Electric car use by country

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Global top-selling light-duty plug-in electric vehicle regional or country markets as of December 2020.
Comparison of plug-in electric car ownership per capita in selected top selling countries and regional markets as plug-in cars per 1,000 people, as of December 2020.

Electric car use by country varies worldwide, as the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles is affected by consumer demand, market prices, availability of charging infrastructure, and government policies, such as purchase incentives and long term regulatory signals (ZEV mandates, CO2 emissions regulations, fuel economy standards, and phase-out of internal combustion engine vehicles).[1]

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are generally divided into all-electric or battery electric vehicles (BEVs), that run only on batteries, and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), that combine battery power with internal combustion engines. The popularity of electric vehicles has been expanding rapidly due to government subsidies, their increased range and lower battery costs, and environmental sensitivity. However, the stock of plug-in electric cars represented just 1% of all passengers vehicles on the world's roads by the end of 2020, of which pure electrics constituted two thirds.[2]

Global cumulative sales of highway-legal light-duty plug-in vehicles reached 1 million unit mark in September 2015,[3] and 5 million in December 2018.[4] By the end of 2020 there were more than 10 million light-duty plug-in vehicles on the world's roads.[5] Sales of plug-in passenger cars achieved a 4.6% global market share of new car sales in 2020, up from 2.5% in 2019, and 1.3% in 2017.[2][6][7] The PEV market has been shifting towards fully electric battery vehicles. The global ratio between BEVs and PHEVs went from 56:44 in 2012, to 60:40 in 2015, and rose to 74:26 in 2019.[8][9] The ratio declined to 69:31 in 2020.[10]

As of December 2020, China had the largest stock of highway legal plug-in passenger cars with about 4.6 million units, 42% of the global fleet in use.[1][11] China also dominates the plug-in light commercial vehicle and electric bus deployment, with its stock reaching over 500,000 buses in 2019, 98% of the global stock, and 247,500 electric light commercial vehicles, 65% of the global fleet.[1]

Europe had about 3 million plug-in passenger cars at the end of 2020, accounting for 30% of the global stock.[1][12] Europe also has the second largest electric light commercial vehicle stock, with over 115,000 units, 31% of the global stock in 2019.[1] As of December 2020, cumulative sales in the United States totaled 1.74 million plug-in cars,[13] with California listed as the largest U.S. plug-in regional market with over 800,000 plug-in cars sold, 46% of national sales.[14]

As of December 2020, Germany is the leading European country with around 700,000 plug-ins registered since 2010.[15] Norway has the highest market penetration per capita in the world,[16] and also has the world's largest plug-in segment market share of new car sales, 74.7% in 2020.[17] Over 10% of all passenger cars on Norwegian roads were plug-ins in October 2018, and passed 15% in 2020.[18][19] The Netherlands has the highest density of EV charging stations in the world by 2019.[20]

History[edit]

Evolution of the ratio between global sales of BEVs and PHEVs from 2011 to 2020.[6][8][9][10]

The global stock of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) between 2005 and 2009 consisted exclusively of all-electric cars (BEV), totaling about 1,700 units in 2005, and almost 6,000 in 2009. The plug-in stock rose to about 12,500 units in 2010, of which 350 were plug-in hybrids (PHEVs).[21][22] By comparison, during the Golden Age of the electric car at the beginning of the 20th century, the EV stock peaked at approximately 30,000 vehicles.[23] After the introduction of the Think City, Nissan Leaf and the Chevrolet Volt in late December 2010, the first mass-production plug-in electric cars by major manufacturers, plug-in sales grew to about 50,000 units in 2011, to 125,000 in 2012, and almost 213,000 cars and utility vans in 2013. Sales totaled over 315,000 units in 2014, up 48% from 2013.[24] In March 2014, Norway became the first country where over 1 in every 100 passenger cars on the roads was a plug-in,[25] and, by October 2018, 1 in every 10 passenger cars registered in Norway was a plug-in.[18]

In five years, global sales of highway legal light-duty plug-in vehicles increased more than ten-fold, totaling more than 565,000 units in 2015—an 80% increase from 2014, driven mainly by China and Europe.[24] About 775,000 plug-in electric cars and vans were sold in 2016, and 1.22 million in 2017—up 57% from 2016—with China accounting for about half of global sales.[26][27][28] The global market share of the new light-duty plug-in segment reached 1.3% in 2017, up from 0.86% in 2016, and 0.38% in 2014.[7][29] Global light-duty plug-in vehicle sales passed the 3 million milestone in November 2017[30] and 5 million at the end 2018.[4] Global sales totaled 2,018,247 plug-in passenger cars in 2018, up 72% from 2017, with a market share of 2.1%.[6] The BEV:PHEV ratio rose to 69:31 in 2018 and to 74:26 in 2019.[8][6] By the end of 2019 the stock of light-duty plug-in vehicles totaled about 7.5 million units.[31] Worldwide sales in 2019 rose to 2,209,831 units with a global market share of 2.5%.[8] The combined number of PEV and hybrid cars sold in the European Union hit a record in July 2020, accounting for 18% of the total number of passenger cars sold. It also was the first time that more than 200,000 electric cars were sold in a single month.[32]

