people who go to the city to work, shop, and do business.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy and Infrastructure
- 6 Shopping centers
- 7 Education
- 8 Historical Sites
- 9 Culture and sports
- 10 Future Development
- 11 Transportation
- 12 Local government
- 13 International Relations
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
According to tradition, the first Governor-General of the Philippines, Miguel López de Legazpi, whilst exploring a swamp near the Pasig River, asked for the name of the place but, because of the language barrier, was misinterpreted by the native Tagalog people. Pointing to the receding tide of the Pasig River, the Tagalogs answered, “Makati, kumakati na,” literally meaning "Ebbing, the tide is ebbing".
Parts of the city were once subject to the pre-Hispanic Kingdom of Namayan, whose capital is now in the Santa Ana district of Manila. The Spanish then assigned the area to the town of Santa Ana de Sapa and in the 1600s began to be developed as a pilgrimage center around the churches of Our Lady of Guadalupe (now Our Lady of Grace) and of Saints Peter and Paul in what is today the población, built by missionary friars to attract worshippers, and also as a farming community. It became an independent municipality in 1670, and was christened San Pedro de Macati in honour of the town's patron, Saint Peter. The town was also famous for its pottery industry since the 18th century, with skilled potters trained by Jesuit priests. Its strategic location also made it a pitstop for pilgrims, travelling by foot or boat, towards the shrine of Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage in Antipolo.
In 1851, Don José Bonifacio Roxas (an ancestor of the Zobel de Ayala family) purchased the Jesuit estate of "Hacienda San Pedro de Macati" for 52,800 pesos. Since then, the development of Makati has remained linked with the Zóbel de Ayala family and their company, Ayala Corporation.
The town was a cradle of Filipino passive resistance against Spanish colonial rule in the 1890s and the subsequent Philippine Revolution, with the participation of the local Katipunan council based in the area with Pio del Pilar, a local resident from the village of Culi-Culi, as its president. Culi-Culi is now a barangay named in honour of Del Pilar.
By 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines and other overseas possessions to the United States after the former's defeat in the Spanish-American War. In 1901, the Americans declared the whole area south of the Pasig River, including the town of San Pedro de Macati, down to Barangay Ayala Alabang in Muntinlupa, a US military reservation, thus establishing Fort McKinley (now Fort Bonifacio). That same year, the whole town, with a population of 25,000, was incorporated from Manila to the new province of Rizal, with Marcelino Magsaysay serving as the town president. As the 1910s approached the Meralco tranvia lines to Fort McKinley and to the western end of the town were built, opening transport lines for its residents and thus brought along potential investors who opened several businesses including the famous Santa Ana Cabaret at the terminus of the streetcar lines.
In February 28, 1914, the The Philippine Legislature passed Act 2390, shortening the name, San Pedro de Macati, to simply Makati. In the 1930s, the first airport in Luzon island, Nielsen Field, opened in what is now the Ayala Triangle, and the tracks of what is now the Philippine National Railways reached the town very early in the decade. During that same period, Santa Ana Park, the nation's second horse racing facility, opened to expectations from horse racing fans.
After the destruction Second World War had brought upon Makati, the town grew rapidly, and real estate values boomed. The first of the planned communities (in what are now the barangays Forbes Park, Urdaneta, San Lorenzo and Bel-Air) were established in the 1950s with the efforts of its landowner, Ayala y Compañía, and at the same time, Fort McKinley, then renamed Fort Bonifacio and the then Philippine Army headquarters, became the starting point for the building up of seven more communities this time by military families who worked in the base area, while the first office buildings began to be built on what is now the central business district. Since the late 1960s, Makati has transformed into the financial and commercial capital of the country.
During the terms of town mayors Máximo Estrella, Rafael Bañola, José Luciano, Cézar Alzona and Nemesio Yabut, massive development of the town took place, and foreign and local investors were welcomed to what was tagged as the nation's number one municipality at the time. Makati's central location also made it an industrial hub for major national and international corporations. Partly as a result a new town hall just miles from the old one was built in 1962 just along J.P. Rizal Street (the old hall was later converted into the city museum). Mayor Bañola's term of office as town executive saw the building up of what is now the Ayala Center with the help of the Ayala firm, which would become the city's central shopping center of today.
