Abruzzo

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Abruzzo
Region of Italy
Flag of Abruzzo
Flag
Coat of arms of Abruzzo
Coat of arms
Anthem: Vola vola vola[1]
Abruzzo in Italy.svg
Country Italy
Capital L'Aquila
Government
 • President Luciano D'Alfonso (Democratic)
Area
 • Total 10,763 km2 (4,156 sq mi)
Population (2012-10-31)
 • Total 1,307,919
 • Density 120/km2 (310/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Abruzzan(s) / Abruzzese / Abruzzesi
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
GDP/ Nominal €28.7[2] billion (2008)
GDP per capita €21,400[3] (2008)
NUTS Region ITF
Website www.regione.abruzzo.it

Abruzzo (Italian: [aˈbruttso]; Aquiliano: Abbrùzzu) is a region of Southern Italy with an area of 10,763 square km (4,156 sq mi) and a population of 1.2 million. The region is divided into the four provinces: L'Aquila, Teramo, Pescara, and Chieti. Its western border lies 80 km (50 mi) east of Rome. Abruzzo borders the region of Marche to the North, Lazio to the West and South-West, Molise to the South-East, and the Adriatic Sea to the East. Geographically, Abruzzo is divided into a mountainous area to the West, which includes the Gran Sasso d'Italia, and a coastal area to the East with beaches on the Adriatic sea.

Abruzzo is considered culturally, linguistically, historically, and economically a region of Southern Italy, although geographically it may also be considered central.[4] The Italian Statistical Authority (ISTAT) deems it to be part of Southern Italy, partially because of Abruzzo's historic association with the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.[4]

Abruzzo is known as "the greenest region in Europe" as almost half of its territory, the largest in Europe,[5] is set aside as national parks and protected nature reserves. There are three national parks, one regional park, and 38 protected nature reserves. These ensure the survival of 75% of Europe's living species, including rare species such as the small wading dotterel, golden eagle, the Abruzzo (or Abruzzese) chamois, Apennine wolf and Marsican brown bear.[6] Abruzzo is also home to Calderone, Europe's southernmost glacier.[7]

The visiting nineteenth-century Italian diplomat and journalist Primo Levi said that "forte e gentile" (strong and gentle) best describes the beauty of the region and the character of its people. "Forte e gentile" has since become the motto of the region and its inhabitants.[8]

Provinces and politics[edit]

Abruzzo provinces

Provinces[edit]

Abruzzo is divided into four administrative provinces:

Province Area (km²) Population Density (inh./km²)
Chieti 2,588 396,190 153.1
L'Aquila 5,034 308,876 61.3
Pescara 1,225 318,701 260.1
Teramo 1,948 308,769 158.5

Politics[edit]

History[edit]

The church of Santa Maria di Collemaggio in L'Aquila, as it was before the devastating earthquake of 6 April 2009.
Cathedral of Madonna del Ponte, Lanciano
The Roman site Amiternum
Castello Caldora, Vasto

Human settlements in Abruzzo have existed since at least the Neolithic times. A skeleton from Lama dei Peligni in the province of Chieti dates back to 6,540 BC under radiometric dating.[9] The name Abruzzo appears to be derivative of the Latin word "Aprutium". In the Roman times, the region was known as Picenum, Sabina et Samnium, Flaminia et Picenum, and Campania et Samnium.[10] The region was known as Aprutium in the Middle Ages, arising from four possible sources: it is a combination of Praetutium, or rather of the name of the people Praetutii, applied to their chief city, Interamnia, the old Teramo.[11]

Until 1963, it was part of the Abruzzi region with Molise. The term, Abruzzi, derives from the time when the region was part of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The territory was administered as Abruzzo Citeriore (nearer Abruzzo) and Abruzzo Ulteriore I and II (farther Abruzzo I and II) from Naples, the capital of the kingdom.[10] Abruzzo Citeriore is now Chieti province. Abruzzo Ulteriore I comprised the Teramo and Pescara provinces. Abruzzo Ulteriore II is now the province of L'Aquila. The city of Corfinio, known as Corfinium in ancient Italy, is situated in the province of Abruzzo Ulteriore II. Corfinio is the chief city of the Paeligni, 7 m. N. of Sulmona in the valley of the Aternus.

The site of the original town is occupied by the village of Pentima. Sulmona probably became subject to Rome in the 4th century BC, though it does not appear in Roman history before the Social War, in which it was at first adopted by the allies as the capital and seat of government. It appears also as a fortress of importance in the Civil War, though it resisted Caesar's attack for a week (49 BC). These people were honored by Caesar as citizens of Rome. It is said that the name "Italia" came from this region because of ancient coins that have been found here that date from about the 1st century BC. These coins have the name "Italia" on them and are apparently proof of this fact. This theory of the origin of the name "Italia" is debated by scholars, archaeologists, and history itself. The late archaeologist Massimo Pallottino claimed that the name was derived from the Italic tribes that settled in modern Calabria. But it was not until the time of the Roman conquests that the term was expanded to cover the entire peninsula.

