Saint Peter

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Saint
Peter
Apostle, preacher and martyr
Pope-peter pprubens.jpg
Saint Peter by Peter Paul Rubens shows the saint holding the Keys of Heaven and wearing the pallium
Church Christian Church
Papacy began AD 30
Papacy ended AD 64 or 67
Predecessor New creation (First Pope)
Successor Linus
Orders
Ordination by Jesus Christ
Personal details
Birth name Shimon or Simeon (Simon)
Born unknown date
Bethsaida, Gaulanitis, Syria, Roman Empire
Died c. AD 64[1]
Clementine Chapel, Vatican Hill, Rome, Italia, Roman Empire
Parents John (or Jonah or Jona)
Occupation Fisherman
Sainthood
Feast day Main feast (with Paul the Apostle) 29 June (Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, Lutheranism)
Chair of St Peter in Rome 18 January (Pre-1960 Roman Calendar)
Confession of St Peter 18 January (Anglicanism)
Chair of St Peter 22 February (Catholic Church)
St Peter in Chains 1 August (pre-1960 Roman Calendar)
Venerated in All Christian churches that venerate saints
Attributes Keys of Heaven, pallium, papal vestments, rooster, man crucified head downwards, vested as an Apostle, holding a book or scroll. Iconographically, he is depicted with a bushy white beard and white hair.
Patronage Patronage list
Shrines St. Peter's Basilica

Saint Peter (Latin: Petrus, Greek: Πέτρος Petros, Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa ; died c. 64 AD[1]), also known as Simon Peter, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Church. The Roman Catholic Church considers him to be the first pope, ordained by Jesus in the "Rock of My Church" dialogue in Matthew 16:18. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and associate him with the foundation of the church in Rome, but differ about the authority of his successors in present-day Christianity.

The New Testament indicates that Peter was the son of John (or Jonah or Jona)[2] and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was also an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples. Originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration. According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah,[3] was part of Jesus's inner circle,[4] thrice denied Jesus,[5] and preached on the day of Pentecost.[6]

According to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero Augustus Caesar. It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, since he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus Christ. Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel. His mortal remains are contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peter's Basilica, where Pope Paul VI announced in 1968 the excavated discovery of a first-century Roman cemetery. Every June 29 since 1736, a life-size statue of Saint Peter has been crowned in St. Peter's Basilica with a papal tiara, ring of the fisherman, and papal vestments, as part of the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul. By Catholic doctrine, the direct papal successor to Saint Peter is Pope Francis.

Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter, but virtually all biblical scholars reject the Petrine authorship of both.[7] The Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peter's preaching and eyewitness memories. Several other books bearing his name – the Acts of Peter, Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Apocalypse of Peter, and Judgment of Peter – are rejected by Christian churches as apocryphal.[8][9][10]

Names and etymologies

Calling of Peter and Andrew, Caravaggio

Peter's original name was "Shimon" or "Simeon" ("Simon" in modern English). He was later given the name "Peter", a name derived from the Latin Petrus, a masculine form of the feminine petra (f) which means "rock" (cf. petroleum). In Greek, the same idea holds: Πέτρος (Petros) is derived from πέτρα (petra). Another version of this name is Aramaic: ‎ (Šimʻōn Kêpâ Sëmʻān Kêpâ), after his name in Hellenised Aramaic.

The Latin word petra is a loanword from Greek. The English and German "Peter", French "Pierre", the Italian "Pietro", the Spanish and Portuguese "Pedro", the Polish and Russian "Piotr" are all derived from Petrus.

The Syriac or Aramaic word for "rock" is kepa, which in Greek became Greek: Πέτρος, also meaning "rock".[11][12] He is also known as Simon Peter, Cephas (Greek: Κηφᾶς) and Kepha (Hebrew: כיפא‎). Both Cephas and Kepha also mean rock.[13]

Catholic theologian Rudolf Pesch argues that the Aramaic cepha means "stone, ball, clump, clew" and that "rock" is only a connotation; that the Greek petra denotes "grown rock, rocky range, cliff, grotto"; and that petros means "small stone, firestone, sling stone, moving boulder".[14]

New Testament account

Ruins of ancient Capernaum on north side of the Sea of Galilee.

Peter's life story is told in the four canonical gospels, the Book of Acts, New Testament Letters, non-canonical Gospel of the Hebrews and other Early Church accounts of his life and death. In the New Testament, he is among the first of the disciples called during Jesus' ministry. Peter became the first listed apostle ordained by Jesus in the early church.[15]

Peter was a fisherman in Bethsaida.[Jn. 1:44] He was named Simon, son of Jonah or John.[16] The Synoptic Gospels all recount how Peter's mother-in-law was healed by Jesus at their home in Capernaum[Matt. 8:14-17] [Mk. 1:29-31] [Lk. 4:38] which, coupled with 1 Cor. 9:5, clearly depict Peter as a married man.

Apostle Peter striking the High Priests' servant Malchus with a sword in the Garden of Gethsemane.

In the Synoptic Gospels, Peter (then Simon) was a fisherman along with his brother Andrew and the sons of Zebedee, James and John. The Gospel of John also depicts Peter fishing, even after the resurrection of Jesus, in the story of the Catch of 153 fish. In Matthew and Mark, Jesus called Simon and his brother Andrew to be "fishers of men".[Matt. 4:18-19] [Mk. 1:16-17]

A Franciscan church is built upon the traditional site of Apostle Peter's house.[17] In Luke, Simon Peter owns the boat that Jesus uses to preach to the multitudes who were pressing on him at the shore of Lake Gennesaret.[Lk. 5:3] Jesus then amazes Simon and his companions James and John (Andrew is not mentioned) by telling them to lower their nets, whereupon they catch a huge number of fish. Immediately after this, they follow him.[Lk. 5:4-11] The Gospel of John gives a comparable account of "The First Disciples".[Jn. 1:35-42] In John, we are told that it was two disciples of John the Baptist (Andrew and an unnamed disciple) who heard John the Baptist announce Jesus as the "Lamb of God" and then followed Jesus. Andrew then went and fetched his brother Simon, saying, "We have found the Messiah", and then brought Simon to Jesus.

Three of the four gospels – Matthew, Mark and John – recount the story of Jesus walking on water. Matthew additionally describes Peter walking on water for a moment, but beginning to sink when his faith wavered.[Matt. 14:28-31]

At the beginning of the Last Supper, Jesus washed his disciples' feet. Peter initially refused to let Jesus wash his feet, but when Jesus responded: "If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me", Peter replied: "Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head".[Jn. 13:2-11] The washing of feet is often repeated in the service of worship on Maundy Thursday by some Christian denominations.

The three Synoptic Gospels all mention that, when Jesus was arrested, one of his companions cut off the ear of a servant of the High Priest.[18] The Gospel of John also includes this event and names Peter as the swordsman and Malchus as the victim.[Jn. 18:10] Luke adds that Jesus touched the ear and miraculously healed it.[Lk. 22:49-51] This healing of the servant's ear is the last of the 37 miracles attributed to Jesus in the Bible.

"Rock" dialogue

Saint Peter by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617–1682)

In a dialogue between Jesus and his disciples (Matthew 16:13-19), Jesus asks, "Who do people say that the Son of Man is?" The disciples give various answers. When he asks, "Who do you say that I am?" Simon Peter answers, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God." Jesus then declares:

"Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by flesh and blood, but by my Father in heaven. And I tell you that you are Peter (Petros), and on this rock (petra) I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven."

Some scholars suspect that the l sentences, which do not appear in the other gospels, are a later addition.[citation needed]

A common view of Peter is provided by Jesuit Father Daniel J. Harrington who suggests that Peter was an unlikely symbol of stability. While he was one of the first disciples called and was the spokesman for the group, Peter is also the exemplar of "little faith" in Matthew 14, will soon have Jesus say to him, "O you of little faith, why did you doubt?" and will eventually deny Jesus three times. In light of the Easter event, then, Peter became an exemplar of the forgiven sinner.[19] Outside the Catholic Church, a variety of opinion exists as to the interpretation of this passage with respect to what authority and responsibility, if any, Jesus was giving to Peter.[citation needed]

In the Eastern Orthodox Church this passage is interpreted as not implying a special prominence to the person of Peter, but to Peter's position as representative of the Apostles. The word used for "rock" (petra) grammatically refers to "a small detachment of the massive ledge",[20] not to a massive boulder. Thus, Orthodox Sacred Tradition understands Jesus' words as referring to the apostolic faith.

The great majority of Western scholars concur with the interpretation that the "rock" was Peter, not Jesus himself or Peter's faith.[1]

Petros had not previously been used as a name, but in the Greek-speaking world it became a popular Christian name, after the tradition of Peter's prominence in the early Christian church had been established.

