Pakistan Television Corporation
|Founded||26 November 1964|
|Founder||Government of Pakistan|
Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta, Muzaffarabad, Skardu, Multan, Pakistan
Saba Mohsin Raza
Managing Director (MD)
(Board of Governors)
|Owner||Government of Pakistan|
Number of employees
|Parent||Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation|
Pakistan Television Corporation (Urdu: پاكِستان ٹیلی وژن نیٹ ورک; reporting name: PTV) is a public and commercial broadcasting television network, as well as a mass-media state-owned megacorporation, with headquarters at Islamabad, Pakistan.
Founded on 26 November 1964, by an international-sector firm NEC of Japan under license from the Government of Pakistan, PTV was the first major televised media broadcasting network in Pakistan and currently operates under the government-ownership management of the Government of Pakistan. Although it was originally under private-ownership management, the PTV was integrated under government-ownership in a nationalization programme in 1970, after failing to produce targeted revenue. The PTV is one of the well-expanded broadcasting network infrastructure and media broadcasting divisions in the cities of Pakistan and abroad. For most of the 20th century, the PTV enjoyed a dominant position in media outlets until the start of the 21st century and was one of the two major television networks in the country.
The end of PTV's monopoly in 2000 led to a boom in electronic media in Pakistan, which gained greater political influence in country's political spectrum. As of 2016, the PTV competes with the other private television channels and remains an important asset of Government of Pakistan.
- 1 Background
- 2 Programming Policy
- 3 Channels
- 4 Administrative divisions of PTV
- 5 PTV Introduction- a chronology of events
- 6 PTV Logo
- 7 Corporate management
- 8 PTV personalities
- 9 Some criticism of policy
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The idea of establishing a media and television industry was conceived in late 1956 and created by the privately set up national education commission, with the support of President Ayub Khan in 1960. In 1961, the private sector media mogul and industrialist Syed Wajid Ali launched a television industrial development project, bringing the role of an electrical engineer Ubaidur Rahman of Radio Pakistan's Engineering Division as the project director of the first television station in Lahore. Ali reached a milestone in 1961 after establishing a private television broadcasting company with the cooperation of Nippon Electric Company (NEC) of Japan and Thomas Television International of United Kingdom.
In 1963, a public meeting was chaired by President Ayub Khan; in which the government made decisions about the Pakistan Television stations and the media industry in the country. Since 1963, its headquarters are in Islamabad, near the Cabinet Secretariat. From 1961 to 1962, a television headquarters was established in Lahore and several pilot transmission tests were taken by Rahman's team. Subsequently, many television divisions were established throughout Pakistan by this team, including East-Pakistan.
First-ever broadcast and private ownership
On 26 November 1964, after an introduction by Syed Wajid Ali, the first-ever news broadcast was done which was beamed as a black and white transmission by the PTV. The first programme, formatted by Thomas Television International, telecast amateur programmes with foreign films; the television division in the Punjab Province was established with the help of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Colombo Plan, and the Government of Japan. Aslam Azhar (1932–- 29 Dec 2015) was appointed the first Managing Director of the Pakistan Television in charge of all the staffing requirements at the first PTV Lahore Center. This first Managing Director and executive Aslam Azhar is widely considered to be the "father of Pakistan Television". Private industries commercials were permitted with no fee; initially all the commercials of industrial conglomerates were tax-free with no additional charges.
The PTV remained under the private sector management with more than half of the shares were sold to Ministry of Information and Broadcasting in a fear that all shares would fall into the hands of government in the name of greater interest of the country. President Ayub Khan appointed Ubaidur Rahman in the Ministry of Information to continue with the NEC joint venture collaboration in launching the PTV.
The project began with a tent on the back lot of Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation by Ubaidur Rahman where a transmission tower and a studio were constructed by his team. On 26 November 1964, President Ayub Khan inaugurated the first official television station commencing transmission broadcasts from Lahore, followed by Dacca in 1965 (then the capital of East Pakistan), a third centre was established in Rawalpindi and Islamabad in 1965 and the fourth in Karachi in 1966. On 29 May 1967, a private company was established as Pakistan Television Corporation under the Company Act, 1913, whereas the private sector remained charged with broadcasting on the television.