Geography[edit]

Geographically, Abruzzo is located in central Italy and southern Italy, stretching from the heart of the Apennines to the Adriatic Sea, and includes mainly mountainous and wild land. The mountainous island is occupied by a vast plateau, including Gran Sasso, at 2,912 metres (9,554 ft) the highest peak of the Apennines, and Mount Majella at 2,793 metres (9,163 ft). The Adriatic coastline is characterized by long sandy beaches to the North and pebbly beaches to the South. Abruzzo is well known for its landscapes and natural beauties, parks and nature reserves, characteristic hillside areas rich in vineyards and olive groves, and one of the highest densities of Blue Flag beaches.[12]

Climate[edit]

Giulianova seaside

The Abruzzo region has two types of climate that are strongly influenced by the Apennine Mountains, dividing the climate of the coastal and sub-Apennine hills from the interior's high mountain ranges. Coastal areas have a Mediterranean climate with hot dry summers and mild winters and rainy hills with a sublittoral climate where temperatures progressively decrease with increasing altitude and precipitation with altitude.[13] Precipitation is also strongly affected by the presence of the Apennines mountain ridges of the region; it increases with the proportion being more abundant in the field and on the slopes exposed to the west, instead of decreasing towards the east and east-facing slopes. Often the Adriatic coast are sidelined rainfall from the west to the barrier effect of the Apennines undergoing the action of gentle winds descending from it (or Libeccio).[14] The minimum annual rainfall, however, is found in some inland valleys, sheltered from much disturbance to the blocking action of mountain ridges, such as the Peligna Valley, or the valley of the river Tirino, which in some places (Ofena, Capestrano) showed barely 500 millimetres (19.7 inches), and not along the coast where it never falls below 600 millimetres (23.6 inches); for if Teramo is relatively little watered by rain (Teramo less than 800 mm), the metre is exceeded in Chieti, reaching maximum levels in the Adriatic, while between Ortona and Vasto in Costa dei Trabocchi decrease again.[14] The highest rainfall occurs in upland areas on the border with Lazio; they are especially vulnerable to Atlantic disturbances. Around 1,500 to 2,000 millimetres (59 to 79 inches) of precipitation is typical (Pescara in 2010 showed a value close to 2800 mm).[15]

Flora and fauna[edit]

As with many Mediterranean regions, Abruzzo's vegetation is characterized by the presence of different Mediterranean ecosystems. The coast and the surrounding areas are characterized by the presence of typical plants of Mediterranean shrubland, such as myrtle, heather and mastic, while in the hilly areas other species grow, including olive, pine, willow, oak, poplar, alder, arbutus, broom, acacia, capers, rosemary, hawthorn, licorice and almond trees, interspersed with oak trees. At elevations between 600 and 1,000 metres (2,000 and 3,300 ft) there is sub-montane vegetation, mainly characterized by mixed forests of oak and turkey oak, maple and hornbeam; shrubs include dog rose and red juniper. Elevations between 1,000 and 1,900 metres (3,300 and 6,200 ft) are dominated by beech trees. In the Apennine Mountains at elevations above 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) species include alpine orchid, mountain juniper, silver fir, black cranberry and the Abruzzo edelweiss.

The fauna of Abruzzo is highly varied, including the region's symbol, the Abruzzo chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata), which has recovered after risking extinction. Another animal typical of this region is the marsican brown bear, along with Italian wolf, deer, lynx, roe deer, snow vole, fox, porcupine, wild cat, wild boar, badger, otter, and viper.

The natural parks of the region include the Abruzzo National Park,[16] the Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park,[17] the Maiella National Park[18] and the Sirente-Velino Regional Park,[19] as well as numerous other natural reserves and protected areas.[20]

Economy[edit]

Until a few decades ago, Abruzzo was a region of poverty in Southern Italy; over the past decades, however, it has developed to such an extent that it has escaped from the spiral of underdevelopment to become the 'first' region of the 'Italian Mezzogiorno'. This confirms its pivotal role in the national economic system. Since the 1950s, Abruzzo has had steady economic growth. In 1951, Abruzzo per capita income or GDP was 53% of that of Northern Italy, the nation's richest region. By 1971, Abruzzo was at 65% and, by 1994, per capita income was at 76% of Northern Italy's per capita income, giving Abruzzo the highest per capita GDP of Southern Italy and surpassing the growth of every other region of Italy. The construction of superhighways from Rome to Teramo (A24) and Rome to Pescara (A25) opened Abruzzo to easy access, state and private investment in the region increased, and Abruzzo attained higher per capita education levels and greater productivity growth than the rest of the South. As of 2003, Abruzzo's per capita GDP was €19,506 or 84% of the national average of €23,181 and well outpacing that of the South (€15,808).[21] The region's average GDP per capita was approximately 20,100 EUR.[22]

Montepulciano grapes.