Denial of Jesus by Peter

The tears of Saint Peter, by El Greco
Main article: Denial of Peter
The Denial of Saint Peter, by Caravaggio

All four canonical gospels recount that, during the Last Supper, Jesus foretold that Peter would deny him three times before the following cockcrow ("before the cock crows twice" in Mark's account).

The three Synoptics and John describe the three denials as follows:

  1. A denial when a female servant of the high priest spots Simon Peter, saying that he had been with Jesus. According to Mark (but not in all manuscripts), "the rooster crowed". Only Luke and John mention a fire by which Peter was warming himself among other people: according to Luke, Peter was "sitting"; according to John, he was "standing".
  2. A denial when Simon Peter had gone out to the gateway, away from the firelight, but the same servant girl (Mark) or another servant girl (Matthew) or a man (Luke and also John, for whom, though, this is the third denial) told the bystanders he was a follower of Jesus. According to John, "the rooster crowed".
  3. A denial came when Peter's Galilean accent was taken as proof that he was indeed a disciple of Jesus. According to Matthew, Mark and Luke, "the rooster crowed". John, though, does not mention the Galilean accent.

Matthew adds that it was his accent that gave him away as coming from Galilee. Luke deviates slightly from this by stating that, rather than a crowd accusing Simon Peter, it was a third individual.

The Gospel of John places the second denial while Peter was still warming himself at the fire, and gives as the occasion of the third denial a claim by someone to have seen him in the garden of Gethsemane when Jesus was arrested.

In the Gospel of Luke, Jesus' prediction of Peter's denial is coupled with a prediction that all the apostles ("you", plural) would be "sifted like wheat", but that it would be Peter's task ("you", singular), when he had turned again, to strengthen his brethren.

In a reminiscent[21] scene in John's epilogue, Peter affirms three times that he loves Jesus.

Resurrection appearances

Church of the Primacy of St. Peter on the Sea of Galilee.

In John's gospel, Peter is the first person to enter the empty tomb, although the women and the beloved disciple see it before him.[Jn. 20:1-9] In Luke's account, the women's report of the empty tomb is dismissed by the apostles, and Peter is the only one who goes to check for himself. In fact, he runs to the tomb. After seeing the graveclothes he goes home, apparently without informing the other disciples.[Lk. 24:1-12]

Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians[22] contains a list of resurrection appearances of Jesus, the first of which is an appearance to Peter.[23] Here Paul apparently follows an early tradition that Peter was the first to see the risen Christ,[15] which however did not seem to have survived to the time when the gospels were written.[24]

In the final chapter of the Gospel of John, Peter, in one of the resurrection appearances of Jesus, three times affirmed his love for Jesus, balancing his threefold denial, and Jesus reconfirmed Peter's position. The Church of the Primacy of St. Peter on the Sea of Galilee is seen as the traditional site where Jesus Christ appeared to his disciples after his resurrection and, according to Catholic tradition, established Peter's supreme jurisdiction over the Christian church.

Position among the apostles

St. Peter Preaching the Gospel in the Catacombs by Jan Styka

Peter is listed first among the Twelve Apostles in the gospels[25] and in the Book of Acts (Acts 1:13). He is also frequently mentioned in the gospels as forming with James the Elder and John a special group within the Twelve Apostles, present at incidents at which the others were not present, such as at the Transfiguration of Jesus. He often confesses his faith in Jesus as the Messiah.

Peter is often depicted in the gospels as spokesman of all the Apostles. Catholics refer to him as chief of the Apostles,[26] as do the Eastern Orthodox[27] and the Oriental Orthodox.[28][29] In Coptic Orthodox Church Liturgy, he is once referred to as "Prominent" or "head" among the Apostles, a title shared with Paul in the text (The Fraction of Fast and Feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul in the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria). Some, including the Orthodox Churches, believe this is not the same as saying that the other Apostles were under Peter's orders. In contrast, Jewish Christians are said to have argued that James the Just was the leader of the group.[30] Some argue James was the Patriarch of Jerusalem and that this position at times gave him privilege in some (but not all) situations. The early Church historian Eusebius (c. AD 325) records Clement of Alexandria (c. AD 190) as saying,

"For they say that Peter and James and John after the ascension of our Saviour, as if also preferred by our Lord, strove not after honor, but chose James the Just bishop of Jerusalem."[31]

Paul affirms that Peter had the special charge of being apostle to the Jews, just as he, Paul, was apostle to the Gentiles.

Role in the early church

The Liberation of St. Peter from prison by an angel, by Giovanni Lanfranco

The author of the Acts of the Apostles portrays Peter as an extremely important figure within the early Christian community, with Peter delivering a significant open-air sermon during Pentecost. According to the same book, Peter took the lead in selecting a replacement for Judas Iscariot.[Acts 1:15]

He was twice arraigned, with John, before the Sanhedrin and directly defied them.[Acts 4:7-22] [5:18-42] He undertook a missionary journey to Lydda, Joppa and Caesarea,[9:32-10:2] becoming instrumental in the decision to evangelise the Gentiles.[10]

About halfway through, the Acts of the Apostles turns its attention away from Peter and to the activities of Paul, and the Bible is mostly silent on what occurred to Peter afterwards.

John Vidmar, a Roman Catholic scholar, writes: "Both Catholic and Protestant scholars agree that Peter had an authority that superseded that of the other apostles. Peter is their spokesman at several events, he conducts the election of Matthias, his opinion in the debate over converting Gentiles was crucial, etc.[32]

Acts 12 tells how Peter was put into prison by King Herod, but was rescued by an angel. At the Council of Jerusalem (c. 50), the early Church, Paul and the leaders of the Jerusalem church met and decided to embrace Gentile converts. Acts portrays Peter and other leaders as successfully opposing the Christian Pharisees who insisted on circumcision.[33]

The church in Rome was already flourishing when Paul wrote his Epistle to the Romans about AD 57,[34] he greets some fifty people in Rome by name,[35] but not Peter whom he knew. There is also no mention of Peter in Rome later during Paul's two-year stay there in Acts 28, about AD 60-62. Church historians consistently consider Peter and Paul to have been martyred under the reign of Nero,[36][37][38] around AD 65 such as after the Great Fire of Rome.[39][40][41]

Epistles

Saint Peter's vision on the roof of the house

Peter/Cephas is mentioned briefly in Paul's Epistle to the Galatians, which mentions a trip by Paul to Jerusalem where he meets Peter (Galatians 1:18), and a trip by Cephas to Antioch[Gal. 2:11-14] where Paul rebuked him for treating Gentile converts as inferior to Jewish Christians (see the Incident at Antioch). Galatians is accepted as authentic by almost all scholars. These may be the earliest mentions of Peter to be written.

Church tradition ascribes the epistles First and Second Peter to the Apostle Peter, as does the text of Second Peter itself. First Peter implies the author is in "Babylon which has been held to be a coded reference to Rome[33] (1 Peter 5:13). Babylon was an important fortress city in Egypt, just north of today's Cairo and this, combined with the "greetings from Mark" (1 Peter 5:13), who may be Mark the Evangelist, regarded as the founder of the Church of Alexandria (Egypt), has led some scholars to regard the First Peter epistle as written in Egypt.

If the reference is to Rome it is the only biblical reference to Peter being there. Most scholars regard both First and Second Peter as not having been authored by him, partly because other parts of the Acts of the Apostles seem to describe Peter as an illiterate fisherman.[7][42]

Accounts outside the New Testament

The Apostles Peter and Paul, detail of cupola fresco by Correggio

In a strong tradition of the Early Church, Peter is said to have founded the church in Rome with Paul, served as its bishop, authored two epistles, and then met martyrdom there along with Paul. However the traditional Catholic interpretation that his role was analogous to that of later Popes is questioned or rejected by many historians and by other Christian denominations.[15]

Antioch and Corinth

Later accounts expand on the brief biblical mention of his visit to Antioch. The Liber Pontificalis (9th century) mentions Peter as having served as bishop of Antioch for seven years and having potentially left his family in the Greek city before his journey to Rome.[43] Claims of direct blood lineage from Simon Peter among the old population of Antioch existed in the 1st century and continues to exist today, notably by certain Semaan families of modern-day Syria and Lebanon. Historians have furnished other evidence of Peter's sojourn in Antioch.[44] Subsequent tradition held that Peter had been the first Patriarch of Antioch.