In 1975, Makati was separated from Rizal province along with Caloocan, Malabon, Navotas, Quezon City, Marikina, San Juan, Pasig, Mandaluyong, Pateros, Taguig, Pasay City, Parañaque, Las Piñas, and Muntinlupa, to become part of the National Capital Region as a component city.
Following the assassination of opposition senator Benigno Aquino, Jr. on 21 August 1983, Makati became a nexus for protests against the dictatorship of President Ferdinand E. Marcos. Known as the Confetti Revolution, the demonstrations held in the central business district were led partly by employees of major corporations based in the area, culminating in the 1986 People Power Revolution that toppled Marcos’ 20-year authoritarian regime. His political rival and successor, Corazon C. Aquino–the wife of the deceased senator Aquino–became the eleventh and first female president of the Philippines. After the death of Mayor Yabut during the Revolution, Aquino appointed Jejomar Binay as acting mayor of the town of Makati; he was subsequently elected as mayor in 1987. His first term as the town executive would see the events of a 1989 coup d'etat attempt in the town's business district, and would help usher the building of the country's first skyscrapers in the early 1990s.
On May 17, 2000 at 5:02 p.m., the Glorietta Mall located inside the Ayala Center was bombed, injuring 13 persons. According to local authorities, the homemade bomb originated from a restroom of a restaurant a video arcade. The bombing was said to be the precursor of the May 21, 2000 SM Megamall bombing and the Rizal Day bombings. On October 19, 2007, an explosion in Glorietta 2 left eleven people dead and injured more than a hundred. Initially, authorities said that it was caused by a liquefied petroleum gas explosion at a restaurant, but later began investigating the possibility that the explosion may have been a C-4 bomb.
Makati is located within the circle of 14′40″ °north and 121′3″ °E right at the center of Metro Manila. The city is bounded on the north by the Pasig River, facing Mandaluyong City, on the northeast by Pasig City, on the southeast by the municipality of Pateros and Taguig City, on the northwest by the city of Manila, and on the southwest by Pasay City. Makati has a total land area of 27.36 square kilometres (10.56 sq mi); it constitutes 4.3% of Metro Manila's total land area.
Under the Köppen climate classification system, the city of Makati features a tropical monsoon climate. Together with the rest of the Philippines, Makati lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that the temperature range is very small, rarely going lower than 20 °C (68 °F) and going higher than 38 °C (100 °F). However, humidity levels are usually very high which makes it feel much warmer. It has a distinct, albeit relatively short dry season from January through May, and a relatively lengthy wet season from June through December.
|Climate data for Makati, Philippines|
|Average high °C (°F)||30
|Average low °C (°F)||21
|Precipitation mm (inches)||25.4
Makati has a population of 529,039 as of the 2010 census. Makati ranks ninth in population size within Metro Manila municipalities. 88.9% of Makati residents identified their religious affiliation as Roman Catholic. Other groups having large number of members in the city are The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Ang Dating Daan, Iglesia ni Cristo, Protestantism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism.
Based on the City’s Transport and Traffic Improvement Plan 2004-2014, the city’s daytime population is estimated to be 3.7 million during weekdays, owing to the large number of people who come to work, do business, or shop.
The daily influx of people into the city provides the skilled labor force that allows Makati to handle the service requirements of domestic as well as international transactions; it also serves as the base of a large consumer market that fuels the retail and service trade in the city. At the same time, however, the large tidal population flows exert pressure on Makati's environment, services, and utilities, most noticeably causing large traffic volumes along the major road corridors leading to the city as well as within and at the periphery of the central business district.
Economy and Infrastructure
The city of Makati remains the richest local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines in terms of income from local sources and on a per capita basis. As of end-2012, Makati had registered over 62,000 business enterprises, which are engaged in financial services, wholesale/retail, services, real estate, export/import, and manufacturing. Makati also boasts of having the highest number of BPO offices in Metro Manila at 1,159 companies to date, as well as the highest number of PEZA-accredited IT Parks and Buildings. The city government of Makati has not increased its tax rates since its new Revenue Code took effect in 2006. For 26 years now, the city enjoys a deficit-free status.
The city is known for its developed business district called the Makati Central Business District. It is bound by EDSA, Gil Puyat Avenue, Arnaiz Avenue/Pasay Road, and Chino Roces Avenue. It mainly encompasses Legazpi Village, Salcedo Village, the Ayala Center, and parts of Bel-Air Village.