Nationalization of Pakistan Television
After the Indo-Pakistani war in 1971, the PTV was nationalized and brought in completely under the government-ownership management by then-President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's government. Communication network expansion was vast by the PTV and government publicly funded its infrastructure expansion all over the country.
Promotion of regional literature, science-fiction miniseries, country music, and romanticizing rural values in drama playwrights were on-aired by the PTV, at the behest of public funding by the Government of Pakistan. The PTV was considered as source of major national integration.
The PTV transmission switched over from its original black and white to color transmission in 1975. Regional headquarters of PTV and television centers were established in Peshawar and Quetta in 1976. In 1977–78, the PTV broadcast the live Cricket match between England vs. Pakistan. During this time, the PTV's interview programming series brought many scientists, politicians, sportsmen, actors, musicians, and artists to public fame.
By the 1980s, the transmissions of PTV could be reached over 90% area of Pakistan. In 1980s, the PTV was the sole provider of television, and dominated the electronic media industry. During 1980s, the conservative ideas were promoted on the PTV as part of the government policy, and heavy investments were made on the promotion of education programming series.
During the decades of the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, PTV dramas and teleplays were considered as the best in the South Asia. These included Khuda Ki Basti (1969–74), Unkahi (1982), Tanhaiyaan (1985), Aangan Terha, Fifty Fifty (1979–84), Studio Dhai (2-1/2), Studio Ponay Teen (2-3/4), Andehra Ujala (1984), Sona Chandi (1983), Uncle Urfi, Taleem-e-Baalighan, Alif Noon (1981–82), Waaris (1979), Dhoop Kinare (1987), Sunehray Din,Guest House Alpha Bravo Charlie, Ana, Akhri Chatan, Zair, Zabar, Pesh (1974–75) and block buster serials like Dhuwan, Kath Putli, Wafa Ham Nibhaein Gai, Bandhan, Kaghaz Kay Phool, Muqqdas, Bint-e-Adam, Malangi (2006), Sawan, Sheela Bagh, Tinkay, Aisa Bhi Hota Hai, Rasta De Zindagi, Chubhan, Kuch Lamhay, Khuwahesho Kay Sarab, and many others.
In 1990s, the PTV's programming was said initially to have intellectual appeal but succumbed to commercial pressure. In 1992, the composition of PTV's programming was based upon on 56% of entertainment, and only 25% of news and educational programmes. About 54% of national programming was based on Urdu and only 16% accounted for English. In response to challenges by private channels such as STN and NTM as well as Indian channels, the PTV launched transnational transmission in Bangladesh, India, Iran, Gulf States, and the United States in 1992.
State capital revenue
Unlike other state-run corporations, Pakistan Television Corporation was allowed by the Government of Pakistan to raise a sizable amount of private capital to finance the stations. This includes a Rs. 35 per month TV fee charge to all consumers of electricity.
The broader perspective to start electronic media in the country was to inform and educate the people through wholesome entertainment and to inculcate in them a greater awareness of their own history, heritage, current problems and development as well as knowledge of the world at large.
In fulfillment of its broad and main objectives, PTV's telecast policy concerning matters of national and international interests has always been motivated and guided by the cardinal principles of educating viewers about the values that are vitally important in building a united, integrated and disciplined society. These objectives have successfully been achieved through programs on religion, education, entertainment and culture.
The projection of new, emerging social order is highlighted in PTV's general programming, focusing directly and indirectly on themes like morality, civic or national responsibilities, drive against narcotics, environmental pollution, agricultural reforms etc. through discussions, shows, and through anchorpersons in the transmission.
PTV channels are family-oriented and the salient features of its policy are as follows:
- PTV Corporation's broadcasts are family-oriented; they cater to the needs of local audience by showing "eastern" family programs.
- It acts on social development theory of media: That’s why it shows informative programs about health and social issues.
- It censors commercials and holds a "conservative standard" as compared to other privately owned channels.
- It supports government policies on national and international matters.
PTV had been received via satellite in South Asia, East Asia and the Middle East, Africa, Europe and North America. Selected programming could be seen on a satellite channel named Prime TV (with a partnership with PTV) in the United Kingdom, Europe and North America until 22 April 2006. On 22 April 2006, Pakistan Television Corporation started broadcasting directly to the overseas viewers including the US. This remains true as of January 2016.