Peter might have visited Corinth, as a party of "Cephas" existed there.[15]

Eusebius of Caesarea (Eusebius Caesariensis, ca 260-ca 340), in his "Historia Ecclesiastica", while naming some of the Seventy Disciples of Jesus, says:

"... and the history by Clement (of Alexandria, c.150 - c. 215), in the fifth (chapter) of Hypotyposeis; in which Cefas, the one mentioned by Paul (in the citation): 'when Cefas came to Antioch, I confronted him face to face' (Galatians 2:11), it is said he was one of the Seventy Disciples, having the same name with Peter the Apostle".[45]

Death

In the epilogue[33] of the Gospel of John, Jesus hints at the death by which Peter would glorify God,[Jn. 21:18-19]saying "…when you are old you will stretch out your hands, and another will dress you and take you where you do not want to go." This is interpreted by some as a reference to Peter's crucifixion.[21]

According to the 1911 Catholic Encyclopedia, Peter labored in Rome during the last portion of his life, and there his life was ended by martyrdom.[46] The death of Peter is attested to by Tertullian at the end of the 2nd century, and by Origen in Eusebius, Church History III.1. Origen wrote: "Peter was crucified at Rome with his head downwards, as he himself had desired to suffer."[26] This is why an upside down cross is generally accepted as a symbol of Peter, with the interpretation that he would not have considered himself worthy enough to die the same way as his Saviour.[47]

Status

St. Clement of Rome identifies Peter and Paul as the outstanding heroes of the faith.[15] Papias reported that the Gospel of Mark was based on Peter's memoirs, a tradition still accepted by some scholars today.[15]

Martyrdom

"Quo vadis, Domine?" (1602) by Annibale Carracci

The mention in the New Testament of the death of Peter says that Jesus indicated its form by saying: "You will stretch out your hands, and someone else will dress you and lead you where you do not want to go."[48] Early church tradition (as indicated below) says Peter probably died by crucifixion (with arms outstretched) at the time of the Great Fire of Rome of the year 64. Margherita Guarducci, who led the research leading to the rediscovery of Peter's reputed tomb in its last stages (1963–1968), concludes Peter died on 13 October AD 64 during the festivities on the occasion of the "dies imperii" of Emperor Nero. This took place three months after the disastrous fire that destroyed Rome for which the emperor (Nero) wished to blame the Christians. This "dies imperii" (regnal day anniversary) was an important one, exactly ten years after Nero ascended to the throne, and it was 'as usual' accompanied by much bloodshed. Traditionally, Roman authorities sentenced him to death by crucifixion. According to the apocryphal Acts of Peter, he was crucified head down. Tradition also locates his burial place where the Basilica of Saint Peter was later built, directly beneath the Basilica's high altar.

Caravaggio's depiction of the crucifixion of Apostle Peter.

Clement of Rome, in his Letter to the Corinthians (Chapter 5), written c. 80–98, speaks of Peter's martyrdom in the following terms: "Let us take the noble examples of our own generation. Through jealousy and envy the greatest and most just pillars of the Church were persecuted, and came even unto death… Peter, through unjust envy, endured not one or two but many labours, and at last, having delivered his testimony, departed unto the place of glory due to him."

The apocryphal Acts of Peter is also thought to be the source for the tradition about the famous phrase "Quo vadis, Domine?" (or "Pou Hupageis, Kurie?" which means, "Where are you going, Master?"). According to the story, Peter, fleeing Rome to avoid execution, asked the question of a vision of Jesus, to which Jesus allegedly responded that he was "going to Rome to be crucified again." On hearing this, Peter decided to return to the city to accept martyrdom. This story is commemorated in an Annibale Carracci painting. The Church of Quo Vadis, near the Catacombs of Saint Callistus, contains a stone in which Jesus' footprints from this event are supposedly preserved, though this was apparently an ex-voto from a pilgrim, and indeed a copy of the original, housed in the Basilica of St Sebastian.

The ancient historian Josephus describes how Roman soldiers would amuse themselves by crucifying criminals in different positions, and it is likely that this would have been known to the author of the Acts of Peter. The position attributed to Peter's crucifixion is thus plausible, either as having happened historically or as being an invention by the author of the Acts of Peter. Death, after crucifixion head down, is unlikely to be caused by suffocation, the usual "cause of death in ordinary crucifixion".[49]

Burial and relics

Catholic tradition holds that Peter's inverted crucifixion occurred at the spot now occupied by the Clementine Chapel in the grottoes of Saint Peter's Basilica, with the burial in Saint Peter's tomb nearby.[50] In 1950, human bones were found buried underneath the altar of St. Peter's Basilica. The bones have been claimed by many to have been those of Peter.[51] An attempt to contradict these claims was made in 1953 by the excavation of what some believe to be St Peter's tomb in Jerusalem.[52] However along with supposed tomb of Peter bearing his previous name Simon (but not Peter), tombs bearing the names of Jesus, Mary, James, John, and the rest of the apostles were also found at the same excavation—though all these names were very common among Jews at the time.

In the 1960s, some previously discarded debris from the excavations beneath St Peter's Basilica were re-examined, and the bones of a male person were identified. A forensic examination found them to be a male of about 61 years of age from the 1st century. This caused Pope Paul VI in 1968 to announce them most likely to be the relics of Apostle Peter.[53] On November 24, 2013, Pope Francis revealed these relics of nine bone fragments for the first time in public during a Mass celebrated in St. Peter's Square.[54]

Connection to Rome

St. Peter's Basilica, believed to be the burial site of St. Peter, seen from the River Tiber.

The New Testament says nothing, about Peter's connection to Rome nor even that he founded a church anywhere, but Irenaeus of Lyons believed in the 2nd century that Peter and Paul had been the founders of the Church in Rome and had appointed Linus as succeeding bishop.[55]

While the church in Rome was already flourishing when Paul wrote his Epistle to the Romans about AD 57,[34] he greets some fifty people in Rome by name,[35] but not Peter whom he knew. There is also no mention of Peter in Rome later during Paul's two-year stay there in Acts 28, about AD 60-62. Church historians consistently consider Peter and Paul to have been martyred under the reign of Nero,[36][37][38] around AD 65 such as after the Great Fire of Rome.[39][40][41]

Presently, most Catholic and Protestant scholars,[56] and many scholars in general,[57] hold the view that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero. However, some historians have challenged this traditional view of Peter's role in the early Roman Church.[58][59][60][61][62] For instance, in 2009 and 2013, Otto Zwierlein (de) concluded in two extensive critical studies that "there is not a single piece of reliable literary evidence (and no archaeological evidence either) that Peter ever was in Rome."[63][64][65] Zwierlein's theses caused a debate especially among German scholars, of which an English summary is now online.[66]

First Clement, a document that has been dated from the 90s to the 120s, is one of the earliest sources adduced in support of Peter's stay in Rome, but questions have been raised about the text's authenticity and whether it has any knowledge about Peter's life beyond what is contained in the New Testament Acts.[63] A letter attributed to Ignatius of Antioch to the Romans might imply that Peter and Paul had special authority over the Roman church,[15] telling the Roman Christians: "I do not command you, as Peter and Paul did" (ch. 4), although he could be simply referring to the Epistles of the Apostles, or their mission work in the city, not a special authority given or bestowed. The authenticity of this document and its traditional dating to c. 105–10 have also been questioned by some, and it may date from the final decades of the 2nd century.[63]

Looking down into the confessio near the tomb of Apostle Peter, St. Peter's Basilica, Rome.

In the early 4th century, the Emperor Constantine I decided to honour Peter with a large basilica. Because the precise location of Peter's burial was so firmly fixed in the belief of the Christians of Rome, the church to house the basilica had to be erected on a site that was not convenient to construction. The slope of the Vatican Hill had to be excavated, even though the church could much more easily have been built on level ground only slightly to the south. There were also moral and legal issues, such as demolishing a cemetery to make room for the building. The focal point of the Basilica, both in its original form and in its later complete reconstruction, is the altar located over what is said to be the point of Peter's burial.

It has been claimed that archaeological evidence found over a century ago may suggest that Peter was buried near Jerusalem and near the Mount of Olives rather than in Rome,[67] but this has attracted little scholarly support.

Non-canonical sayings of Peter

Two sayings are attributed to Peter in the gnostic Gospel of Thomas. In the first, Peter compares Jesus to a "just messenger."[68] In the second, Peter asks Jesus to "make Mary leave us, for females don't deserve life."[69] In the Apocalypse of Peter, Peter holds a dialogue with Jesus about the parable of the fig tree and the fate of sinners.[70] In the Gospel of Mary, whose text is largely fragmented, Peter appears to be jealous of "Mary" (probably Mary Magdalene). He says to the other disciples, "Did He really speak privately with a woman and not openly to us? Are we to turn about and all listen to her? Did He prefer her to us?"[71] In reply to this, Levi says "Peter, you have always been hot tempered."[72] Other noncanonical texts that attribute sayings to Peter include the Secret Book of James and the Acts of Peter.

