|Place of origin||Greece, Middle East (cooked salad form), Levant|
|Region or state||The Balkans and Eastern Mediterranean|
|Serving temperature||Hot or cold|
|Main ingredients||Eggplant and/or potatoes, minced meat|
|Cookbook: Moussaka Media: Moussaka|
Many versions have a top layer made of milk-based sauce thickened with egg (custard) or flour (béchamel sauce). In Greece, the dish is layered and typically served hot. In Turkey, it is sautéed and served in the style of a casserole, and consumed warm or at room temperature. In the Arab world it is usually eaten cold.
Names and etymology
The English name for moussaka comes from Greek mousakás (μουσακάς), which derived from Arabic musaqqa‘ah (مسقعة), meaning "chilled".
The Egyptian version of moussaka is made from layers of fried eggplant immersed in tomato sauce and then baked. A layer of seasoned cooked ground beef is usually added between the eggplant before baking. The dish can be served hot but is usually chilled for a day or so to improve the taste.
Most versions are based primarily on sautéed aubergine (eggplant) and tomato, usually with minced meat, mostly lamb. However, the Greek version includes layers of meat and eggplant topped with a Béchamel ("white") sauce, and baked. It seems likely that the Greek moussaka has Arab origins and is related to the Levantine musakhkhan, with the word moussaka derived from this Arab word.
The modern Greek version was probably formulated by chef Tselementes in the 1920s. It has three layers that are separately cooked before being combined for the final baking: a bottom layer of sliced eggplant sautéed in olive oil; a middle layer of ground lamb lightly cooked with chopped or puréed tomatoes, onion, garlic, and spices (cinnamon, allspice and black pepper); and a top layer of Béchamel sauce or savoury custard. The composed dish is then layered into a pan and baked until the top layer is browned. Moussaka is usually served warm, not piping hot; if cut hot out of the oven, moussaka squares tend to slide apart and consequently the dish needs some resting time to firm up before serving. Reheating, however, does not present the same problem.
There are variations on this basic recipe, sometimes with no top sauce, sometimes with other vegetables. Such variants may include, in addition to the eggplant slices, sautéed zucchini (courgette) slices, part-fried potato slices, or sautéed mushrooms. There is a fast-day (vegan) version in the Greek cookbook by Tselementes, which includes neither meat nor dairy products, just vegetables (ground eggplant is used instead of ground meat), tomato sauce, and bread crumbs.
Another variant is (melitzanes) papoutsakia (μελιτζάνες) παπουτσάκια (lit. 'eggplant, little shoe style') which consists of whole small eggplant stuffed with ground meat and topped with béchamel and baked, somewhat similar to the Turkish karnıyarık.
Turkish musakka is not layered. Instead, it is prepared with sautéed eggplant, green peppers, tomatoes, onions, and minced meat. It is generally eaten with pilav and cacık. There are also variants with zucchini (kabak musakka), carrots (havuç musakka) and potatoes (patates musakka).
Albanian, Bulgarian, Bosnian, Croatian, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Romanian, Slovenian and Serbian versions use potatoes instead of eggplant, pork or beef mince, and the top layer is usually milk or yogurt mixed with raw eggs, sometimes with a couple of spoons of flour added. There is also a three-layer version: the bottom layer consists of ground pork and beef, the middle layer of potato slices, and the top layer is typically a custard. Each layer is cooked on its own and layered in a pan and baked until the top is browned.
The Romanian version is made usually with potatoes or eggplant or cabbage. The layers start with the vegetable, then the layer of meat (usually pork), then vegetables, until the pot is full. Sometimes bread crumbs are used for toppings, sometimes slices of tomatoes and crushed cheese. The pot is then filled with tomato sauce. There is also a pasta variant, with pasta being used instead of vegetables. The "fasting" variant, which is vegan, replaces meat with mushrooms or a mix of sautéed onions and rice.
In the rest of the Balkans, the top layer is often a custard: this is the version introduced in the UK by Elizabeth David's Mediterranean Cookery and where it remains the usual presentation. Grated cheese or bread crumbs are often sprinkled on top.
- Karnıyarık – recipe comparable to moussaka, popular in Turkey
- List of casserole dishes
- Tepsi Baytinijan – recipe comparable to moussaka, popular in Iraq
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- Origin of word "moussaka" @ Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster also says that the first known use of word "moussaka" in English dates from 1862. Cf moussaka @ Concise OED.
- "Did You Know: Food History - Is This the First Moussaka?". www.cliffordawright.com.
- Aglaia Kremezi, "'Classic' Greek Cuisine: Not So Classic", The Atlantic, Sunday, July 13, 2010 
- Ken Albala (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 307–. ISBN 978-0-313-37626-9.
- Mark Zanger (January 2001). The American Ethnic Cookbook for Students. ABC-CLIO. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-57356-345-1.
- Leslie Strnadel; Patrick Erdley (January 2012). Bulgaria (Other Places Travel Guide). Other Places Publishing. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-9822619-9-6.
- The Balkan Cookbook. Pelican Publishing Company. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-4556-0057-1.
- Liliana Pavicic; Gordana Pirker-Mosher (1 January 2007). Best of Croatian Cooking. Hippocrene Books. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-7818-1203-0.
- Avani Burdett. Delicatessen Cookbook – Burdett's Delicatessen Recipes: How to make and sell Continental & World Cuisine foods. Springwood emedia. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-4761-4462-7.