Annual sales of plug-in passenger cars in the world's top country and regional markets between 2011 and 2020.
Plug-in electric cars in use as a proportion of all passenger cars on the road in selected countries and regional markets at the end of 2020.
Market share of new plug-in light-duty vehicles in China, Europe and the United States between 2015 and 2020.[33][2][34]
Date Milestone
1996 Launch of the limited production General Motors EV1[35]
1997 Launch of the Toyota RAV4 EV[36]
December 2008 100th Tesla Roadster delivered[37]
December 2010 Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt deliveries began[38]
December 2012 Annual global sales passed the 100,000 mark[21][24]
March 2014 Norway achieves 1% of cars on the road as plug-ins[25]
October 2014 EU adopt the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive in 2014.[39]
December 2014 100,000th plug-in sold in Japan[21][40]
September 2015 Cumulative global plug-in sales passed 1 million units.[3]
March
2016
500,000th new energy vehicle sold in China[41]
(includes heavy-duty commercial vehicles)
100,000th plug-in sold in Norway[42]
May 2016 500,000th plug-in sold in Europe[43]
August 2016 500,000th plug-in sold in the U.S[44]
September 2016 500,000th new energy passenger car sold in China[45]
Global all-electric car/van sales passed 1 million.[46]
October 2016 100,000th plug-in sold in France[47][48]
November 2016 100,000th plug-in sold in the Netherlands[49]
December 2016 Cumulative global plug-in sales passed 2 million units[26]
5% of passenger cars on Norwegian roads are plug-ins[16]
November 2017 Cumulative global plug-in sales passed 3 million units[30]
December 2017 Annual global sales passed the 1 million unit mark[7][28]
Annual global market share passed 1% for the first time[7][28]
First half 2018 1 million plug-in electric cars sold in Europe[50]
September
2018
1 million plug-in electric cars sold in the U.S.[51]
2 million new energy passenger cars sold in China[52]
(includes heavy-duty commercial vehicles)
October 2018 10% of passenger cars on Norwegian roads are plug-ins[18]
Netherlands has the highest density of EV chargers (19.3 chargers per 100 km of paved road)[53]
November 2018 500,000th plug-in car sold in California[54]
December 2018 Annual global sales passed the 2 million unit mark[6][55]
Annual sales of EVs passed 1 million in China[56]
Cumulative global plug-in sales passed 5 million units[4]
Tesla Model 3 becomes first EV to exceed 100,000 sales mark in a single year[57]
June 2019 China's Electric Vehicle Charging Posts surpasses 1 million[58]
December 2019 Germany passes Norway becoming Europe's largest EV market in 2019 by annual sales volume (108,839)[59]
December 2020 Cumulative global plug-in sales passed 10 million units[5]
Annual sales of EVs passed 1 million in Europe[60][61]
Over 15% of cars on Norwegian roads are plug-ins[19]
April 2021 80% of new cars sold in Norway are plug-ins[62]
June 2021 Tesla Model 3 is the first electric car to pass 1 million units in global sales[63]
November 2021 1,000,000th plug-in car sold in California[64]

Statistics[edit]

Sales, market, and usage share[edit]