In the Fayyum Fragment of the end of the 3rd century, Jesus predicts that Peter will deny him three times before a cock crows (on the following morning). The account is similar to that of the canonical gospels, especially the Gospel of Mark, either an abbreviation of the account in the Synoptics or a source text on which they were based. The fragmentary Gospel of Peter, attributed to Peter, contains an account of the death of Jesus differing significantly from the canonical gospels. It contains little information about Peter himself, except that after the discovery of the empty tomb, "I, Simon Peter, and Andrew my brother, took our fishing nets and went to the sea."[73]

Religious interpretations

Statue of St. Peter in St. Peter's Square at the Vatican

Catholic Church

According to Catholic belief, Simon Peter was distinguished by Jesus to hold the first place of honor and authority. Also in Catholic belief, Peter was first bishop of Rome. Furthermore, they consider every bishop of Rome to be Peter's successor and the rightful superior of all other bishops.[74] Although Peter never bore the title of "Pope", or "Vicar of Christ", in this sense the Catholic Church considers Peter the first Pope.[75]

The Catholic Church's recognition of Peter as head of its church on Earth (with Christ being its heavenly head) is based on its interpretation of two passages from the canonical gospels of the New Testament; as well as sacred tradition. The first passage is John 21:15-17 which is: "Feed my lambs... feed my lambs... feed my sheep" (within the Greek it is Ποίμαινε i.e., to feed and rule [as a Shepherd]., v. 16 while Βόσκε i.e., to feed., for v.15 & v. 17)[76]—which is seen by Catholics as Christ promising the spiritual supremacy to Peter. The Catholic Encyclopedia sees in this passage Jesus "charging [Peter] with the superintendency of all his sheep, without exception; and consequently of his whole flock, that is, of his own church".[74]

Matthew 16:18

The second passage is Matthew 16:18:

I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hell will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven".

Christ spoke here in the Syriac tongue,[citation needed] hence:

ܐܳܦ݂ ܐܶܢܳܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܐ݈ܢܳܐ ܠܳܟ݂ ܕ݁ܰܐܢ݈ܬ݁ ܗ݈ܽܘ ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ ܘܥܰܠ ܗܳܕ݂ܶܐ ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ ܐܶܒ݂ܢܶܝܗ ܠܥܺܕ݈݁ܬ݁ܝ ܘܬ݂ܰܪܥܶܐ ܕ݁ܰܫܝܽܘܠ ܠܳܐ ܢܶܚܣܢܽܘܢܳܗ܂

also I say I to you that you are Keepa (Cephah) and on this Keepa (Cephah) I will build my Church and the gates of Sheol not will subdue it.[citation needed]

Thou art a rock, and upon this rock: or, Thou art Peter, and upon this peter will I build my Church:[citation needed]

Pétrus (Πέτρος) and pétra (πέτρᾳ) are the Greek equivalent to the Syriac Cephah (ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ) which means "rock", and there is no difference at all between Pétrus and pétra.[citation needed]

To better understand what Christ meant, St. Basil elaborates:[77]

Though Peter be a rock, yet he is not a rock as Christ is. For Christ is the true unmoveable rock of himself, Peter is unmoveable by Christ the rock. For Jesus doth communicate and impart his dignities, not voiding himself of them, but holding them to himself, bestoweth them also upon others. He is the light, and yet 2. You are the light: he is the Priest, and yet he 3. maketh Priests: he is the rock, and he made a rock.

In reference to Peter's occupation before becoming an Apostle, the popes wear the Fisherman's Ring, which bears an image of the saint casting his nets from a fishing boat. The keys used as a symbol of the pope's authority refer to the "keys of the kingdom of Heaven" promised to Peter.[Matt. 16:18-19] The terminology of this "commission" of Peter is unmistakably parallel to the commissioning of Eliakim ben Hilkiah in Isaiah 22:15-23. Peter is often depicted in both Western and Eastern Christian art holding a key or a set of keys.

Though the authenticity of this account has been challenged, the general consensus is that these are Jesus' words.[1]

Feast days

The Roman Martyrology assigns 29 June as the feast day of both Peter and Paul, without thereby declaring that to be the day of their deaths. Augustine of Hippo says in his Sermon 295: "One day is assigned for the celebration of the martyrdom of the two apostles. But those two were one. Although their martyrdom occurred on different days, they were one."

This is also the feast of both Apostles in the calendar of the Eastern Orthodox Church.

In the Roman Rite, the feast of the Chair of Saint Peter is celebrated on 22 February, and the anniversary of the dedication of the two papal basilicas of Saint Peter's and Saint Paul's outside the Walls is held on 18 November.

Before Pope John XXIII's revision in 1960, the Roman Calendar also included on 18 January another feast of the Chair of Saint Peter (denominated the Chair of Saint Peter in Rome, while the February feast was then called that of the Chair of Saint Peter at Antioch), and on 1 August the feast of Saint Peter in Chains.

Protestants

Protestants typically disagree with Roman Catholics centers on the meaning of Jesus telling Peter: "You are Peter, and on this rock I will build my Church..." in Matthew 16:18.

Meaning of Matthew 16:18

In the original Greek the word translated as "Peter" is Πέτρος (Petros) and that translated as "rock" is πέτρα (petra), two words that, while not identical, give an impression of one of many times when Jesus used a play on words. Furthermore, since Jesus presumably spoke to Peter in their native Aramaic language, he would have used kepha in both instances.[78] The Peshitta Text and the Old Syriac text use the word "kepha" for both "Peter" and "rock" in Matthew 16:18.[79] John 1:42 says Jesus called Simon "Cephas", as does Paul in some letters. He was instructed by Christ to strengthen his brethren, i.e., the apostles.[Lk 22:31-32] Peter also had a leadership role in the early Christian church at Jerusalem according to The Acts of the Apostles chapters 1–2, 10–11, and 15.

Early Catholic Latin and Greek writers (such as St. John Chrysostom) considered the "foundation rock" as applying to both Peter personally and his confession of faith (or the faith of his confession) symbolically, as well as seeing Christ's promise to apply more generally to his twelve apostles and the Church at large.[80] This "double meaning" interpretation is present in the current Catechism of the Catholic Church.[81]

Protestant counter-claims to the Catholic interpretation are largely based on the difference between the Greek words translated "Rock" in the Matthean passage. In classical Attic Greek petros (masculine) generally meant "pebble," while petra (feminine) meant "boulder" or "cliff." Accordingly, taking Peter's name to mean "pebble," they argue that the "rock" in question cannot have been Peter, but something else, either Jesus himself, or the faith in Jesus that Peter had just professed. However, the New Testament was written in Koiné Greek, not Attic Greek, and some authorities say no significant difference existed between the meanings of petros and petra.

Christ Handing the Keys to St Peter, by Pietro Perugino (1481–82)

However, even though the feminine noun petra is translated as rock in the phrase "on this rock I will build my church," the word petra (πέτρα in Greek) is also used at 1 Cor. 10:4 in describing Jesus Christ, which reads: "They all ate the same spiritual food and drank the same spiritual drink; for they drank from the spiritual rock that accompanied them, and that rock was Christ."

Although Matthew 16 is used as a primary proof-text for the Catholic doctrine of Papal supremacy, Protestant scholars say that prior to the Reformation of the 16th century, Matthew 16 was very rarely used to support papal claims. Their position is that most of the early and medieval Church interpreted the 'rock' as being a reference either to Christ or to Peter's faith, not Peter himself. They understand Jesus' remark to have been his affirmation of Peter's testimony that Jesus was the Son of God.[82]

Despite this claim, many Fathers saw a connection between Matthew 16:18 and the primacy of Peter and his office, such as Tertullian, writing: the Lord said to Peter, 'On this rock I will build my Church, I have given you the keys of the kingdom of heaven [and] whatever you shall have bound or loosed on earth will be bound or loosed in heaven' [Matt. 16:18–19]. . . . Upon you, he says, I will build my Church; and I will give to you the keys, not to the Church.[83]

What did Peter begin?