The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake led to a sharp economic slowdown. However, according to statistics at the end of 2010, it seems that the economy of Abruzzo is recovering, despite the negative data regarding employment.[21] In fact, at the end of 2010, Abruzzo's growth was 1.47%, which placed it fourth among the Italian regions with the highest annual growth rates after Lazio, Lombardy and Calabria.[23] In 2011 Abruzzo's economic growth was +2.3%, the highest percentage among the regions of Southern Italy.[24] The region is also the richest region of Southern Italy, with a GDP per capita higher than any other region of southern Italy (€21,574).[14]

Travel poster from the 1920s.

Abruzzo's industrial sector expanded rapidly, especially in mechanical engineering, transportation equipment and telecommunications.[25] The structure of production in the region reflects the transformation of the economy from agriculture to industry and services. Although the industry has developed strongly, it retains weak points due to the existence of only a few large businesses alongside a huge fabric of small and medium-sized businesses. Both pure and applied research are carried out in the region, where there are major institutes and factories involved in research in the fields of pharmaceutics, biomedicine, electronics, aerospace and nuclear physics. The industrial infrastructure is spread throughout the region in industrial zones which have already been mentioned, the most important of which are Val Pescara, Val Sangro, Val Trigno, Val Vibrata and Conca del Fucino. A further activity worthy of note is seaside and mountain tourism, which is of considerable importance to the economy of the region.[26] Agriculture, involving small holdings, has succeeded in modernising and offering high-quality products. The mostly small, agricultural holdings produce wine, cereals, sugar beet, potatoes, olives, vegetables, fruit and dairy products. Traditional products are saffron and liquorice. Most famous in the world is Abruzzo's wine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo; in the late 20th and early 21st century, Montepulciano d'Abruzzo earned a reputation as being one of the most widely exported DOC classed wine in Italy.[27]

In the past decade, tourism has increased, in particular concerning internal and European arrivals. Abruzzo is world-famous for its wildlife parks (Abruzzo National Park, Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park, Maiella National Park) and regional park (Sirente Velino), and 38 protected areas between oasis, regional reserves, and state reserves. The inland mountainous region contains several ski resorts, and coastal tourism is also well-developed, in particular, the Trabocchi Coast, a very picturesque stretch of coastline known for the ancient fishing machines that can still be seen by tourists. Abruzzo's wealth of castles and medieval towns, especially around the town of L'Aquila, has earned it in some quarters the nickname of "Abruzzoshire", by analogy with the "Chiantishire", nickname sometimes used to refer to the Chianti area of Tuscany, but Abruzzo is still off the beaten path for most visitors to Italy.[28]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1861 858,000—    
1871 906,000+5.6%
1881 946,000+4.4%
1901 1,070,000+13.1%
1911 1,116,000+4.3%
1921 1,131,000+1.3%
1931 1,168,000+3.3%
1936 1,202,000+2.9%
1951 1,277,000+6.2%
1961 1,206,000−5.6%
1971 1,167,000−3.2%
1981 1,218,000+4.4%
1991 1,249,000+2.5%
2001 1,262,000+1.0%
2011 1,343,000+6.4%
2017 1,322,247−1.5%
Source: ISTAT 2001

Although the population density of Abruzzo has been increasing over recent decades, it is still well below the Italian national average: in 2008, 123.4 inhabitants per km2, compared to 198.8. In the various provinces, the density is varied: as of 2008 Pescara is the most densely populated with 260.1 inhabitants per km2, whereas L'Aquila is the least densely populated with 61.3 inhabitants per km2, although it has the largest area. After decades of emigration from the region, the main feature of the 1980s is the immigration from third world countries. The population increase is due to the positive net migration, as since 1991 more deaths than births were registered in Abruzzo (except for 1999, when their numbers were equal).[29] In 2008, the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 59,749 foreign-born immigrants live in Abruzzo, equal to 4.5% of the total regional population.