Light-duty plug-in electric vehicle stock, market penetration, annual sales, and market share in the top selling countries and regional markets for latest available year
Country PEV stock/
cumulative sales
(2020)[i]
Annual sales
(2020)
Market share
(2020)
% of cars
in use (2020)[ii]
 China[iii] 4,595,100[1][11] 1,246,000[11] 5.4% 1.75%[65]
 Europe[iv] 3,299,823
[12][26][59][66][67]
1,364,813[12] 11.4% 1.0%[68]
 United States[iii] 1,741,566[13] 297,939[13] 2.2%[34] 0.7%[69]
 Germany[iii] ~700,000[15] 394,632[70] 13.5% 1.2%[71]
 California[iii] 803,816[14] 145,099[14] 8.1% 2.27% [72]
 Norway[v][vi] 480,008[73] 113,588[17] 74.7% 17.2%[19]
 France 470,295[74] 194,881[74] 11.2% 1.29%[75]
 United Kingdom 434,282[1][76] 175,082[76] 10.7% 1.38% [77]
 Netherlands[vi] 297,380[78] 87,946[78] 24.6% 3%[79]
 Japan[iii][vii] 297,181[2] 29,000[2] 0.6%[2] N/A
 Sweden 193,054[1][80] 96,054[80] 32.2% 4%[79]
 Canada[iii] 188,100[1][10] 47,000[10] 3.0% (2019) 0.73%[81]
Global total[iii] 10,800,000[5] 3,240,000[10] 4.6%[2] 1.0%[82]
Notes
  1. ^ Includes sales or registrations of highway legal light-duty vehicles except where noted
  2. ^ Market penetration is the number of plug-in passenger cars as a percentage of the stock or total number of passenger cars registered. Data for latest available year
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Only includes plug-in electric passenger cars
  4. ^ European figures correspond to European Union member countries plus the UK and three EFTA countries (Iceland, Norway and Switzerland) as per ACEA
  5. ^ Includes registrations of used imports
  6. ^ a b Registered light-duty plug-in stock at the end of 2020 (in use)
  7. ^ Kei cars are not included for the Japanese market share estimate

Sales[edit]

Light-duty plug-in electric vehicle yearly new sales and end-of-year cumulative sales (or stock) in the top PEV selling countries and regional markets
Country 2020 2019 2018 2017
stock sales stock sales stock sales stock sales
 China[i][ii] 4,595,100
[1][11]
1,246,000
[11]
3,349,100
[1]
1,204,000
[83]
2,243,772
[84][85]
1,016,002
[85][i]
1,227,770
[84]
579,000
[86][i]
 United States[i] 1,741,566
[13]
297,939
[13]
1,450,020
[1]
329,528
[87]
1,126,000
[88]
361,307
[88]
764,666
[89][90]
199,818
[88]
 Germany[i] ≈700,000
[15]
394,632
[70]
305,589
[26][91][92][93]
108,839
[93]
196,750
[26][91][92]
67,504
[92]
129,246
[26][91]
54,492
[91]
 Norway[iii][ii] 480,008[73] 113,588[17] 384,066[94] 88,443[95] 296,215[96] 86,290[97] 209,122[96] 71,737[98]
 France 470,295
[74]
194,881
[74]
275,575
[74]
69,466
[99]
204,617
[47][100][101][102]
53,745
[102]
149,797
[47][100][101]
42,799
[102]
 United Kingdom 434,282
[1][76]
175,082
[76]
259,200
[1]
72,584
[103]
197,000
[104]
59,911
[i][105]
137,000[104] 49,182
[i][105]
 Netherlands[ii] 297,380[78] 89,362[106] 207,922[78] 67,520[1] 145,882[78] 29,187[107] 121,540[78] 11,085[107]
 Japan[i][iv][ii] 297,181[2] 29,000[2] 267,415[2] 43,867[108] 239,242
[2]
52,013[109] 205,212[84] 54,100[84]
 Sweden[ii] 193,054

[1][80]

96,054[80] 97,000[1] 41,784[110] 79,579
[84][111]
29,909[111] 49,670[84] 19,793[111]
 Canada 188,100
[1][10]
47,000[10] 141,100[1] 50,960[1] 90,100[1] 44,150[1] 45,950[84] 18,746[112]
Global total[i] 10,800,000

[5][v]

3,240,000

[10][v]

7,167,830[1] 2,101,680[1] 5,127,297
[6][84]
2,018,247[6] 3,109,050[84] 1,148,700[84]
Light-duty plug-in cumulative registrations in selected regional markets
 Europe (EU+3)[vi] 3,299,823
[12][26][59][66][67]
1,364,813
[12]
1,935,010
[26][59][66][67]
588,575
[12][67]
1,346,435
[26][113][66][114]
406,052
[113][114]
940,383
[26][113][66]
302,383
[113][66]
 California[i] 834,518
[115][16][116]
132,742
[115]
701,776
[115][16][116]
159,081
[115]
542,695
[16][115]
163,765
[115]
378,930
[16][115]
107,779[115]
Plug-in vehicle cumulative sales for all class segments in China[117][118][119][120]
 China[vii]
(all class segments)
5,555,447
[11][26][83][86][121]
1,367,000[11] 4,188,447
[26][83][86][121]
1,204,000[83] 2,984,447
[26][86][121]
1,256,000[121] 1,728,447
[26][86]
777,000[86]
Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Only includes plug-in electric passenger cars
  2. ^ a b c d e Registered light-duty plug-in stock in use at the end of the year
  3. ^ Includes registrations of used imports
  4. ^ Kei cars are not included for the Japanese market share estimate
  5. ^ a b Includes plug-in electric passenger cars and fully electric light-duty commercial vehicles
  6. ^ European figures correspond to European Union member countries plus the UK and three EFTA countries (Iceland, Norway and Switzerland) as per ACEA
  7. ^ Includes passenger plug-ins and heavy-duty commercial vehicles such as buses and trucks