Other theologically conservative Christians, including Confessional Lutherans, also rebut comments made by Karl Keating and D.A. Carson who claim that there is no distinction between the words petros and petra in Koine Greek. The Lutheran theologians state that the dictionaries of Koine/NT Greek, including the authoritative[84] Bauer-Danker-Arndt-Gingrich Lexicon, indeed list both words and the passages that give different meanings for each. The Lutheran theologians further note that:

We honor Peter and in fact some of our churches are named after him, but he was not the first pope, nor was he Roman Catholic. If you read his first letter, you will see that he did not teach a Roman hierarchy, but that all Christians are royal priests. The same keys given to Peter in Matthew 16 are given to the whole church of believers in Matthew 18.[85]

Saint Peter by Dirck van Baburen

Oscar Cullmann, a Lutheran theologian and distinguished Church historian, disagrees with Luther and the Protestant reformers who held that by "rock" Christ did not mean Peter, but meant either himself or the faith of His followers. He believes the meaning of the original Aramaic is very clear: that "Kepha" was the Aramaic word for "rock", and that it was also the name by which Christ called Peter.[86]

Yet, Cullmann sharply rejects the Catholic claim that Peter began the papal succession. He writes: "In the life of Peter there is no starting point for a chain of succession to the leadership of the church at large." While he believes the Matthew text is entirely valid and is in no way spurious, he says it cannot be used as "warrant of the papal succession."[86]

Cullmann concludes that while Peter was the original head of the apostles, Peter was not the founder of any visible church succession.[86]

There are other Protestant scholars who also partially defend the historical Catholic position about "Rock."[87] Taking a somewhat different approach from Cullman, they point out that the Gospel of Matthew was not written in the classical Attic form of Greek, but in the Hellenistic Koine dialect in which there is no distinction in meaning between petros and petra. Moreover, even in Attic Greek, in which the regular meaning of petros was a smallish "stone," there are instances of its use to refer to larger rocks, as in Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus v. 1595, where petros refers to a boulder used as a landmark, obviously something more than a pebble. In any case, a petros/petra distinction is irrelevant considering the Aramaic language in which the phrase might well have been spoken. In Greek, of any period, the feminine noun petra could not be used as the given name of a male, which may explain the use of Petros as the Greek word with which to translate Aramaic Kepha.[78]

Yet, still other Protestant scholars believe that Jesus in fact did mean to single out Peter as the very rock which he will build upon, but that the passage does nothing to indicate a continued succession of Peter's implied position. They assert that Matthew uses the demonstrative pronoun taute, which allegedly means "this very" or this same, when he refers to the rock on which Jesus' church will be built. He also uses the Greek word for "and", kai. It is alleged that when a demonstrative pronoun is used with kai, the pronoun refers back to the preceding noun. The second rock Jesus refers to must then be the same rock as the first one; and if Peter is the first rock he must also be the second.[88]

Unlike Oscar Cullmann, Confessional Lutherans and many other Protestant apologists agree that it's meaningless to elaborate the meaning of Rock by looking at the Aramaic language, this is true that the Jews spoke mostly Aramaic at home, however in public they usually spoke Greek. The few Aramaic words spoken by Jesus in public were unusual and that is why they are noted as such. And most importantly the New Testament was revealed in Koine Greek, not Aramaic.[89][90][91]

Eastern Orthodox

Icon of Saint Peter, c 1500

The Eastern Orthodox Church regards Apostle Peter, together with Apostle Paul, as "Preeminent Apostles". Another title used for Peter is Coryphaeus, which could be translated as "Choir-director", or lead singer.[92] The church recognizes Apostle Peter's leadership role in the early church, especially in the very early days at Jerusalem, but does not consider him to have had any "princely" role over his fellow Apostles.

The New Testament is not seen by the Orthodox as supporting any extraordinary authority for Peter with regard to faith or morals. The Orthodox also hold that Peter did not act as leader at the Council of Jerusalem, but as merely one of a number who spoke. The final decision regarding the non-necessity of circumcision (and certain prohibitions) was spelled out by James, the Brother of the Lord (though Catholics hold James merely reiterated and fleshed out what Peter had said, regarding the latter's earlier divine revelation regarding the inclusion of Gentiles).

Eastern and Oriental Orthodox do not recognize the Bishop of Rome as the successor of St. Peter but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople sends a delegation each year to Rome to participate in the celebration of the feast of Sts. Peter and Paul. In the Ravenna Document of 13 October 2007, the representatives of the Eastern Orthodox Church agreed that "Rome, as the Church that 'presides in love' according to the phrase of St. Ignatius of Antioch (To the Romans, Prologue), occupied the first place in the taxis, and that the bishop of Rome was therefore the protos among the patriarchs, if the Papacy unites with the Orthodox Church. They disagree, however, on the interpretation of the historical evidence from this era regarding the prerogatives of the bishop of Rome as protos, a matter that was already understood in different ways in the first millennium."

With regard to Jesus' words to Peter, "Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my church", the Orthodox hold Christ is referring to the confession of faith, not the person of Peter as that upon which he will build the church. This is allegedly shown by the fact that the original Greek uses the feminine demonstrative pronoun when he says "upon this rock" (ταύτῃ τῇ πέτρᾳ); whereas, grammatically, if he had been referring to Peter, he would allegedly have used the masculine.[93] This "gender distinction" argument is also held by some Protestants.

Feast days

In the Orthodox Daily Office every Thursday throughout the year is dedicated to the Holy Apostles, including St. Peter. There are also two feast days in the year which are dedicated to him:

Syriac Orthodox Church

Saint Peter and the angel, by Antonio de Bellis

The Fathers of the Syriac Orthodox Church tried to give a theological interpretation to the primacy of Apostle Peter. They were fully convinced of the unique office of Peter in the primitive Christian community. Ephrem, Aphrahat and Maruthas who were supposed to have been the best exponents of the early Syriac tradition unequivocally acknowledge the office of Peter.

The Syriac Fathers, following the rabbinic tradition, call Jesus "Kepha" for they see "rock" in the Old Testament as a messianic Symbol (yet the Old Maronite Syriacs of Lebanon still refer to Saint Peter as "Saint Simon the Generous" or Simon Karam"). When Christ gave his own name "Kepha" to Simon he was giving him participation in the person and office of Christ. Christ who is the Kepha and shepherd made Simon the chief shepherd in his place and gave him the very name Kepha and said that on Kepha he would build the Church. Aphrahat shared the common Syriac tradition. For him Kepha is in fact another name of Jesus, and Simon was given the right to share the name. The person who receives somebody else's name also obtains the rights of the person who bestows the name. Aphrahat makes the stone taken from Jordan a type of Peter. He wrote: "Jesus son of Nun set up the stones for a witness in Israel; Jesus our Saviour called Simon Kepha Sarirto and set him as the faithful witness among nations".

Again he wrote in his commentary on Deuteronomy that Moses brought forth water from "rock" (Kepha) for the people and Jesus sent Simon Kepha to carry his teachings among nations. God accepted him and made him the foundation of the Church and called him Kepha. When he speaks about the transfiguration of Christ he calls him Simon Peter, the foundation of the Church. Ephrem also shared the same view. In the Armenian version of De Virginitate records that Peter the rock shunned honour. In a mimro of Efrem found in Holy Week Liturgy points to the importance of Peter.

Both Aphrahat and Ephrem represent the authentic tradition of the Syrian Church. The different orders of liturgies used for sanctification of Church buildings, marriage, ordination etcetera, reveal that the primacy of Peter is a part of living faith of the Church.[94]

New Apostolic Church

The New Apostolic Church, who believes in the re-established Apostle ministry, sees Peter as the first Chief Apostle.

Latter Day Saint movement

Saint Peter by Vasco Fernandes

Members of the Latter Day Saint movement, typically believe that Peter was the first leader of the early Christian church after the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ; however, the Mormons reject papal succession.

In interpreting Matthew 16:13-19, Bruce R. McConkie of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints' Council of the Twelve Apostles stated, "The things of God are known only by the power of his Spirit,"[95] and "that which the world calls Mormonism is based upon the rock of revelation."[96] In his April 1981 general conference address, he identified the rock of which Jesus spoke as the rock of revelation. "There is no other foundation upon which the Lord could build His Church and kingdom....'Revelation: Pure, perfect, personal revelation - this is the rock!'" [97] Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism, recorded in multiple revelations that Peter appeared to him and Oliver Cowdery in 1829, near Harmony Township, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania, in order to bestow the apostleship and keys of the kingdom as part of a restoration of priesthood authority.[98][99]

Islamic literature

Main article: Peter in Islam

Muslims consider Jesus a prophet of God. The Qur'an also speaks of Jesus's disciples but does not mention their names, instead referring to them as "helpers to the prophet of God".[100] Muslim exegesis and Qur'an commentary, however, names them and includes Peter among the disciples.[101] An old tradition, which involves the legend of Habib the Carpenter, mentions that Peter was one of the three disciples sent to Antioch to preach to the people there.[102]

Shia Muslims see a parallel in the figure of Peter to Ali at Muhammad's time. They look upon Ali as being the vicegerent, with Muhammad being the prophet; likewise, they see Peter as the vicegerent, behind Jesus the prophet and Masih. Peter's role as the first proper leader of the church is also seen by Shias to be a parallel to their belief in Ali as the first caliph after Muhammad.[103]

Writings

Traditionally, two canonical epistles (1 and 2 Peter) and several apocryphal works have been attributed to Peter.