PTV operates the following channels:
- PTV Home – (The original PTV) 24-hour entertainment channel, the transmission is broadcast across Pakistan on terrestrial network and worldwide through satellite. The content of the terrestrial and satellite channel is different, for example, terrestrial programming includes live telecast of Pakistan's cricket matches but satellite channel cannot broadcast these matches.
- PTV News – 24-hour news channel which can be viewed in many parts of the globe.
- PTV National – An emphasis on broadcasting programmes in different languages to represent the whole of Pakistan.
- AJK TV – For the residents of Azad Kashmir.
- PTV Bolan – For speakers of Balochi Pashto and Brahvi.
- PTV Global – Offered exclusively for the Pakistani diaspora in the United States on Dish Network, and recently launched in Europe.
- PTV Sports – a 24-hour sports channel that started from January 2012
- PTV Sports 2
- PTV Gold upcoming channel where classic dramas will be aired on.
- PTV World – started as PTV-2 in 1992 as first satellite channel of Pakistan was given a new name of PTV World in 1998 and went off air in 2007, it was re-launched as a 24-hour English channel in January 2013.
- PTV Prime (also known as Prime TV from 2002 to 2006), Prime TV had been a part of PTV Family from 1998 till 2005 as an exclusive broadcaster of PTV for Europe and North America.
- Channel-3, a 24-hour channel. a joint venture of PTV and STN (Shalimar Television Network), launched in 1999/2001 and went off air in 2005
Administrative divisions of PTV
Pakistan Television News informs its viewers across the country on the latest newsworthy happenings on the national and international levels. During the past few years, there has been rapid expansion in the area and scope of news coverage.
- Following the Pakistani private news channels, PTV News gives on-camera reporting and special news reports.
- PTV news broadcasts stretch over from early morning till midnight. There are news bulletins in Urdu, English, Arabic and Kashmiri languages. All the news bulletins after 6.00 p.m. are being aired on the national network which are beamed through satellite to more than 38 countries.
- Regional language bulletins include Punjabi from Lahore Centre, Sindhi from Karachi Centre, Pushto and Hindko from Peshawar, and Baluchi, Pushto and Bravi from Quetta Centre are telecast.
- To bring home maximum coverage of international events, PTV news has made arrangements with Reuters TV, London, to satellite news items to PTV Islamabad round the clock. PTV news covers all visits abroad of VVIPs, international conferences and important other events through its own camera teams and makes possible to air them same night.
- Like international networks, PTV News sent its camera team to Afghanistan to cover the fighting and plight of the common man there.
Current affairs programmes have been a regular features of PTV Transmission, ever since its inception. A separate PTV Current Affairs Directorate was established in 1982.
Current affairs programmes, including regional languages, produced by each of the TV Centre are accommodated in regular PTV transmission. The themes of regional language programs mainly revolve around local and provincial matters of current affairs nature. The Current Affairs Division produces programs on special occasions such as live telecast of Armed Forces Parade on Pakistan Day, live telecast of flag hoisting ceremony on Independence Day, Head of State's Address to the Nation, documentaries on important national projects, live telecast of certain sessions of Senate and National Assembly. In the program Open Forum, Federal Ministers/Minister of States are invited to answer the questions through e-mail, on Telephone and by Media/Experts sitting in the various studios of Ptv. This program is live and is very popular amongst viewers.
- Division was created in 1983 to provide healthy entertainment to viewers. It has emerged as an extremely productive and earning division for the PTV.
- The chief objectives of this division are to arrange healthy sports entertainment through the coverage of exciting moments and happening in the field of sports and to keep the viewers abreast with the National and International sports event.
- Sports Division is producing 200 minutes regular weekly transmission on PTV apart from occasional international/national sports coverage. PTV televises live national and international sports around the world, keeping in view the interest of Pakistani viewers.
International Relations Division of PTV
International Relations Division of Pakistan Television Corporation participates in the international television festivals/competitions sending best of its PTV programs to them. PTV has won distinguished prizes and commendations at those events.
A large number of PTV programs have been sold for telecast in other countries which resulted in strengthening of the financial condition of PTV. Such companies as Shalimar Recording and Broadcasting Company and Sports Star International Company are the major distributors of PTV programmes.