Market share[edit]

Passenger plug-in market share of total new car sales for selected countries and selected regional markets since 2013
Country H1 2021[122] 2020 2019[123] 2018 2017 2016

[16][124]

2015

[125][126]

2014[127] 2013[128]
 Norway[95][97][98][129] 82.7% 74.7% 55.9% 49.1% 39.2% 29.1% 22.4% 13.8% 6.1%
 Iceland[130][131][132][133][134] 55.6% 45.0% 22.6% 19% 14.05% 4.6% 2.93% 2.71% 0.94%
 Sweden[111][135][136][137] 39.9% 32.2% 11.4% 8.2% 5.2% 3.5% 2.62% 1.53% 0.71%
 Finland[130][138][139][140] 28.3% 18.1% 6.9% 4.7% 2.57% 1.2%
 Denmark[141][142][143][144] 26.8% 16.4% 4.2% 2% 0.4% 0.6% 2.29% 0.88% 0.29%
 Germany[91][92][127][145][146][147] 22.1% 13.5% 3.0% 1.9% 1.58% 1.1% 0.73% 0.43% 0.25%
 Netherlands[148][149][78] 19.7% 24.6% 14.9% 6.2% 2.2% 6.7% 9.9% 3.87% 5.55%
 Luxembourg 18.3%
  Switzerland[150][130][151][152] 18.2% 14.3% 5.5% 3.2% 2.55% 1.8% 1.98% 0.75% 0.44%
 Austria[130][153][154][155] 17.2% 9.5% 3.5% 2.6% 2.06% 1.6% 0.90%
 France[i][101][102][156] 15.5% 11.2% 2.8% 2.11% 1.98% 1.4% 1.19% 0.70% 0.83%
 Portugal[150][157] 15.4% 13.5% 5.7% 3.6% 1.9%
 Belgium[150][130][158][159] 15.3% 10.7% 3.2% 2.5% 2.7% 1.8%
 UK[105][160][161][162] 14.9% 10.7% 2.9% 2.53% 1.86% 1.37% 1.07% 0.59% 0.16%
 Ireland[163][164][165] 13.4% 7.4% 4.1% 1.57% 0.72% 0.48% 0.46% 0.27%
 New Zealand[166][167][168] 12.5% 3% 2.8% 0.96% 0.72% 0.50% 0.23% 0.21%
 China[27][127][145][169][170][171][172] 12% 5.4% 4.9% 4.2% 2.1% 1.31% 0.84% 0.23% 0.08%
 Spain[173][174][175][176][177] 4.8% 1.4% 0.9% 0.6% 0.32%
 Italy[178][179] 4.3% 0.6% 0.26% 0.1% 0.08% 0.09% 0.08% 0.07%
 Canada[112][180][181] 3.5% 3.0% 2.2% 0.92% 0.58% 0.35% 0.28% 0.18%
 United States[34][90][182][183][184][172] 3% 2.2% 1.9% 2.1% 1.1% 0.90% 0.66% 0.72% 0.60%
 Australia[185][186][187][188][189] 2%[186] 0.78%[190] 0.6% 0.3% 0.19% 0.12% 0.15% 0.12% 0.026%
 Singapore[191][192] 1.4% 0.3%
 Japan[2][193][109][194] 0.6% 0.9% 1.0% 1.1% 0.59% 0.68% 1.06% 0.91%
Global average[2][6][7][195][196] 4.6% 2.5% 2.1% 1.3% 0.86% 0.7% 0.4% 0.3%
 California[115][197] 11.1%[198] 8.1% 7.6% 7.6% 4.9% 3.6% 3.1% 3.2% 2.5%
 Europe[114][130][199][200][201][202][173][ii] 15%[172] 11.4% 3.6% 2.5% 1.74% 1.3% 1.41% 0.66% 0.49%
 Hong Kong[203][204][205] 14% 5% 5% 4.84% 0.39%
Notes
  1. ^ For 2015 and before, the French market share corresponds to combined sales BEV passenger cars and utility vans only (PHEVs not included).[206]
  2. ^ European figures correspond to European Union member countries plus the UK and three EFTA countries (Iceland, Norway and Switzerland) as per ACEA

Albania[edit]