New Testament

St Peter painted by Francesco del Cossa

Epistles

The New Testament includes two letters (epistles) ascribed to Peter. Both demonstrate a high quality of cultured and urban Greek, at odds with the linguistic skill that would ordinarily be expected of an Aramaic-speaking fisherman, who would have learned Greek as a second or third language. The textual features of these two epistles are such that a majority of scholars doubt that they were written by the same hand. Some scholars argue that theological differences imply different sources, and point to the lack of references to 2 Peter among the early Church Fathers.

Daniel B. Wallace (who maintains that Peter was the author) writes that, for many scholars, "the issue of authorship is already settled, at least negatively: the apostle Peter did not write this letter" and that "the vast bulk of NT scholars adopts this perspective without much discussion". However, he later states, "Although a very strong case has been made against Petrine authorship of 2 Peter, we believe it is deficient... Taken together, these external and internal arguments strongly suggest the traditional view, viz., that Peter was indeed the author of the second epistle which bears his name."[104]

Of the two epistles, the first epistle is considered the earlier. A number of scholars have argued that the textual discrepancies with what would be expected of the biblical Peter are due to it having been written with the help of a secretary or as an amanuensis.[105] Some have seen a reference to the use of a secretary in the sentence: "By Silvanus, a faithful brother unto you, as I suppose, I have written briefly, exhorting, and testifying that this is the true grace of God wherein ye stand".[1 Pet. 5:12] However New Testament scholar Bart D. Ehrman in his 2011 book Forged states that "scholars now widely recognize that when the author indicates that he wrote the book 'through Silvanus', he is indicating not the name of his secretary, but the person who was carrying his letter to the recipients."[106] The letter refers to Roman persecution of Christians, apparently of an official nature. The Roman historian Tacitus and the biographer Suetonius do both record that Nero persecuted Christians, and Tacitus dates this to immediately after the fire that burned Rome in 64. Christian tradition, for example Eusebius of Caesarea(History book 2, 24.1), has maintained that Peter was killed in Nero's persecution, and thus had to assume that the Roman persecution alluded to in First Peter must be this Neronian persecution.[105] On the other hand, many modern scholars argue that First Peter refers to the persecution of Christians in Asia Minor during the reign of the emperor Domitian (81–96), as the letter is explicitly addressed to Jewish Christians from that region:

Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to God's elect, strangers in the world, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia, who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by his blood: Grace and peace be yours in abundance.[1Pet 1:1-2]

Those scholars who believe that the epistle dates from the time of Domitian argue that Nero's persecution of Christians was confined to the city of Rome itself, and did not extend to the Asian provinces mentioned in 1 Pet 1:1-2.

The Second Epistle of Peter, on the other hand, appears to have been copied, in part, from the Epistle of Jude, and some modern scholars date its composition as late as c. 150. Some scholars argue the opposite, that the Epistle of Jude copied Second Peter, while others contend an early date for Jude and thus observe that an early date is not incompatible with the text.[105] Many scholars have noted the similarities between the apocryphal Second Epistle of Clement (2nd century) and Second Peter. Second Peter may be earlier than 150, there are a few possible references to it that date back to the 1st century or early 2nd century, e.g., 1 Clement written in c. AD 96, and the later church historian Eusebius claimed that Origen had made reference to the epistle before 250.[105] Even in early times there was controversy over its authorship, and Second Peter was often not included in the biblical canon; it was only in the 4th century that it gained a firm foothold in the New Testament, in a series of synods. In the east the Syrian Orthodox Church still did not admit it into the canon until the 6th century.[105]

Mark

Traditionally, the Gospel of Mark was said to have been written by a person named John Mark, and that this person was an assistant to Peter, hence its content was traditionally seen as the closest to Peter's viewpoint. According to Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History, Papias recorded this belief from John the Presbyter:

Mark having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately whatsoever he remembered. It was not, however, in exact order that he related the sayings or deeds of Christ. For he neither heard the Lord nor accompanied Him. But afterwards, as I said, he accompanied Peter, who accommodated his instructions to the necessities [of his hearers], but with no intention of giving a normal or chronological narrative of the Lord's sayings. Wherefore Mark made no mistake in thus writing some things as he remembered them. For of one thing he took especial care, not to omit anything he had heard, and not to put anything fictional into the statements[107]

Also Irenaeus wrote about this tradition:

After their (Peter and Paul's) passing, Mark also, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, transmitted to us in writing the things preached by Peter.[108]

Based on these quotes, and on the Christian tradition, the information in Mark's gospel about Peter would be based on eyewitness material.[105] It should be noted, however, that most Biblical scholars (for differing reasons) don't buy the attribution of the Gospel of Mark to its traditional author.[7] The gospel itself is anonymous, and the above passages are the oldest surviving written testimony to its authorship.[105]

Pseudepigrapha and apocrypha

The key as symbol of St. Peter

There are also a number of other apocryphal writings, that have been either attributed to or written about Peter. These include:

Iconography

Saint Peter sinking on water by Eero Järnefelt

The earliest portrait of Peter dates back to the 4th century and was located in 2010.[109] In traditional iconography, Peter has been shown very consistently since early Christian art as an oldish thick-set man with a "slightly combative" face and a short beard, and usually white hair, sometimes balding. He thus contrasts with Paul the Apostle who is bald except at the sides, with a longer beard and often black hair, and thinner in the face. One exception to this is in Anglo-Saxon art, where he typically lacks a beard. Both Peter and Paul are shown thus as early as the 4th century Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter in Rome.[110] Later in the Middle Ages his attribute is one or two large keys in his hand or hanging from his belt, first seen in the early 8th century.[111] More than many medieval attributes, this continued to be depicted in the Renaissance and afterwards. By the 15th century Peter is more likely to be bald on the top of his head in the Western church, but he continues to have a good head of hair in Orthodox icons.

The depiction of Saint Peter as literally the keeper of the gates of heaven, popular with modern cartoonists, is not found in traditional religious art, but Peter usually heads groups of saints flanking God in heaven, on the right hand side (viewer's left) of God. Narrative images of Peter include several scenes from the Life of Christ where he is mentioned in the gospels, and he is often identifiable in scenes where his presence is not specifically mentioned. Usually he stands nearest to Christ. In particular, depictions of the Arrest of Christ usually include Peter cutting off the ear of one of the soldiers. Scenes without Jesus include his distinctive martyrdom, his rescue from prison, and sometimes his trial. In the Counter-Reformation scenes of Peter hearing the cock crow for the third time became popular, as a representation of repentance and hence the Catholic sacrament of Confession or Repentance.

Popular culture

Over the years "St. Peter" has evolved into a stock character that is now widely used in jokes, cartoons, comedies, dramas, and plays.[112] Such caricatures almost all play upon Peter's role as the "keeper of the keys of the kingdom of heaven" in Matthew 16:19, on the basis of which he is often depicted as an elderly, bearded man who sits at the pearly gates that serve as heaven's main entrance, often portrayed as a sort of hotel-style doorman / bouncer who personally interviews prospective entrants into Heaven, often seated behind a desk, or standing at a lectern. He usually has a big book in which the names of the saved are written.

The interjection; "For Pete's sake", a play on the "For [insert name of revered figure] sake" snowclone, is believed to be a reference to St. Peter.

Patronage

Medieval mosaic of Saint Peter in the Chora Church, Istanbul
Icon of Saint Peter and Paul
Workers
Called for aid in
  • Frenzy
  • Foot problems
Institutions
Churches and Cathedrals
Locations

Relics

According to a letter quoted by Bede, Pope Vitalian sent a cross containing filings said to be from Peter's chains to the queen of Oswy, Anglo-Saxon King of Northumbria in 665, as well as unspecified relics of the saint to the king.[113]

Revisionist views

Many Protestant scholars accept the traditional story of Peter's martyrdom in Rome. Some Protestants, however, have rejected Peter's martyrdom as a later invention, arguing that evidence of Peter exists only in biblical accounts.