The most serious demographic imbalance is between the mountainous areas of the interior and the coastal strip. The largest province, L'Aquila, is situated entirely in the interior and has the lowest population density. The movement of the population of Abruzzo from the mountains to the sea has led to the almost complete urbanization of the entire coastal strip especially in the province of Teramo and Chieti. The effects on the interior have been impoverishment and demographic aging, reflected by an activity rate in the province of L'Aquila which is the lowest among the provinces in Abruzzo – accompanied by geological degradation as a result of the absence of conservation measures. In the coastal strip, on the other hand, there is such a jumble of accommodations and activities that the environment has been changed with negative effects. The policy of providing incentives for development has resulted in the setting-up of industrial zones, some of which (Vasto, Avezzano, Carsoli, Gissi, Val Vibrata, Val di Sangro) have made genuine progress, while others (Val Pescara, L'Aquila) have run into trouble after initial success. The zones of Sulmona and Guardiagrele have turned out to be more or less failures. Outside these zones, the main activities are agriculture and tourism.[29]

Main settlements[edit]

L'Aquila is both the capital city of the Abruzzo region and of the Province of L'Aquila and second largest city (pop. 73,000). L'Aquila was hit by an earthquake on 6 April 2009, which destroyed much of the city centre. The other provincial capitals are Pescara, which is Abruzzo's largest city and major port (pop. 123,000); Teramo (pop. 55,000) and Chieti (pop. 55,000). Other large municipalities in Abruzzo include Avezzano (pop.41,000), an industrial and high technology center, Vasto (population 40,636), Lanciano (population 36,000), and Sulmona (population 25,000) are three important industrial and touristic centers.

Transport[edit]

Airports[edit]

  • Abruzzo International Airport is the only international airport in the region. Open to civilian traffic since 1996, the number of passengers has increased over the years because of low-cost air carriers' use of the facility. Today, the airport has a catchment area of over 500,000 passengers annually and connects the city of Pescara and the entire region with many Italian and Europe destinations.[30]
  • L'Aquila-Preturo Airport is located in the nearby village of Courts and was recently renovated and modernized to accommodate presidential flights for G8 activities.

Ports[edit]

There are four main ports in Abruzzo: Pescara, Ortona, Vasto and Giulianova.

Over the years the Port of Pescara became one of the most important tourist ports of Italy and the Adriatic Sea. Heavily damaged in World War II, it underwent some sixty years of major restoration and was reborn as a modern marina with advanced moorings and shipbuilding facilities. It has been honored with the European Union's blue flag for the quality of services offered. The port of Pescara has lost passenger traffic because of its shallowness and silting, but its fishery and aquaculture activities are thriving.[31]

Railways[edit]

There is a significant disparity between the railways of the Abruzzo coast and the inland areas, which badly need modernization to improve the service, in particular, the Rome-Pescara line.

Existing railway lines:

  • Adriatic railway (through the whole of Italy from north to south, along the Adriatic Sea): The question that interests the Abruzzo region is included in the Towns of Martinsicuro and San Salvo. Unless, that delimit the borders with Marche and Molise regions, namely, the 113 km (70.21 mi) between the stations of intercurrent Alba Adriatica-Nereto-Controguerra and San Salvo. The interchanges are made by the respective railway lines Giulianova, Teramo and Pescara-Rome.
  • Train RomeSulmonaPescara: Pescara-Rome railway line is along the railway line Bologna-Bari on the Adriatic sea other line is important because through the Tyrrhenian coast, passing through the provinces of Pescara, Chieti and L'Aquila and ends the path to Roma Tiburtina railway station. The railway, which covers the Abruzzo Region, extends for 170 kilometres (110 mi), ranging from municipalities to the province of Pescara Carsoli, Oricola and Pereto. The infrastructure in question is the following interchanges: Sulmona, Isernia, Terni – Sulmona, Avezzano- Roccasecca, Bologna and Bari.
  • Sulmona – Carpinone: the infrastructure in question is a continuation to the south of Terni-Sulmona, as part of the intermediate cross-Pescara – Naples. After that Brenner is the highest railway station in Italy, whose tortuous path, characterized by steep slopes, passing through the station Rivisondoli-Pescocostanzo and wedges in the Abruzzo National Park and the Maiella. The line is the interchanges of railway lines Rome-Pescara and Sulmona – L'Aquila – Rieti – Terni. Reached Carpinone, divides west to east to Benevento and Caserta.
  • Sulmona–Terni railway: Trafficking in question connects the regions of Umbria, Lazio, Abruzzo and Molise and then along the line-Carpinone Sulmona. It, therefore, crosses the inner Abruzzo, finding interchanges Avezzano and Pescara-Rome-Roccasecca, in their respective provinces of L'Aquila, Terni and Rieti. It concerns a type of regional traffic in that, across the Tyrrhenian perpendicular colleague Abruzzo, Umbria, Lazio and Molise. The question of interest is included in the Abruzzo town of Sulmona and Tornimparte and more precisely in the stations 75 kilometres (47 mi) intercurrent Sulmona and saddle horn.
  • Avezzano railroad – Roccasecca: infrastructure test starts on the track in the town of Avezzano, crosses the territory of Marsica, passes through the valley and Bush get into the Lazio region, in the town of Sora. Her journey ends in the town of Roccasecca which marks the end of Lazio and the entry in the Campania region towards Cassino. Therefore, the only online exchange that meets the railway line is Pescara – Rome station Avezzano.
  • GiulianovaTeramo (a branch railway line Adriatic you forward towards the interior until Teramo) railway line Giulianova – Teramo, the network is complementary to the Adriatic, fulfilling a liaison function between the capital and the coast. Therefore, the only rail interchange is characterized by the Adriatic railway line BolognaBari, Abruzzo is Martinsicuro rail-Broad-San Salvo. With its 24 kilometres (15 mi) journey infrastructure is the result, an SS80 along the path to the location of the industrial districts of Teramo, before merging the SS 16 that accesses the port Giulianova.
  • Sangritana (LancianoCastel di Sangro): The infrastructure in question are an important transition between the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Sea, as in Pescara station meets the respective points of connection of the FS BolognaBari and Pescara – Rome, while that of Sulmona, L'Aquila lines FS – Terni and SulmonaCarpinone. This position transition, attributed to the infrastructure an important strategic military role in World War II, a stage when the bombing of the German armed forces air, marked the temporary suspension of the subject line of repair work. Like other regional railways direct L'Aquila, Sulmona and Roccasecca, through a circuitous route mountain typically characterized by steep slopes, although in terms of localization of production facilities is to signal the passage of the railway in the industrial area of Valle del Sangro.