Albania is considered one of the best countries for emissions for electric cars as it generates all of its electricity from hydroelectric power.[207][208] Electric cars are currently used by the Albanian Police Force.[209] The Interior Minister claimed, that the cost of fuel per 100 km (62 mi) would be less than 120 Albanian leke (less than 1 euro).[209] Saytaxi is the first taxi company in Albania that offers electric vehicles and operates a fast EV (electric vehicles) charging point, and have been operating in the country since 2014. Its goal is to replace 80% of all non-electric cars with electric in the taxi business.[210]

On 31 October 2017, Tirana became one of the few European capital cities to use electric buses when they tested a Solaris Urbino 12, with the purpose of reducing pollution.[211] Tirana's goal is to gradually convert 10 to 20 percent of the bus fleet into electric ones.[211]

Australia[edit]

The total stock of electric vehicles in Australia is approximately 21,000 as of 2020.[212] In May 2021, electric vehicles accounted for 2% of new car sales in Australia, with approximately 5,000 Tesla vehicles sold in the first half of 2021.[186] However, it has been determined that approximately 66% of Australians will be driving electric cars by 2030.[213] Moreover, 56% of Australians would consider an electric car when they next bought a vehicle.[214] In early 2020, electric vehicle registrations nearly doubled the registrations of the previous year, showing the rapidly increasing popularity of electric vehicles in Australia.[215] The Tesla Model 3 is Australia's most popular electric vehicle accounting for 70% of EV sales in 2019.[216][217][218][219]

The Labor-led opposition government in Australia in 2019 proposed a 50% electric vehicle target by 2030.[220] Government analysis in 2019 also forecasted 50% of all new cars sold in Australia by 2035 will be electric on the current path.[221]

The state of Victoria is Australia's most important electric vehicle market with the highest number of electric vehicle purchases in Australia between 2011 and 2017 with a total of 1,324 car sales.[222] Victoria also manufactures electric vehicles with a commercial electric vehicle manufacturing facility to be established in 2021, producing 2,400 vehicles per year.[223]

In March 2021, the Hyundai Nexo became the first fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) to be released in Australia.[224][225] Coinciding with the release of the Nexo, the first publicly available hydrogen refuelling station in Australia opened the same day in Canberra.[225]

Government incentives[edit]

Despite no federal EV sales target, Victoria aim for 50% of new car sales to be electric vehicles by 2030.[226] The South Australian government also aim for 100% of new car sales to be electric vehicles by 2035.[227] The NSW Government is also considering an official ban date for the sale of petrol and diesel vehicles.[228]

Nationally, fuel efficient vehicles attract less Luxury Car Tax, leading to a saving of up to $2,648.[229] Victoria offers a subsidy of $3,000 - $5,000[230][231] for BEV cars under $68,740.[232] ACT offers $15,000 interest free loan[233] Victorian EV drivers pay a reduced rate of stamp duty and $100 off registration fees[234] In ACT BEVs stamp duty exempt and 20% reduction in registration fees[235] with the first 2 years of registration free[233] EVs exempt from stamp duty until 2023[236] In Tasmania Car rental companies are exempt from registration fees on new and used EVs[236]

The Federal Government pledged to spend $74.5 million on charging infrastructure in the budget in 2021.[188] The Federal Government is also contributing $15 million to a national electric vehicle charging network built by Evie Networks and connecting Melbourne, Canberra, Sydney, Adelaide and Brisbane.[237]

Austria[edit]

Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 1677 in 2015 to 6764 in 2018. At the first half of 2019, 4913 new BEV were sold, representing 2.8% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 1677 3826 5433 6764 4913
% of total new registrations not available not available 1.5% 2.0% 2.8%

Belgium[edit]

Sales of electric cars rose from 97 units in 2009, to 116 in 2010, 425 in 2011, to 900 in 2012. Of the latter, only 350 units were sold to individuals.[239] Then, sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 1358 in 2015 to 3647 in 2018. At the first half of 2019, 4601 new BEV were sold, representing 1.5% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 1358 2054 2713 3647 4601
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.5% 0.7% 1.5%

The Belgian government established purchase incentives for BEVs, ending in 2012.[240] Hybrids were not eligible.[241][242][243] A separate subsidy supported investments in public charging stations.[241]

Brazil[edit]

Nissan Leaf operating as a taxi at Santos Dumont airport as part of a demonstrations program in Rio de Janeiro.
Eco Vagas: parking spaces reserved for low emissions vehicles in Brasília.