It has also been claimed that there was a serious division between Peter's Jewish Christian party and Paul's Hellenizing party, seen in e.g. the Incident at Antioch, which later Christian accounts have downplayed.[114]

Another revisionist view was developed by supporters of the Christ myth theory, which holds that the figure of Peter is largely a development from some mythological doorkeeper figures. According to Arthur Drews and G. A. Wells, if there was a historical Peter, then all that is known about him is the brief mentions in Galatians.[115][116]

In art

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d O'Connor, Daniel William (2013). "Saint Peter the Apostle". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
  2. ^ Jn 1:42
  3. ^ Matthew 16:16
  4. ^ Mark 5:37
  5. ^ Luke 22:54-62
  6. ^ Acts 2:14-40
  7. ^ a b c Dale Martin 2009 (lecture). "24. Apocalyptic and Accommodation" on YouTube. Yale University. Accessed July 22, 2013. Lecture 24 (transcript)
  8. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Chapman, Henry Palmer (1913). "Fathers of the Church". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  9. ^ Thomas Patrick Halton, On Illustrious Men, v. 100, CUA Press, 1999, pp 5–7 ISBN 0-8132-0100-4.
  10. ^ "The Early Church Fathers", Chapter 1, New Advent
  11. ^ "Bible Lexicon". Bible Lexicon. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  12. ^ Cepha or cephah is a Syriac word (Syriac: ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ Kîpâ);see John Maclean, M.A., F.R.G.S. A Dictionary of the Dialects of Vernacular Syriac as Spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, Northwest Persia, and the Plain of Moṣul Cambridge at the University Press, 1895. Accessed Jun. 16, 2011: p. 124. However, a "loose language" modern Aramaic dictionary may define Cepha Hebrew: כֵּיפׇא \ כֵּיף yet not explain the origin of the word, e.g., Marcus Jastrow "Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature", 1903. Accessed Jun. 16, 2011: P. 634 It is unlikely that one will find this particular word ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ in any non-Syriac dictionary of Aramaic. For instance, the Hebrew equivalent of Cepha (כֵּיפׇא) would not be present, while סֶלַֽע (ßĕ'lặᵉ); i.e., rock, cliff, Petra; Karl Feyerabend, PhD "A complete Hebrew-English pocket-dictionary to the Old Testament", Cöthen, Germany, 1910. Accessed Jun. 16, 2011: P. 233 would, for סֶלַֽע is a native Hebrew word. Within a "strict language" dictionary the word will be in its native and original form, thus "rock" will be translated into the language that is being used, e.g., "English-Hebrew dictionary". See: A. S. Waldstein "English-Hebrew dictionary", Jerusalem, 1920. Accessed Jun. 16, 2011: P. 442, where the word(s) for rock is translated as such: (הִתְנַדְנֵד−.פ, הִתְנוֹעֵעַ, הׇנֵעַ, נַדְנֵד, סֶלַע, צוּר, ש. (ריִֹק and not כֵּיפׇא \ כֵּיף.
  13. ^ (Hebrew: כֵּיפׇא \ כֵּיף‎) is an indirect transliteration of the Syriac (ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ), (Greek: Κηφᾶς) is a direct transliteration of the Syriac (ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ), and (Hebrew: כֵּיפׇא \ כֵּיף‎) is a direct transliteration of the Greek. The Hebrew word (Hebrew: כאפא‎) is also a direct transliteration of the Syriac. (cƒ. Interlinear Peshitta Aramaic New Testament Bible Matthew xvi. 18).
  14. ^ Pesch, Rudolf (1980). Simon-Petrus. Hiersemann, Stuttgart. p. 29
  15. ^ a b c d e f g "Peter, St. " F. L., Cross, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press, 2005
  16. ^ His father's name is given as 'Jonah',[Jn. 1:42] [Matt. 16:17] although some manuscripts of John give his father's name as John.
  17. ^ Capernaum- The Church of the House of Peter
  18. ^ Matt. 26:51, Mk. 14:47, Lk. 22:50
  19. ^ Harrington, Daniel J. "Peter the Rock." America, August 18–25, 2008. Accessed Oct. 9, 2009: p. 30.
  20. ^ Rienecker, Fritz; Rogers, Cleon (1976). Linguistic key to the Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids MI: Regency Reference Library (Zondervan Publishing House). p. 49. ISBN 0-310-32050-X. 
  21. ^ a b May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977.
  22. ^ 1Cor 15
  23. ^ 1Cor 15:3-7
  24. ^ See Matthew 28:8-10, John 20:16 and Luke 24:13-16.
  25. ^ Matt. 10:2-4, Mk. 3:16-19, Lk. 6:14-16
  26. ^ a b "Sermon by Leo the Great (440–461)". Ccel.org. 2005-07-13. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  27. ^ "Archbishop Stylianos of Australia". Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  28. ^ "Patriarch H.H.Ignatius Zakka I Iwas". Syrianchurch.org. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  29. ^ Identity of the Syriac Orthodox Church
  30. ^ Myllykoski, Matti. "James the Just in History and Tradition: Perspectives of Past and Present Scholarship (Part I)". Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, Finland. Retrieved 2014-04-02. "James the Just, the brother of Jesus, is known from the New Testament as the chief apostle of the Torah-obedient Christians." 
  31. ^ "Church History Book II, Chapter I, quoting Clement of Alexandria's Sixth book of Hypotyposes". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  32. ^ John Vidmar, The Catholic Church through the ages: a history. pp. 39–40. Books.google.com. July 2005. ISBN 978-0-8091-4234-7. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  33. ^ a b c Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. (2002 edition)
  34. ^ a b Franzen, p.26
  35. ^ a b 16
  36. ^ a b "Paul, St" Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  37. ^ a b Pennington, p. 2
  38. ^ a b St-Paul-Outside-the-Walls homepage
  39. ^ a b Historians debate whether the Roman government distinguished between Christians and Jews prior to Nerva's modification of the Fiscus Judaicus in 96. From then on, practising Jews paid the tax, Christians did not
  40. ^ a b Wylen, pp.190-192
  41. ^ a b Dunn, pp. 33-34
  42. ^ Brown, Raymond E., Introduction to the New Testament, Anchor Bible, 1997, ISBN 0-385-24767-2. p. 767 "the pseudonymity of II Pet is more certain than that of any other NT work."
  43. ^ Louise Ropes Loomis, The Book of Popes (Liber Pontificalis). Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-86-8 (Reprint of the 1916 edition).
  44. ^ This is provided in Downey, A History of Antioch, pp. 583–586. This evidence is accepted by M. Lapidge, among others, see Bischoff and Lapidge, Biblical Commentaries from the Canterbury School (Cambridge, 1994) p. 16. Lastly, see Finegan, The Archaeology of the New Testament, pp. 63–71.
  45. ^ (ἡ δ᾿ ἱστορία παρὰ Κλήμεντι κατὰ τὴν πέμπτην τῶν Ὑποτυπώσεων· ἐν ᾗ καὶ Κηφᾶν, περὶ οὗ φησιν ὁ Παῦλος· «ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν Κηφᾶς εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν, κατὰ πρόσωπον αὐτῷ ἀντέστην», ἕνα φησὶ γεγονέναι τῶν ἑβδομήκοντα μαθητῶν, ὁμώνυμον Πέτρῳ τυγχάνοντα τῷ ἀποστόλῳ.)
  46. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Kirsch, Johann Peter (1911). "St. Peter". Catholic Encyclopedia 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  47. ^ Granger Ryan & Helmut Ripperger, The Golden Legend Of Jacobus De Voragine Part One, 1941.
  48. ^ "Jesus said this to indicate the kind of death by which Peter would glorify God" ([Jn. 21:19]).
  49. ^ The Holy Bible, according to the authorized version (A.D. 1611) – Frederic Charles Cook – J. Murray, 1881 - page 350
  50. ^ Vatican Cardinal Angelo Comastri (interviewee) (2011). Secret Access: The Vatican (Video) (in English, Italian). Vatican City, Rome, Italy: A&E Studio Entertainment. Event occurs at 94 minutes. "This is the holiest site in the Basilica, where the Apostle Peter was crucified and his blood shed to the ground" 
  51. ^ Walsh, The Bones of St. Peter: A 1st Full Account of the Search for the Apostle's Body
  52. ^ Finegan, The Archeology of the New Testament, pp. 368–370.
  53. ^ "The Bones of St. Peter". Saintpetersbasilica.org. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  54. ^ Associated Press (2013-11-24). "Vatican displays Saint Peter's bones for the first time". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  55. ^ Ireneaus Against Heresies 3.3.2
  56. ^ "most scholars, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, concur that Peter died in Rome" Keener, Craig S., The Gospel of Matthew: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary, p. 425, n. 74, 2009 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company
  57. ^ O'Connor, Daniel William (2013). "Saint Peter the Apostle". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. p. 5. Retrieved 12 April 2013. "[M]any scholars… accept Rome as the location of the martyrdom and the reign of Nero as the time." 