Highways[edit]

Salinello Bridge on the A14

There are three highways that serve the region:

  • Highway A24 RomeL'AquilaTeramo, was built in the 1970s and connects Rome with Lazio and more specifically to the Abruzzo Teramo via L'Aquila, performs an important liaison function of the region, both Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic, due to the presence of several knots of connection roads and highways. The Gran Sasso tunnel, the longest road tunnel entirely on Italian territory, was opened in 1984. It connects L'Aquila and Teramo on the A24 making the northern Abruzzo coast reachable within two hours from Rome.

Numerous infrastructure connecting adjacent junction as directional Torano it branches in the A25 to Pescara, Teramo to Giulianova on SS80, SS81 to Chieti and on the A14 Bologna-Taranto, exit on the freeway Rieti Valley Jump -Terni, exit west on SS80 to L'Aquila-Teramo, near Tivoli and the connection to the A1 motorway allows easy connections with Naples and Milan, the highway construction has contributed greatly to the economic development of the region .

  • Highway A25 Turin – Avezzano – Pescara makes the connection between Rome and Pescara. The road running out of Turin begins its journey where it branches off the A24, runs into the Conca del Fucino, crosses the Abruzzo Apennines, comes to the valley of Peligna, and ends at the exit for Pescara-Villanova to join the A14.
  • Motorway A14 BolognaTaranto known as the A14 "Adriatica", includes 743 km (461.68 mi) of road, including lengths in the cities of Bologna and Taranto. Opened to traffic in 1965, it is now a major tourist infrastructure, running through the coastal towns of Emilia Romagna, Marche, Abruzzo, Molise, and Apulia. Abruzzo is the infrastructure in question, including the toll road of South Broad and Val Vibrata, which marks the border between the Marche and Molise. Regarding the links, the A14 meets the SS16 and the SS652 Bottom Sangro Valley near Broad and SS80 in Giulianova.

Culture[edit]

Castel del Monte, one of Abruzzo's little-known hill towns
Cathedral of San Giustino (Chieti)

The museum Museo Archeologico Nazionale d'Abruzzo in Chieti house the famed warrior statue Warrior of Capestrano which was found in a necropolis from 6th century B.C. Of cultural importance are the Cathedral of Teramo, its archeological museum and the Roman theater, the Castello della Monica, the astronomical Observatory, the famous L'Aquila Basilica of Santa Maria di Collemaggio – with the remains of Pope Celestine V, the Museo Nazionale d'Abruzzo, Santa Maria del Suffragio, the Forte Spagnolo, the 99 Spouts fountain, Gabriele D'Annunzio's house in Pescara, Campli's Scala Sancta and its church, the church of Santissima Annunziata in Sulmona, the cathedrals of Chieti, Lanciano, Guardiagrele, Atri and Pescara along with the castles of Ortona, Celano and Ortucchio.