As of September 2015, 2,214 hybrid and electric vehicles were registered in the state of São Paulo[244] In March 2013, the first two Leafs were deployed in Rio de Janeiro to operate as taxis.[245] In September 2014 the BMW i3 became the first EV available for retail customers. As of June 2016, other retail plug-ins were the BMW i8 and the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV.[246]

Plug-ins and hybrids are subject to taxes adding up to more than 120% of the retail price.[247][248][249]

In May 2014 São Paulo City passed a municipal law to exempt EV, hybrids and fuel cell vehicles from the city's driving restriction scheme (see also road space rationing#São Paulo) and purchase incentives.[244][250]

In April 2018, the city of São José dos Campos ordered 30 electric BYD vehicles for use by the police and government.[251]

In March 2019, Renault released the Zoe in Brazil, and, in April 2019, Jac released the E40 as the cheapest electric car in Brazil, at R$129.990, Nissan announced the Leaf to be released in Brazil in the first half of 2019

Bulgaria[edit]

There were 560 electric motorbikes and 520 electric cars officially registered in Bulgaria by the end of March 2018.[252] By early 2020 the total number of electric cars in Bulgaria is estimated to be at least 1100.[253] Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 21 in 2015 to 194 in 2018, with only 6 in 2016. At the first half of 2019, 141 new BEV were sold, representing 0.7% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 21 6 68 194 141
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.2% 0.5% 0.7%

The government does not provide grants for buying electric cars, but at least it does not apply road tax to them. Parking electric vehicles in central urban parking zones is free of charge as well.

In 2012, 'green taxi' hybrid cabs went into service in Sofia.[254][255] In 2017, test electric buses joined the public transport fleet of Sofia[256] and in 2018 and 2019, 35 new electric buses went into service.[257] It is estimated that by 2021, 20% of the bus fleet of Sofia will be electric.[258] Other cities and towns such as Plovdiv, Pernik and Haskovo are also ordering electric buses.[259][260][261]

The first car sharing company in Bulgaria Spark.bg uses only electric cars and as of August 2020 it has a fleet of around 500 electric vehicles and over 200 available charging stations in Sofia.[262][263] Courier company Speedy uses 20 electric Renault Kangoo.

Canada[edit]

The Chevrolet Volt is the all-time top selling EV in Canada. Shown here is a fleet of Volts at a solar-powered charging station in Toronto.

The stock of plug-in electric passenger cars in Canada in use totaled 141,100 units at the end of 2019, consisting of 78,680 all-electric cars and 62,380 plug-in hybrids.[1]

Purchase and other incentives for new EVs are offered by the provinces of Quebec[264][265][266] and British Columbia.[267][268]

In October 2016, Quebec passed legislation that obliges major carmakers to offer an increasing number of PHEV and BEV models, beginning with 3.5% in 2018 and rising to 15.5% in 2020, using a tradable credit system.

China[edit]

BYD D1

China is the largest electric vehicle market in the world.[1] As of September 2021, China stock of highway legal plug-in vehicles totaled 6.78 million units, corresponding to over 40% of the global plug-in car fleet. Of these, fully electric accounted for 81.5% of the all new energy vehicles in use.[1][269]

As of 2019, China also dominated the plug-in light commercial vehicle and electric bus deployment, with its stock reaching over 500,000 buses in 2019, 98% of the global stock, and 247,500 electric light commercial vehicles, 65% of the global fleet. In addition, the country also leads sales of medium- and heavy duty electric trucks, with over 12,000 trucks sold, and nearly all battery electric.[1] Since 2011, cumulative sales of all classes of new energy vehicles (NEV) totaled 7.4 million at the end of September 2021.[11][27][121][270][83][271][269]

Chile[edit]

Mitsubishi i-MiEV in Chile

The Mitsubishi i-MiEV[272][273] was the first EV in Chile. The first public quick charging station was opened in April 2011.[274]

In August 2014 Mitsubishi replaced the i-Miev with the Outlander PHEV.[citation needed] Later that year BMW introduced their "i" range with the i3;[citation needed] Renault launched their Zero Emission (Z.E.) lineup, including the Fluence Z.E. sedan, the Kangoo utility van and Zoe city car. The French brand sold 22 electric vehicles in their first month in the Chilean market.[citation needed]

Colombia[edit]

The BEV Renault Twizy quadricycle is the top selling electric vehicle in Colombia.