The Ayala Triangle is a sub-district of the Makati central business district, comprising the parcel of land between Ayala Avenue, Makati Avenue and Paseo de Roxas, as well as the buildings on those streets. Many multinational companies, banks and other major businesses are located within the triangle. A few upscale boutiques, restaurants and a park called Ayala Triangle Gardens are also located in the area. Ayala Avenue and Paseo de Roxas also house the distinction of being the runways of the former Nielson Field, Metro Manila's main airport in the 1930s.
The biggest trading floor of the Philippine Stock Exchange is housed in Ayala Tower One and at the old Makati Stock Exchange Building, both along Ayala Avenue.
The Makati Business Club is composed of over 800 chief executive officers and senior executives representing almost 450 of the largest and most dynamic corporations in the Philippines.
Most of the tallest skyscrapers in the Philippines are located in Makati such as the Gramercy Residences, PBCom Tower and G.T. International Tower. PBCom Tower along Ayala Avenue is the country's tallest building, reaching up 259 meters. It is the headquarters of the Philippine Bank of Communications, or PBCom. The PBCom Tower is an office skyscraper ranked officially as the tallest building in the Philippines from 2000 until the topping-out of The Gramercy Residences in Makati Poblacion in 2012. It has a total ground to architectural top height of 259 meters (850 ft), with 52 stories including an 8-level radio tower.
Makati City is one of the most well-known shopping hub of Metro Manila. Various shopping centers, offering both international and local retail shops, high-end boutiques, dining outlets and entertainment facilities can be found around the city.
The Ayala Center is a major commercial development operated by Ayala Land, it is located at the central business district of Makati, the center is known for its wide array of shopping, entertainment and cultural offerings, making it a premier shopping and cultural district in the metropolis. It is a vast walkable complex with high-end malls that houses cinemas, local and international shops, homegrown restaurants and international food chains. The shopping malls that are located at the Ayala Center includes Greenbelt, Glorietta, Park Square, and The Link. The Ayala Center is also home to 3 department stores which include SM Makati, Rustan's, and The Landmark.
Aside from the Ayala Center, the Rockwell Center is also a popular shopping district in Makati, it is home to the Power Plant Mall. The Salcedo Saturday Market and Legazpi Sunday Market are popular open-air community markets. These markets offers organic products, specialty foods, fruits, vegetables, fish, gourmet items and antiques.
The University of Makati, a public, non-profit university, is the city's flagship university. Other institutions of higher education include the Asian Institute of Management (AIM), the Ateneo Professional Schools, Australian Catholic University - Manila Program, the Mapúa Institute of Technology, Lyceum of the Philippines University-Makati, Centro Escolar University Makati, Far Eastern University- Makati, iAcademy, Asian Seminary of Christian Ministries (ASCM), Don Bosco Technical Institute, Makati, Assumption College San Lorenzo, Colegio San Agustin, Saint Paul College of Makati, Our Lady of Guadalupe Minor Seminary, Asia Pacific College, Colegio De Sta. Rosa Makati Assumption College among others.
This part of Namayan was sacred to early Tagalogs. Hagdang bató (see photo) is mentioned in chapter sixty-one of José Rizal's first novel, Noli Me Tángere, and chapter three of his second novel, El Filibusterismo. During the Revolution on 10 June 1897, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo and about five hundred soldiers crossed the Pasig River at Hagdang bató during the march to Biac-na-bató in Bulacán.
Museo ng Makati
Located along J.P. Rizal St., the Museo ng Makati is housed in an old building, which was built in 1918 and has been used as Makati's town hall from 1918 to 1961. The museum keeps the records of Makati's history through a collection of rare photographs, murals, and dioramas. It also contains artifacts, such as the fossils of pre-historic animals and earthenware.
The museum's architecture is a classic "Bahay na Bato", made of masonry at the ground floor and wood at the upper level. In 1934, during the reign of Mayor Nicanor Garcia, the structure was rebuilt using concrete materials. In 1958, while it was still used as a town hall, then Mayor Maximo Estrella had it renovated. In 1961, when the local government of Makati moved its office to its current site, the old town hall was used as the Municipal Library. But when the library was transferred to the new city hall compound, the old town hall was used as the Philippine Eye and Ear Infirmary. During the term of Mayor Jejomar Binay, the structure was converted into a museum through City Ordinance No. 186 that was enacted in March 1990.