At L'Aquila's Santa Maria di Collemaggio every 28–29 August is celebrated the Perdonanza Celestiniana, remembering the indulgent, issued by Pope Celestine V to any who, "truly repentant and confessed" would visit that Church from the Vespers of the vigil to the vespers of 29 August.[32] Sulmona's Holy Week is commemorated with traditional celebrations and rituals, such as 'La Madonna che Scappa in Piazza', where a large statue of the Madonna, carried by a group of Sulmonesi part of Confraternities, runs through the square towards her Son resurrected.[33] In Cocullo, in the province of L'Aquila, is the yearly festival of 'Festa dei serpari' in which the patron saint's statue covered by snakes is transported in a procession, it attracts thousands of both Italian and foreign visitors. In many Abruzzo villages in January is celebrated the Anthony the Great's feast with massive and scenic bonfires.[34] In the past, the region of Abruzzo was well known for the transumanza, the migratory movement of sheep principally south to the region of Puglia during the cold winter months.[35] The Feast of St. Biagio, the protector of the throat and of wool dealers, is the most widespread in Abruzzo. On the third of February in Taranta Peligna every year since the sixteenth century an evocative ritual is carried out, entailing the distribution of "panicelle", which are small loaves made of flour and water, in the shape of a blessing hand, which are distributed to the faithful.

Between the province of Teramo and L'Aquila, under the Gran Sasso Tunnel exists the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of the INFN, one of the three underground astroparticle laboratories in Europe. Interamnia World Cup, the largest international youth handball competition worldwide, takes place on an annual basis in Teramo.[36]

Historical figures include the Roman orator Asinius Pollio, Latin poets Sallust and Ovid who were born in L'Aquila and Sulmona respectively, Gaius Cassius Longinus a Roman senator and a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar, and Pontius Pilate who was born in the province of Teramo and is best known for authorizing the crucifixion of Jesus. Abruzzo religious personalities include Saint Berardo, John of Capistrano who led a crusade against the Ottoman Empire, Thomas of Celano author of three hagiographies about Saint Francis of Assisi, Alessandro Valignano who introduced Catholicism to the Far East and Japan; the Polish Pope John Paul II loved the mountains of Abruzzo where he would retire often and pray in the church of San Pietro della Ienca. When he died Cardinal Stanislaw Dziwisz, gave the local Abruzzo community of some of the late pontiff's blood as a token of the love he had felt for the mountainous area.[37] The greatest Italian poet of the 20th century Gabriele D'Annunzio was from Pescara, other very important Abruzzo personalities in the field of humanities include poet Ignazio Silone, director Ennio Flaiano who co-wrote La dolce vita, philosopher Benedetto Croce, composer Sir Paolo Tosti and the sculptor Venanzo Crocetti.

American artists and celebrities such as Madonna, Michael Bublé, Dean Martin, Bradley Cooper, Perry Como, Henry Mancini, Nancy Pelosi, Rocky Marciano, Rocky Mattioli, Bruno Sammartino, Mario Batali, John and Dan Fante, Tommy Lasorda, Dan Marino have publicly boasted about their Abruzzo origins.

Some international movies shot in Abruzzo include The American, Jean-Jacques Annaud's The name of the Rose, Fellini's La Strada and I Vitelloni, Schwarzenegger's Red Sonja, Ladyhawke, King David, Francesco, Keoma, The Barbarians, The Fox and the Child and Krull.

Medieval and Renaissance hill towns[edit]

The fortress of Civitella is the most visited monument in Abruzzo
View of Casoli
Roccascalegna fortress
Medieval village of Scanno

For most of its history, a large portion of the Abruzzese people was, and still are, a hill people, often working as shepherds in mountainous areas or establishing hill towns, especially in the parts of Abruzzo further from the Adriatic coast. Before recent earthquakes, Abruzzo was the region with the highest number of castles and hill towns, but still, it holds many of Italy's best-preserved medieval and Renaissance hill towns, indeed twenty of The most beautiful villages in Italy, 2nd only to Umbria which has twenty-two.[38] These awards are not just for aesthetic beauty but also are for art and culture, historical importance and livability.

The abrupt decline of Abruzzo's agricultural economy in the early to mid-20th-century saved some of the region's most beautiful hill towns from the onslaught of modern development. Many lie entirely within regional and national parks. Among the most well preserved are Castel del Monte and Santo Stefano di Sessanio, which lie in the Gran Sasso National Park on the edge of the high plain of Campo Imperatore and nestled beneath the Apennines' highest peaks; both hill towns, which were ruled by the Medicis for over a century-and-a-half, have relatively little tourism. Between the two towns sits Rocca Calascio, the ruin of an ancient fortress popular with filmmakers. Both Monteferrante and Roccascalegna are two best-representing Abruzzo villages in the province of Chieti. Within the Gran Sasso National Park is also found Castelli, an ancient pottery center whose artisans produced ceramics for most of the royal houses of Europe.

Civitella del Tronto played a crucial role in the history of the unification of Italy. The fortress of Civitella is today the most visited monument in the whole Abruzzo region.[39] Other medieval hill towns located fully within Abruzzo's park system are Pacentro in the Maiella National Park and Pescasseroli in the Abruzzo National Park. Pacentro, which features a 14th-century castle with two intact towers, has been little touched by modernization. The Shrine of Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows, in the province of Teramo, with average of 2 million visitors per year is one of the 15 most visited sanctuaries in the world.[40] Capestrano, a small characteristic town in the province of L'Aquila, is the hometown of Saint John of Capistrano, Franciscan friar and Catholic priest, as well as the namesake of the Franciscan missions San Juan Capistrano in Southern California, the mission Mission San Juan Capistrano (Texas) and the city of San Juan Capistrano in Orange County.