Latin America's first battery electric taxi fleet of 45 vehicles was launched at the beginning of 2013 in Bogotá, the largest electric taxi fleet in South America at the time.[275] These taxis were exempted from the Pico y placa driving restriction scheme. The program is an effort to improve air quality and set an example.[276][277][278]

The BMW i3 was introduced in Colombia in 2014. The BEV Renault Twizy quadricycle was introduced in the Colombian market in June 2015[279] and, as of October 2015, 203 Twizys had been sold.[280] Sales of the Outlander P-HEV were scheduled to begin in September 2015.[281] Sales of other electric vehicles totaled, as of June 2015, 35 Mitsubishi i-MiEVs (purchased by an electricity company), 25 BMW i3s, 19 Renault Kangoos (corporate purchases), and 4 Nissan Leafs (corporate purchases).[281]

In 2013 the government established incentives to promote EV adoption. These include the exemption from the driving restriction scheme in place in Colombian cities such as Bogotá and Medellín. The government exempted BEV and PHEV cars from import duties for three years, with an annual quota of 750 cars of each type.[281]

Costa Rica[edit]

Fully electric BMW i3 with special green plates issued in Costa Rica for battery electric vehicles.
A BYD S2 EV in Costa Rica.

As of January 2015, the Costa Rican stock of electric drive vehicles consisted of 477 hybrid electric vehicles and 2,229 electric vehicles. Plug-in car sales totaled 108 units in 2016.[282] The top selling model was the Outlander P-HEV with 60 units.[282]

In 2006 electric cars were exempted from the consumption tax, while conventional vehicles faced a 30% rate. In October 2012, electric cars were exempted from San José's driving restrictions.[283] EVs were exempted from import duties and the government agreed to deploy charging stations in strategic locations in San José.[284]

The first electric car to go on sale was the REVAi, introduced in March 2009. The REVAi, powered by lead–acid batteries, sold 10 units.[285] The Mitsubishi i MiEV was launched in February 2011, with initial availability of 25 to 50 units.[286][287][288]

In January 2013 the Costa Rican Ministry of Environment and Energy deployed 200 electric SUVs for use as "green taxis." Electric/hybrid cars sold in Costa Rica include the BYD Qin (November 2013),[289][290] Mitsubishi Outlander (March 2015)[291] and BMW i3 (September 2016).[292]

Croatia[edit]

As of December 2016, 2067 electric cars had been sold in Croatia.[293][294] Of these, 224 were EVs, while the rest were hybrids.[293] As of September 2017, 201 free public charging stations operated in Croatia.[293]

In 2014 and 2015, the Croatian government initiated purchase incentives.[295][296] The subsidies were discontinued in 2016, due to ineffectiveness.[293][needs update]

Czech Republic[edit]

Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 298 in 2015 to 703 in 2018. At the first half of 2019, 360 new BEV were sold, representing 0.3% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 298 200 387 703 360
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.1% 0.3% 0.3%

Denmark[edit]

As of December 2015, around 4,000 electric cars had been sold in Denmark.[297] Denmark was the second largest European market for light-duty, plug-in commercial vehicles or utility vans, with over 2,600 plug-in vans sold that year, representing 8.5% of all vans sold . Most vans were plug-in hybrids, accounting for almost all EU plug-in van sales.[298] After the expiration of the government incentives, sales drop to about 1,300 all-electric cars (BEV) in 2016, and fell further in 2017 to almost 700 pure electric cars. In 2018, the registration of new BEV grew up to 1559 units and in the first half of 2019, 2595 units were already sold.

Denmark's sales surged before the expiration of its purchase incentives, and plunged thereafter, its plug-in market penetration plunge to 0.1% as of July 2017.[299] In April 2017 the government announced a partial resumption of the credit,[300] while adding a new fund for fuel cell vehicles.

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 4584 1353 720 1559 2595
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.3% 0.7% 2.1%

As of December 2017, the total stock of registered all-electric cars amounted to 8,746 units, slightly up from 8,643 electric cars in 2016. Sales of plug-in hybrids grew from 5 sold in 2013 to 572 in 2016, and 621 units in 2017.[301]

Estonia[edit]

Two Mitsubishi i-MiEVs in Estonia. The majority of electric cars in Estonia are i-MiEVs.

As of February 2015, 1,188 plug-in vehicles were registered.[citation needed]

Estonia was the first country to deploy an EV charging network with nationwide coverage, with fast chargers available along highways at a maximum distance of 40 to 60 km (25 to 37 mi).[302][303] As of December 2012, the nationwide network consisted of 165 fast chargers.[304][305][306]

In 2011, the government confirmed the sale to Mitsubishi of 10 million carbon dioxide credits in exchange for 507 i-MiEV electric cars. The deal included funding 250 fast charging stations and subsidies for the first 500 private buyers of any electric approved by the EU.[307][308] The first 50 i-MiEVs were delivered in October 2011, for use by municipal social workers.[309][310][311][312]

Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 34 in 2015 to 85 in 2018, after a stagnation in 2016 and 2017. At the first half of 2019, 42 new BEV were sold, representing 0.2% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 34 35 26 85 42
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.1% 0.3% 0.2%

Estonia's figures are low compared to other advanced economies, attributed to lack of government incentives after the carbon credit scheme was exhausted.[313]

Ecuador[edit]

The offer and demand for electric vehicles in the South American nation is reduced. Electric charging stations are present in several shopping malls and public parking in Guayaquil, Quito, Cuenca, Ambato and Loja.