Nuestra Señora de Gracia Church
The Nuestra Señora de Gracia Church is a baroque Roman Catholic church which was established in 1601 by Augustinian fathers. Its original architecture is a blend of the late Spanish Renaissance and early Baroque design. The touch of the Renaissance period is found in the main entrance with rose window and simple Doric columns. The interiors and the window details, meanwhile, have influences of Baroque architecture. The floor plan, on the other hand, is Romanesque. During the Seven Years' War, this church was raided by the British, an event which marks the first time that Makati was affected by a global conflict. The church was damaged due to an earthquake in 1880 and in 1898 during the early skirmishes between American and Filipino troops.
Sts. Peter and Paul Church
Tucked in D.M. Rivera St. and surrounded by skyscrapers and residential areas, Sts. Peter and Paul Church is the oldest church in Makati, which was constructed in 1620. It was built by Jesuit priest Rev. Pedro de los Montes at a site named Buenavista through the generous donation of Capt. Pedro de Britto in 1607.
The church's architectural design is a rectangular nave with apse and sacristy, which is a usual design for colonial mission churches. The façade is composed of three-tiered papal and keys, symbols of the Papacy, which was first occupied by St. Peter, one of the patron saints of the parish.
Culture and sports
Makati is home to a number of fine art museums, colonial-era churches and recreation areas.
Along the south-eastern border of Makati beyond Forbes Park are the Manila Golf Club and the Manila Polo Club. The Manila Golf Club features an 18-hole golf course. The Manila Polo Club counts among its polo enthusiasts some of the country's wealthiest people. The Makati Sports Club in Salcedo Village is another popular place for sports. The Makati Coliseum is another famous sports landmark in the city, where some of the biggest sports gatherings are held.
The Ayala Museum is a private fine arts and history museum housing various exhibitions such as the "Gold of Ancestors," an exhibition of more than one thousand golden pre-Hispanic artifacts. Other popular museums also in Makati also include the Yuchengco Museum and the Museo ng Makati.
Makati has several Spanish-era churches, such as the Our Lady of Guadalupe and the Nuestra Señora de Gracia Church (Our Lady of Grace) in the old town. At the Greenbelt Park stands the modern domed chapel of the Sto. Niño de la Paz. Between Forbes Park and Dasmariñas Village is the Santuario de San Antonio, a popular church for weddings in the Makati area. The National Shrine of the Sacred Heart is located in San Antonio Village. Makati also houses the country's only Jewish synagogue, Beth Yaacov.
Ayala Land and the Makati Tourism Foundation launched a year-long campaign titled "Make It Happen, Make it Makati" to increase Makati's visibility as an arts and culture destination. The campaign is part of Ayala’s ongoing US$1.5 billion redevelopment masterplan for Makati, which began in 2011 and divides the city into six distinct hubs for business, lifestyle, entertainment and transport.
In 2013, Ayala Land unveiled its plans for a P20-billion project that will transform the old Sta. Ana race track into a mixed-use development, featuring entertainment and sports facilities. It will sit on a 21-hectare property - the last available sprawling landbank in Makati City and will be dubbed as "Circuit Makati" in honor of the Sta. Ana race track, which is part of Makati's heritage as a former racing circuit. There will be a FIFA-sized football turf which will be used for games and for football workshops. It will feature a 2-hectare open-air events ground, which can accommodate up to 20,000 people. It will have links to the Makati central business district (CBD) through Ayala Avenue Extension and South Avenue, other future road linkages or potentially even a revived Pasig River ferry service.
Major roads in Metro Manila surrounds Makati, such as Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), located in the southeast part of the city, the South Luzon Expressway (SLEX), which intersect EDSA at the Magallanes Interchange, and the Skyway which is built on top of the SLEX.
Two of Metro Manila's main arteries pass through Makati. The Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) pass along the southeast part of Makati and connects Makati with the cities of Mandaluyong and Pasay. The South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) runs through the western part of Makati and connects the city with Manila to the north and with southern Metro Manila. The Skyway, an elevated highway built on top of SLEX, provides residents coming from southern Metro Manila a fast way to reach Makati. SLEX and EDSA intersect at the Magallanes Interchange, which is the most complex system of elevated roadways in Metro Manila.