A lot of PTV plays and documentaries have been provided to foreign countries through government ministries and missions abroad free of charge for the projection of Pakistan and its people.
Dubbing and editing is carried out by PTV International Relations Division. Some selected programs are subtitled in English and Arabic languages for overseas projection especially for Muslim countries. Documentaries from National Geographic Magazine are being televised with Urdu dubbing. A series of animated imported programme "Treasure Island" is being dubbed in Urdu language for telecast. PTV has recently provided the satellite facilities to foreign agencies with regard to Pakistan's nuclear tests and has earned approximately US $400,000 each time.
PTV has procured foreign canned programs on hire/rental basis. PTV procures foreign programs including feature films, cartoons, science fiction, comedy, adventure, classic drama serials/series and public general-interest programs.
PTV Censor Board
PTV Censor Board was formed in 1968 headed by Director Programs Administration. It was separately instituted within PTV on the approval of the Secretary, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting in December 1980 to clear and certify bulk of imported and locally acquired programs with speed and efficiency. PTV Consultant of News/Current Affairs/Presentation presently heads the PTV Censor Board.
PTV Engineering Division
The Engineering Division takes care of the day-to-day operations and maintenance of PTV Centres and Rebroadcast Stations, new projects, Planning & Procurement, as well as Research and Development activities.
It was an engineering feat at the time Pakistan began television transmissions in 1964 at Lahore, long before its neighbors Iran in  and India in . Over the years, the system has grown into a countrywide network offering two programming channels.
PTV Introduction- a chronology of events
- 1961 Phillips Conceptual B&W Test at Expo Fair in Karachi, Pakistan.
- 1962 Private Test Transmissions in Lahore, Pakistan.
- 1964 Television service (PTV) in monochrome started at Lahore with Nippon Electric Company (NEC) Collaboration.
- 1965 Television service starts in Dhaka, East Pakistan (presently Bangladesh).
- 1965 Transmission begins in Rawalpindi/Islamabad.
- 1967 Transmission begins in Karachi. Zulfiqar Ali Bukhari appointed first General Manager of PTV-Karachi Center.
- 1973 National Microwave Network commissioned linking TV centres..
- 1974 Quetta/Peshawar centres commissioned.
- 1976 Colour transmission started.
- 1987 Federal TV centre at Islamabad commissioned.
- 1992 Second TV Channel (PTV 2) for education commissioned. (One TV station at Islamabad & 16 rebroadcast stations).
- 1996 Local area transmission from four (4) stations started and extended to 3 more stations.
- 1998 Transmission of PTV World programmes started.
- 1998 Up to six production centres (Lahore, Karachi, Quetta, Peshawar, Islamabad-I & Islamabad-II). 35 rebroadcast stations in operation for PTV-1. 16 rebroadcast stations in operation for PTV-2.
- PTV-1 – Area covered: 38%; Population covered: 86.48%
- PTV-2 – Area covered: 24.19%; Population covered: 55.83%
Established in 1987, Pakistan Television Academy is an apex TV institution in Pakistan, which imparts professional training in disciplines of television broadcast technology. It is headed by a full-time director and assisted by a team of television professionals who are members of the academic faculty.
Till June 1998, over 3100 persons have attended training programmes conducted by PTV Academy. These participants attended training courses in Engineering, Computer, Finance, Administration, News, Current Affairs and Programmes Production. They included visiting participants from other countries including SAARC countries members.
Year 2012 performance
Year 2012 saw a rapid popularity in PTV programs. PTV saw a huge gain in viewership according to TRP( Target rating point company) ratings by providing coverage to 2012 ICC World Twenty20 cricket games and showing the top-rated drama serial on PTV "Talafi".
Ubaidur Rahman the first General Manager and originator of PTV commissioned Pakistan's supremo artist Abdur Rahman Chughtai to design a conceptual logo for PTV, this logo was later redesigned with minor modifications by another leading artist Shahzad Nawaz Khan for a more up-to-date look. Recently in the year 2016, PTV's channel logos were redesigned by PTV's Creative Manager (Design) Babur Saghir. By redesigning the logos of these ten channels of PTV his design philosophy was as follows: The harmony in the design of our new logos depicts unity and connectivity. The non-conventional shape represents modernity, innovation and the new age of PTV. PTV engraved on gold symbolizes the last 50 years of our very strong connection with our audience (PTV Golden Anniversary was celebrated in 2014). The diverse colour palette is representative of the diversity of our people. The golden stroke shows dynamism and the transformation of PTV.
