Cloxazolam

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Cloxazolam
Cloxazolam.svg
Cloxazolam-3d-model.png
Clinical data
Trade names Sepazon, Olcadil, Akton, Lubalix
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Metabolism Hepatic
Elimination half-life 65 hours
Excretion Renal
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
Chemical and physical data
Formula C17H14Cl2N2O2
Molar mass 349.2 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
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Cloxazolam[1] (marketed under the brand names Sepazon, Olcadil (Brazil, Portugal and Spain), Akton (Belgium), and Lubalix (Switzerland)) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.[2] Cloxazolam is metabolised into the active metabolite chlordesmethyldiazepam (delorazepam).[3] It possesses anxiolytic,[4] anticonvulsant,[5] hypnotic,[6] sedative[7] and skeletal muscle relaxant properties.[8]

Indications[edit]

Cloxazolam's main use is as an anti-anxiety drug.[9]

Side effects[edit]

An increased heart rate may occur as an adverse effect of cloxazolam.[10]

Pharmacology[edit]

The pharmacological effects of cloxazolam are a result of mainly its active metabolites, thus cloxazolam is a prodrug. The main site of action of cloxazolam and its active metabolites are the benzodiazepine receptor.[11]

The pharmacological actions of benzodiazepines at the GABAA receptor are similar to those of neurosteroids. Neuroactive steroids are positive allosteric modulators of the GABAA receptor, enhancing GABA function and in turn have effects on mood and other functions. Many benzodiazepines (diazepam, medazepam, estazolam, temazepam, flunitrazepam and nitrazepam) potently inhibit the enzymes involved in the metabolism of neurosteroids. The tetrahydroxazole ring that cloxazolam and oxazolam have decreases the inhibitory potency of benzodiazepines on neurosteroids. Thus there could be subtle differences between cloxazolam and other benzodiazepines.[12] However, because the parent prodrugs of cloxazolam and oxazolam were tested rather than the active metabolites, this is purely speculative.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ DE Patent 1817923
  2. ^ "Benzodiazepine Names". non-benzodiazepines.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  3. ^ Oliveira-Silva, D.; Oliveira, CH.; Mendes, GD.; Galvinas, PA.; Barrientos-Astigarraga, RE.; De Nucci, G. (Dec 2009). "Quantification of chlordesmethyldiazepam by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to a cloxazolam bioequivalence study". Biomed Chromatogr. 23 (12): 1266–75. doi:10.1002/bmc.1249. PMID 19488979. 
  4. ^ Kamioka, T.; Nakayama, I.; Akiyama, S.; Takagi, H. (Mar 1977). "Effects of oxazolam, cloxazolam, and CS-386, new anti-anxiety drugs, on socially induced suppression and aggression in pairs of monkeys". Psychopharmacology. 52 (1): 17–23. doi:10.1007/BF00426594. PMID 15296. 
  5. ^ Ito, M.; Miyajima, T.; Fujii, T.; Okuno, T. (Feb 2004). "Cloxazolam treatment for patients with intractable epilepsy". Pediatr Neurol. 30 (2): 111–4. doi:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2003.07.004. PMID 14984903. 
  6. ^ Inoue, H.; Maeno, Y.; Iwasa, M.; Matoba, R.; Nagao, M. (Sep 2000). "Screening and determination of benzodiazepines in whole blood using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry". Forensic Sci Int. 113 (1–3): 367–73. doi:10.1016/S0379-0738(00)00226-7. PMID 10978650. 
  7. ^ Brisse, B.; Tetsch, P.; Toye, A. (1980). "[Clinical study on stress protective action of cloxazolam in jaw surgery in double blind comparison to placebo (author's transl)]". Arzneimittelforschung. 30 (4): 679–82. PMID 6104969. 
  8. ^ Ansseau, M.; von Frenckell, R. (1990). "Controlled comparison of two anxiolytic benzodiazepines, cloxazolam and bromazepam". Neuropsychobiology. 24 (1): 25–9. doi:10.1159/000119038. PMID 1983433. 
  9. ^ Fischer-Cornelssen, KA. (1981). "Multicenter trials and complementary studies of cloxazolam, a new anxiolytic drug". Arzneimittelforschung. 31 (10): 1757–65. PMID 6119092. 
  10. ^ Boucsein, W.; Wendt-Suhl, G. (Mar 1982). "[Psychological and physiological effects of cloxazolam and diazepam under anxiety-evoking and control conditions on healthy subjects (author's transl)]". Pharmacopsychiatria. 15 (2): 48–56. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1019508. PMID 6123123. 
  11. ^ Nakatsuka, I.; Shimizu, H.; Asami, Y.; Katoh, T.; Hirose, A.; Yoshitake, A. (Jan 1985). "Benzodiazepines and their metabolites: relationship between binding affinity to the benzodiazepine receptor and pharmacological activity". Life Sci. 36 (2): 113–9. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(85)90089-X. PMID 2857046. 
  12. ^ Usami N; Yamamoto T; Shintani S; Ishikura S; Higaki Y; Katagiri Y; Hara A. (Apr 2002). "Substrate specificity of human 3(20)alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase for neurosteroids and its inhibition by benzodiazepines" (pdf). Biol Pharm Bull. 25 (4): 441–5. doi:10.1248/bpb.25.441. PMID 11995921. [permanent dead link]

External links[edit]