The duomo of San Flaviano, center of the ideal city design of Giulia.

In the last twenty years, studies showed Giulia (the name of the city founded in 1471 by Giulio Antonio Acquaviva) was an example of Renaissance ideal city, following the experiment of Pienza (1462), and the new teaching of Leon Battista Alberti and Francesco Di Giorgio Martini. It's thought the project was realized by Baccio Pontelli in the first time and the same Francesco Di Giorgio Martini in a second, because of the bond between the founder of Giulia and the most important courts of the time (Urbino in specific). But these names have been retracted and studies are underway.[41]

The proximity to Rome, the protected natural reserves and landscapes which award the region as the greenest in Europe, the presence of some of the most beautiful Italian villages, its rich and heterogeneous gastronomy along with a long history of deep-rooted local tradition and authentic Italian culture make Abruzzo rank fifth among the Italian regions by tourist arrivals after Calabria, Marche, Sardinia and Trentino. In 2010, arrivals totalled 6,381,067 Italian and 925,884 foreign.[42]

In 2015, the American organization Live and Invest Overseas included Abruzzo in the list of World's Top 21 Overseas Retirement Havens. The study was based on such factors like climate, infrastructure, health care, safety, taxes, cost of living and more.[43]

Universities[edit]

Campus of University "Gabriele d'Annunzio"

There are three universities in the Abruzzo region:

Harvard University bases an intensive summer Italian language and culture program in Vasto, a resort town on Abruzzo's southern coast.[44]

Dialects[edit]

The regional dialects of Abruzzo include Teramano, Abruzzese Orientale Adriatico and Abruzzese Occidentale. The first two form part of the dialect of southern Italy also known simply as "Neapolitan" due to the region has been part of the Kingdom of Naples and the Two Sicilies, while Aquilano is related to the Central Italian dialects including Romanesco. The dialects spoken in the Abruzzo region can be divided into three main groups:

  • Sabine dialect, in the province of L'Aquila (central Italian dialects)
  • Abruzzo Adriatic dialect, in the province of Teramo, Pescara and Chieti, that is virtually abandoned in the province of Ascoli Piceno (southern Italian dialects)
  • Abruzzo western dialect, in the province of L'Aquila (southern Italian dialects)

Cuisine[edit]

"Arrosticini" of Pescara valley
"Spaghettoni alla chitarra" of Teramo
"Sise delle Monache" from Guardiagrele

Renowned for its variety and richness due to the heterogeneity of its territory, Abruzzo's cuisine is among the best in Italy. In 2013 an Italian organization Confesercenti survey of foreign tourists showed that Abruzzo is the best Italian region to eat in.[45] Both the agricultural and coastal aspects of Abruzzo have contributed to its cuisine. Due to the mountains, much of Abruzzo was isolated from international influence until the 20th century. As a result, the region's cuisine remained unique.[46]

Popular dishes[edit]

One of the most popular regional dishes is Spaghetti alla chitarra which is made by pressing or cutting pasta through a chitarra, an implement to form long thin noodles similar to spaghetti. The pasta is served with a tomato-based sauce, often flavored with peppers, pork, goose, or lamb. This dish is complemented by regional side dishes, such as the bean and noodle soup, sagne e fagioli. This soup is traditionally flavored with tomatoes, garlic, oil, and peperoncini.

Other popular dishes include:

Across the region, roast lamb is enjoyed in several variations. Some of these variations include:

  • Arrosticini, a skewered lamb dish
  • Pecora al cotturo, lamb stuffed with a variety of mountain herbs and cooked in a copper pot
  • Lamb cooked whole in a bread oven
  • Agnello cacio e ovo, a lamb-based fricassee

Seafood is also popular, especially in coastal areas. The variety of fish available to the area has resulted in several fish-based Brodetti (broths), coming from such places as Vasto, Giulianova, and Pescara. These broths are often made by cooking fish, flavored with tomatoes, herbs, and peperoncino, in an earthenware pot. Rustic pizzas are also very common. Some of these are:

  • Easter Pizza, a rustic cake with cheese and pepper from the Teramo area
  • Fiadoni from Chieti, a dough of eggs and cheese well risen, cooked in the oven in a thin casing of pastry
  • A rustic tart pastry filled with everything imaginable: eggs, fresh cheeses, ricotta, vegetables, and all sorts of flavorings and spices.