The Chairman/CEO is appointed by the Prime Minister and, finally confirmation approved by the President. The Chairman heads the Board of Governors that are appointed by the Government of Pakistan to manage its affairs. As of current, Atta-ul-Haq Qasmi is the current chairman of the PTV.
The Managing Director (MD) is the administrative head of the PTV with executive responsibilities. The appointment of MD comes from the approval from the Government of Pakistan and approval from the Chairman of the PTV.
The early team in 1964 at PTV-Lahore Center
- Ubaidur Rahman, first General Manager, (Founder and Chief Executive Officer of PTV), by appointment of President Ayub Khan in 1964
- Aslam Azhar, first Managing Director of PTV Lahore Television Center ( 26 Nov 1964)
- Nisar Hussain (first Program Producer/ Director of PTV- Lahore Center)
- Zubair Chaudhry
- Fazal Kamal - hired away from old Radio Pakistan, Karachi station by Aslam Azhar to join his PTV Lahore Center team in 1964
- Nisar Mirza - TV Cameraman
- Khurshid Akhtar Naqvi - TV Cameraman
- Mustafa Kamal Mandokhail
- Sharif Khan Poonchwaley - sitar player
- Tufail Niazi- folk singer
- Muslehuddin- the first news reporter of PTV Programs at Lahore Television Center
- Mumtaz Hamid Rao- first news reporter in the field
- Zafar Samdani- first news editor at PTV Lahore Center
- Tariq Aziz- the first on-air news broadcaster PTV Lahore Television Center (26 Nov 1964)
- Kanwal Hameed - first female news broadcaster
Syed Mohsin Ali was the legendary Drama producer of PTV News, who produced popular and award-winning drama serials including Tanhaian, Ankahi, Aathwaan Samandar, and one of the best serial Jinnah say Quaid on the founder of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Syed Mohsin Ali was also awarded Lifetime Achievement Award and many other PTV Awards. Syed Mohsin Ali was also the teacher of famous film and drama producer Shoaib Mansoor. They both jointly produced the famous drama serial Sunehry Din.
- Zulfiqar Ali Bukhari (father of broadcasting in Pakistan) appointed first General Manager of PTV-Karachi Center in 1967 but he soon resigned due to political differences with Ayub Khan regime.
- Agha Nasir- PTV Producer/Director of Programming at Lahore Centre
- Kunwar Aftab Ahmed- Director of PTV Drama Serials
- Anwar Hussain - PTV actor at Lahore Center
- Akhtar Waqar Azeem- Programs Manager, PTV Lahore Center
- Syed Aftab Azeem - Producer Programs, PTV Lahore Center
- Ashfaq Ahmed- Author of PTV Drama Serials
- Zia Mohyeddin- anchor person on PTV Shows in the 1970s
- Muneeza Hashmi - producer of PTV Programs in the 1970s (a daughter of renowned poet Faiz Ahmed Faiz)
- Ashraf Azeem
- Fazila Qazi
- Firdous Jamal (TV actor)
- Qavi Khan (TV actor)
- Kashif Mehmood (TV actor)
- Irfan Khoosat (TV actor)
- Ayesha Sana (TV actress)
- Nauman Ejaz (TV actor)
- Moeen Akhtar (TV comedian)
- Sohail Ahmed (TV comedian)
- Tariq Aziz (TV host)
- Shoaib Mansoor (TV producer-director)
- Ashan Qadir Hashmi
- Iqbal Ansari
- Amjad Islam Amjad- author of PTV Dramas
- Ghayyur Akhtar (TV actor)
- Muhammad Ghayas Uddin
- Masood Akhtar (TV actor)
- Aurangzaib Laghari (TV actor)
- Munnu Bhai- author of PTV Dramas
- Rashid Mehmood (TV actor)
- Farrukh Sohail Goindi
- Obaidullah Baig (TV host)
- Zahid Iqbal Mirza
- Murtaza Baig
- Siddiq Ismail- Naat Khawan
- Qari Abdul Majid Noor
- Dildar Pervaiz Bhatti (TV host)
- Muhammad Farooq Naat Khawan
- Mumtaz Hamid Rao (Director News)
- Fatima Surayya Bajia (TV dramas writer)
- Ishrat Ansari
- Javed Jabbar (TV film director)