Buses plying the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA/C-4) route from Baclaran in Parañaque to Quezon City and Caloocan pass through the central business/financial district daily. Jeepneys ply Makati's inner roads and connect the city to its surrounding towns and cities.
The country’s first-ever e-jeepney and hybrid bus services were piloted in Makati City. The buses are parallel electric hybrids, powered by an electric motor and a Euro 3 diesel motor. The hybrid buses will ply the route from Buendia (Tramo/LRT-1 Taft) to Kalayaan Avenue (C5), which are considered among the busiest in the city’s central business district, cutting through other major roads like South Superhighway; Chino Roces, Ayala and Makati Avenues; Paseo de Roxas and Edsa.
Other major roads in Makati include Buendia Avenue, also called Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue, which connects EDSA and SLEX in the north; Ayala Avenue, an important street that runs through the central business/financial district; and Makati Avenue, which connects Ayala Avenue with Buendia Avenue, also extending north to cross the Pasig River to Mandaluyong City. At the center of Makati is the Ayala Triangle, a park built on the former Nielsen Air Base.
In 2013, the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) worked on a feasibility study for a $1.75 billion monorail project. The proposed 12.56-kilometer elevated monorail is envisioned to connect Makati City, Bonifacio Global City, Pasay City through the MRT Line 3 as well as the Ninoy Aquino International Airport. The present alignment being considered starts from the MRT-3 (Guadalupe Station), enters Bonifacio Global City through the north gate and ends at Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 3. If approved, the monorail project can be completed by 2016.
The city is 20 minutes away from the Ninoy Aquino International Airport.
The current mayor for the 2010–2013 term is Jejomar Erwin S. Binay, the only son of former mayor and now Vice President Jejomar Binay. Romulo “Kid” Peña is the city's incumbent vice-mayor. The vice-mayor heads a legislative council consisting of 18 members: 8 Councilors from the First District, 8 Councilors from the Second District, the President of the Sangguniang Kabataan (Youth Council) Federation, representing the youth sector, and the President of the Association of Barangay Chairmen (ABC) as barangay sectoral representative. The council is in charge of creating the city's policies in the form of Ordinances and Resolutions. Current district representatives of the city are Monique Yazmin Q. Lagdameo, representing the 1st district and Mar-len Abigail S. Binay, daughter of Jejomar Binay, for the 2nd district.
Makati city is divided into 33 barangays (the smallest local government units) which handles governance in a much smaller area. These barangays are grouped into two congressional districts where each district is represented by a congressman in the country's House of Representatives. Congressional District I is composed of the barangays straddling EDSA, the barangays to the north and west of them, while excluding Guadalupe Viejo and Pinagkaisahan, while District II are to the south and east of District I, including the two aforementioned baragays. The districts used to elect the members of the city council are coextensive with the congressional districts.
|Barangay||Population (2004)||Population (2014)||Area (km2)||District|
|Pio del Pilar||22,495||27,035||1.20||1st|
List of former mayors
- Marcelino Magsaysay (1901-1903)
- Eusebio Arpilleda (1903-1908)
- Hermogenes Santos (1908-1911)
- Urbano Navarro (1911-1913)
- José Magsaysay (1913-1916)
- Pedro Domingo (1917-1919)
- Ricardo Arpilleda (1919-1920)
- Igmidio Flores (1920-1922)
- Nicanor García (1922-1934)
- Jose Villena (1935-1941, 1948-1954)
- Pablo Cortez (1945-1947)
- Ignacio Babasa (1954)
- Bernardo Umali (1954)
- Máximo Estrella (1956-1964)
- Rafael Bañola (1964-1969)
- José Luciano (1969–1971)
- César Alzona (1971–1972)
- Nemesio I. Yabut (1972–1986)
- Jejomar Binay (1986–1998, 2001–2010)
- Elenita Binay (1998–2001)
- Jejomar Erwin S. Binay, Jr. (2010–present)
Seal of Makati City
The official seal of Makati depicts a silhouette of the territory of Makati. At the bottom is the Pasig River, located on the northern border of Makati city. The Guadalupe Church stands on the river and is the oldest church in Makati; a reference to Spanish religious influences. Behind the church rises the modern skyscrapers, for which Makati is well-known. Behind the skyscrapers are 33 rays representing the barangays of Makati.
Countries that have set up permanent missions or offices in the city include:
Twin towns – Sister cities
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