Also from Teramo are the spreadable sausages flavored with nutmeg, liver sausages tasting of garlic and spices. The ventricina from the Vasto area is made with large pieces of fat and lean pork, pressed and seasoned with powdered sweet peppers and fennel and all encased in the dehydrated stomach of the pig itself. Atri and Rivisondoli are famous for cheeses. Mozzarella, either fresh or seasoned, made from ewe's milk, although a great number of lesser known varieties of these cheeses can be found all over Abruzzo and Molise.

Sweets[edit]

The sweets of Abruzzo are world-famous and include:

  • Confetti, sugar-coated almonds, from Sulmona
  • Torrone Nurzia, a chocolate nougat from L'Aquila
  • Parrozzo , a cake-like treat made from a mixture of crushed almonds, and coated in chocolate.
  • Ferratelle (also known as Pizzelle). A wafer cookie, often flavored with anise
  • Croccante, a type of nougat made from almonds and caramelized suger, often flavored with lemon[47]
A Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine labelled as being made from old vines.

Olive oil[edit]

The extra-virgin olive oil produced in Colline Teramane (Teramo hills) is marked by the DOP.[48]

The region has several cultivars that includes Carboncella, Dritta (Dritta Francavillese and Dritta di Moscufo), Gentile del Chieti, Nostrana (Nostrana di Brisighella), and Sargano olive cultivars.[49]

Wines and liquors[edit]

Renowned wines like Montepulciano DOCG and Trebbiano d'Abruzzo DOC are judged to be amongst the world's finest.[50] In 2012, a bottle of Trebbiano d'Abruzzo ranked No. 1 in the top 50 Italian wine award.[51]

The region is also well known for the production of liquors such as Centerbe, Limoncello, Ratafia and Genziana.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Paolo Di Vincenzo (11 February 2010). "«Dialetti d'Italia». Canzoni regionali in un doppio cd" (in Italian). il Centro.
  2. ^ "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". European Commission. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  3. ^ "EUROPA Press Releases – Regional GDP per inhabitant in 2008 GDP per inhabitant ranged from 28% of the EU27 average in Severozapaden in Bulgaria to 343% in Inner London". Europa (web portal). Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
  4. ^ a b Paradosso evidenziato da Ignazio Silone, cfr. Costantino Felice (2010). "Quadri ambientali e identità regionale". In Donzelli. Le trappole dell'identità: l'Abruzzo, le catastrofi, l'Italia di oggi. Rome. p. 41. ISBN 978-88-6036-436-4.[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ "Laquilacapitale". Archived from the original on 15 February 2015.
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  9. ^ Journal of Anthropological Sciences, "Towards a re-appraisal of the Early Neolithic skeleton from Lama dei Peligni (Abruzzo, Italy" by Miliano Bruner and Giorgio Manzi, Vol. 81 (2003), pp. 69–78 (Abruzzo, Italy)
  10. ^ a b "WineCountry.it Abruzzo wine region of Italy". winecountry.it. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
  11. ^ "Italy Guide: Abruzzo Region". Comuni-Italiani.it.
  12. ^ "ABRUZZO" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2014.
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  23. ^ "Economic and energy framework in 2005" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2010.
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  27. ^ J. Bastianich & D. Lynch Vino Italiano pg 280–283 Crown Publishing 2005 ISBN 1-4000-9774-6
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  29. ^ a b "Eurostat". Europa (web portal). Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
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  32. ^ "The Perdonanza with images of 1998, 1999 and 2000".
  33. ^ "IN SULMONA, EASTER DRAMA IN THE PIAZZA". The New York Times. 7 April 1985.
  34. ^ Delicious Italy Team. "Delicious Italy Easter in Sulmona".
  35. ^ Lucio D'Andrea. "Along the Shepherd's Tracks Tratturi and Transumanza" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2011.
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  39. ^ "Serenissimi e borbonici insieme per disfare l'Italia".
  40. ^ "Shrine of Saint Gabriele dell'Addolorata – Isola del Gran Sassoo". turismo.provincia.teramo.it.
  41. ^ RAIMONDI, Umberto. "Guida turistico-culturale di Giulianova: La città ideale di Giuliantonio Acquaviva – Abruzzo... una regione da vivere e... da scoprire".
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  49. ^ Italian Olives
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  51. ^ "WineNews – THE BEST ITALIAN WINE IS TREBBIANO D'ABRUZZO 2007 BY VALENTINI, THEN BAROLO RESERVE MONPRIVATO CÀ D'MORISSIO 2004 BY MASCARELLO AND SASSICAIA 2009 BY SAN GUIDO ESTATE. THE "BEST ITALIAN WINE AWARDS-THE 50 BEST WINES OF ITALY" - Visualizzazione per stampa". Archived from the original on 10 November 2014.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 42°21′58″N 12°23′40″E / 42.36611°N 12.39444°E / 42.36611; 12.39444