- Mehreen Jabbar (TV film director)
- Mohammed Ehteshamuddin
- Jan Muhammad Baloch
- Tufail Niazi- a renowned folk singer and PTV performer
- Anwar Sajjad - author of PTV Dramas
- Sadia Imam (TV host)
- Rauf Khalid
- Saadia Afzaal (TV host)
- Faiz Ahmed Meeran
- Muhammad, Umar
- Tariq Mairaj
- Iqbal Hasan Khan
- Zafar Mairaj
- Tauseeq Haider
- Kanwal Masood
- Amjad Bukhari
- Kanwal Naseer (TV news anchorperson)
- Mustansar Hussain Tarar- PTV anchor person
- Manzoor Qureshi
- Zafar Malik, Executive Producer for News Broadcasts
- Asmatullah Niazi
- Iqbal Jamil
- Alam Lohar- renowned folk singer and PTV performer
- Engineer Muhammad Azhar Murtaza
- Farooq (food service staff- worked as a "waiter")
Some criticism of policy
- Punjabi is spoken by a huge majority of the Punjab province as well as in Pakistan, yet PTV does not have a separately devoted TV channel in the Punjabi language. Pakistan TV makes its announcements in Urdu, the national language. Punjabi language is being marginalised by PTV according to some critics. Although Pakistan Television Multan TV Center in Punjab, Pakistan started broadcasting some of its programs in the local Saraiki language some years ago. Also a few musical PTV programs are broadcast in Punjabi language from PTV-Lahore Center.
- List of television stations in Pakistan
- List of television programmes broadcast by the PTV
- Sarwar Munir Rao – Managing director of news for PTV
- Logan, Stephen (2008). "Television in Pakistan". In Indrajit Banerjee. Asian Communication Handbook, 2008 (google books). New, York, United States (United Nations Secretariat): UNESCO. pp. 377–400. ISBN 978-981-4136-10-5. Retrieved 5 June 2012., Retrieved 13 Jan 2016
- http://www.hipinpakistan.com/news/1148726/ptv-to-launch-a-new-sports-channel-in-february, "Father of PTV Aslam Azhar passes away at 83", Retrieved 17 Jan 2016
- Qadeer, Mohammad. "Development and Countryside". Pakistan - Social and Cultural Transformations in a Muslim Nation (google books). Routledge, Qadeer. ISBN 9781134186174. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- Thomas, Amos Owen. Imagi-Nations and Borderless Television: Media, Culture and Politics Across Asia. SAGE, Thomas. ISBN 9780761933960. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- History of Pakistan Television Network, Retrieved 13 Jan 2016
- Gunaratne, ed. by Shelton A. (2000). Handbook of the media in Asia (1. Aufl. ed.). New Delhi [u.a.]: Sage, Gunaratne. p. 62. ISBN 0761994270.
- Samiuddin, Osman. The Unquiet Ones: A History of Pakistan Cricket. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 9789350298022.
- AsiaMedia :: PAKISTAN: PTV to earn Rupees 4 billion through license fees: New collection system
- http://www.hipinpakistan.com/news/1148726/ptv-to-launch-a-new-sports-channel-in-february, Retrieved 17 Jan 2016
- http://www.dawn.com/news/827555/urdu-literature-bokhari-of-the-radio, Zulfiqar Ali Bukhari, first General Manager of Pakistan Television-Karachi Center on Dawn newspaper, Published 31 Oct 2010, Retrieved 5 May 2016
- "Atta-ul Haq Qasmi assumes charge as Chairman PTV". Pakistan Today. Pakistan Today. 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- "PTV's Official Web Portal". Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- http://www.dawn.com/news/641657/punjabi-leaders-academics-fail-language-of-the-people, Dawn, Karachi newspaper article, published 5 July 2011, Retrieved 3 March 2016
- https://southasiacommunication.wordpress.com/report-1-language-policy-pakistan/ Language Policy in Pakistan, Retrieved 3 March 2016