  58. ^ Brown, Raymond E. and Meier, John P. (1983). Antioch and Rome: New Testament Cradles of Christianity. Paulist Press. p. 98. ISBN 0-8091-0339-7. "As for Peter, we have no knowledge at all of when he came to Rome and what he did there before he was martyred. Certainly he was not the original missionary who brought Christianity to Rome (and therefore not the founder of the church of Rome in that sense). There is no serious proof that he was the bishop (or local ecclesiastical officer) of the Roman church—a claim not made till the third century. Most likely he did not spend any major time at Rome before 58 when Paul wrote to the Romans, and so it may have been only in the 60s and relatively shortly before his martyrdom that Peter came to the capital." 
  59. ^ Cullmann, Oscar (1962). Peter: Disciple, Apostle, Martyr, 2nd ed. Westminster Press. p. 234. "In the New Testament [Jerusalem] is the only church of which we hear that Peter stood at its head. Of other episcopates of Peter we know nothing certain. Concerning Antioch, indeed… there is a tradition, first appearing in the course of the second century, according to which Peter was its bishop. The assertion that he was Bishop of Rome we first find at a much later time. From the second half of the second century we do possess texts that mention the apostolic foundation of Rome, and at this time, which is indeed rather late, this foundation is traced back to Peter and Paul, an assertion that cannot be supported historically. Even here, however, nothing is said as yet of an episcopal office of Peter." 
  60. ^ Chadwick, Henry (1993). The Early Church, rev. ed. Penguin Books. p. 18. "No doubt Peter's presence in Rome in the sixties must indicate a concern for Gentile Christianity, but we have no information whatever about his activity or the length of his stay there. That he was in Rome for twenty-five years is third-century legend." 
  61. ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of the Popes (Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 6. "Ignatius assumed that Peter and Paul wielded special authority over the Roman church, while Irenaeus claimed that they jointly founded it and inaugurated its succession of bishops. Nothing, however, is known of their constitutional roles, least of all Peter's as presumed leader of the community."
  62. ^ Building Unity, Ecumenical Documents IV (Paulist Press, 1989), p. 130. "There is increasing agreement that Peter went to Rome and was martyred there, but we have no trustworthy evidence that Peter ever served as the supervisor or bishop of the local church in Rome."
  63. ^ a b c Pieter Willem van der Horst, review of Otto Zwierlein, Petrus in Rom: die literarischen Zeugnisse. Mit einer kritischen Edition der Martyrien des Petrus und Paulus auf neuer handschriftlicher Grundlage, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2009, in Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2010.03.25.
  64. ^ James Dunn, review of Zwierlein 2009, in Review of Biblical Literature 2010.
  65. ^ Zwierlein, Otto: Petrus und Paulus in Jerusalem und Rom. Vom Neuen Testament zu den apokryphen Apostelakten. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2013. ISBN 978-3110303315.
  66. ^ Has St. Peter ever been in Rome? Interview with Otto Zwierlein (2013)
  67. ^ 04/02/2013. "Petrus Romanus Pope Francis Perpetuates the Petrine Ploy — Logos Apologia". Logosapologia.org. Retrieved 2014-02-07. 
  68. ^ "Gospel of Thomas 13". 
  69. ^ "Gospel of Thomas 114". 
  70. ^ "Apocalypse of Peter". 
  71. ^ "Gospel of Mary 9:4". 
  72. ^ "Gospel of Mary 9:6". 
  73. ^ "Gospel of Peter 14:3". Cygnus-study.com. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  74. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Joyce, G. H. (1913). "Pope". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  75. ^ Wilken, p. 281, quote: "Some (Christian communities) had been founded by Peter, the disciple Jesus designated as the founder of his church. ... Once the position was institutionalized, historians looked back and recognized Peter as the first pope of the Christian church in Rome"
  76. ^ "Greek New Testament" Greek New Testament. John xxi 11 Jun. 2010.
  77. ^ Basil li. De poenit. cƒ. Matth. v. 14 ; Luke xxii. 19
  78. ^ a b "Peter the Rock". Catholic.com. 2004-08-10. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  79. ^ "16 The Preaching of Mattai" (PDF). "Peshitta Aramaic/English Interlinear New Testament". Retrieved 2014-04-02. 
  80. ^ Veselin Kesich (1992). "Peter's Primacy in the New Testament and the Early Tradition" in The Primacy of Peter. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. pp. 61–6. 
  81. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, Articles 424 and 552
  82. ^ Mathison, Keith A., The Shape of Sola Scriptura, pp. 184–5.
  83. ^ Peter's Primacy | Catholic Answers
  84. ^ Rykle Borger, "Remarks of an Outsider about Bauer's Worterbuch, BAGD, BDAG, and Their Textual Basis," Biblical Greek Language and Lexicography: Essays in Honor of Frederick W. Danker, Bernard A. Tayler (et al. eds.) pp. 32–47.
  85. ^ "WELS Topical Q&A". WELS Topical Q&A. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  86. ^ a b c Monday, Dec. 07, 1953 (1953-12-07). "Religion: Peter & the Rock". TIME. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  87. ^ D. A. Carson in The Expositor's Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984).
  88. ^ Jesus, Peter & the Keys: A Scriptural Handbook on the Papacy
  89. ^ The Doctrine of Church and Ministry in the Life of the Church Today
  90. ^ Cross-Cultural And Multicultural Ministry In the New Testament
  91. ^ Some thoughts on Matthew 16:18
  92. ^ John Meyendorff, et al. (1963), The Primacy of Peter in the Orthodox Church (St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, Crestwood NY, ISBN 978-0-88141-125-6)
  93. ^ Holy Apostles Convent (1999) The Orthodox New Testament, Vol. I: The Holy Gospels (Dormition Skete, Buena Vista CO, ISBN 0-944359-13-2) p. 105
  94. ^ ""Primacy of St. Peter" - by Dr. Thomas Athanasius". Syrianchurch.org. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  95. ^ McConkie, Bruce R. (May 1981), Upon This Rock, Ensign (LDS Church) 
  96. ^ McConkie, Bruce R. (July 1973), The Rock of Revelation, Ensign (LDS Church) 
  97. ^ Christ built Church on rock of revelation, Church News, March 30, 1991 
  98. ^ "Doctrine & Covenants 27:12–13". Scriptures.lds.org. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  99. ^ "Doctrine & Covenants 128:20–21". Scriptures.lds.org. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  100. ^ Qur'an 3:49-53
  101. ^ Historical Dictionary of Prophets In Islam And Judaism, Brandon M. Wheeler, Disciples of Christ: "Muslim exegesis identifies the disciples as Peter, Andrew, Matthew, Thomas, Philip, John, James, Bartholomew, and Simon"
  102. ^ Hughes Dictionary of Islam, Habib the Carpenter
  103. ^ No god but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam, Reza Aslan, Dictionary: Simon Peter
  104. ^ Second Peter: Introduction, Argument, and Outline. Archive date: 9 December 2003. Access date: 19 August 2013.
  105. ^ a b c d e f g Wikisource-logo.svg Vander Heeren, Achille (1911). "Epistles of St. Peter". Catholic Encyclopedia 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  106. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2011). Forged. HarperOne, HarperCollins. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-06-201262-3. 
  107. ^ Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 3.39.14–16
  108. ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III. 1.2.; quoted by Eusebius in Ecclesiastical History, book 5, 7.6
  109. ^ "Oldest known images of apostles found". CNN.com. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 
  110. ^ Higgitt, John, "The Iconography of Saint Peter in Anglo-Saxon England, and Saint Cuthbert's Coffin", pp. 267-272, 270 quoted, in: Bonner, Gerald, Rollason, David & Stancliffe, Clare, eds., St. Cuthbert, his Cult and his Community to AD 1200. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1989 ISBN 0-85115-610-X ISBN 9780851156101, google books
  111. ^ Higgitt, p. 276
  112. ^ Religious Humor: 409 Bits of Humor for Preachers, Teachers, and Public Speakers, edited by Walter M. Buescher. p.39
  113. ^ Wall, J. Charles. (1912), Porches and Fonts. Pub. London: Wells Gardner and Darton. P. 295; "Venerable Bede,Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum: The Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Book III, Chapter 29". Fordham.edu. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  114. ^ White, L. Michael (2004). From Jesus to Christianity. HarperSanFrancisco. pp. 170. ISBN 0-06-052655-6.
  115. ^ "Arthur Drews - The Legend of St. Peter". Egodeath.com. 2005-10-10. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  116. ^ George Albert Wells, "St. Peter as Bishop of Rome"

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Catholic Church titles
New creation Pope
30–64
Succeeded by
Linus
New creation Bishop of Antioch
37–53
Succeeded by
Evodius