In Ecuador, all electric vehicles are exempt from customs duties and taxes starting in June 2019. The electric vehicle offer in the country is set to increase. The Ecuadorean government has been incentivizing the us of electric vehicles with tax cuts. However, both the offer and demand remained short, encouraging the government to eliminate all duties to electric vehicles.

The first commercially available EV was Kia Soul EV 2016. Being at the moment the brand with the most presence of EV in Ecuador. As of 2021 KIA, BYD and Nissan are among the EV brands offering vehicles for the Ecuadorian market.

European Union overview[edit]

Evolution of annual registrations of plug-in electric passenger cars in Europe between 2011 and 2020.

Europe had more than 3 million plug-in electric passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in circulation at the end of 2020.[1][10] As of December 2019, Europe accounted for 25% of the global stock, the second largest after China.[1] Europe also had the second largest electric light commercial vehicle stock, with over 115,000 units, 31% of the global total in 2019.[1]

The 27 Member States of the European Union had 2.24 million plug-in vehicles on the road, of which plug-in passenger cars represented 94.3%, followed by light commercial vehicles (5.4%), and buses and trucks accounted for 0.3% and 0.03% respectively.[79]

In 2020, and despite the strong decline in global car sales brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, annual sales of plug-in passenger cars in Europe surpassed the 1 million mark for the first time.[60][61] In addition, Europe outsold China in 2020 as the world's largest plug-in passenger car market for the first time since 2015.[314][315]

The plug-in car segment had a market share of 1.3% of new car registrations in 2016, rose to 3.6% in 2019, and achieved 11.4% in 2020.[173][316][317] The largest country markets in the European region in terms of EV stock and annual sales are Germany, Norway, France, the UK, the Netherlands, and Sweden.[1] Germany listed as the top selling European country market both in 2019 and 2020.[1][61]

In all the European Union, sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 58,975 in 2015 to 150,056 in 2018. At the first half of 2019, 125,378 new BEV were sold, representing 1.5% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year for EU
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 58975 63136 97476 150056 125378
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.6% 1.0% 1.5%

When including EFTA, sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 88,011 in 2015 to 201,439 in 2018. Norway represents the most contribution of the new BEV registrations in EFTA.[238] In 2017, the total number of new BEV registrations passed 100,000 vehicles

Total of new battery electric cars registered per year for EU + EFTA[318][319][59]
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Total new all-electric passenger car registrations 88,201 90,996 135,775 199,662 359,796
% of total new registrations N/A N/A N/A 1.3% 2.3%[317]

Finland[edit]

As of October 2016, about 2,250 EVs were registered.[320] Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 243 in 2015 to 776 in 2018. At the first half of 2019, 995 new BEV were sold, representing 1.7% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020[321]
Total new BEV registrations 243 222 502 776 1897 4244
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.4% 0.6% 1.7% 4.4%

In November 2016, the government set the goal of 250,000 plug-in cars and 50,000 biogas cars on the road by 2030.[320] These goals are part of the Finnish government efforts to comply with the 2015 Paris Agreement.[320]

Basic charging infrastructure is available all over Finland, used for winter engine pre-warming. Because of its climate – cold winters and warm summers – Finland is considered a convenient "test laboratory" for electric cars.

Many companies in Finland are involved in next-generation vehicle manufacturing, including Valmet Automotive,[322] Fortum (concept cars and infrastructure), Vacon (electric motor technology production), Ensto (production of charging units), Elcat (electric vehicle production since the 1980s), Raceabout[323] (specialist electric sport car with very few sales).

Research related to electric cars is in progress at the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Tekes.[324]

Electric car organisations in Finland include the Electric Vehicle Association of Finland and Electric Vehicles Finland. A non-commercial electric car conversion organisation is called Electric Cars - Now![325] that converts Toyota Corollas into Li-ion battery-powered electric cars.

France[edit]

Registration of light-duty plug-in vehicles in France by type of vehicle between 2010 and 2020.

As of September 2021, a total of 687,876 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in France since 2010, consisting of 453,143 all-electric passenger cars and commercial vans, and 234,733 plug-in hybrids.[326] Of these, almost 60,000 were fully electric light commercial vehicles.[1][74]

The Renault Zoe has led electric car sales in France since 2013, and is the country's all-time best selling plug-in with more than 100,000 units registered through June 2020.[327]

Germany[edit]

Annual registration of plug-in cars in Germany by type of vehicle between 2010 and 2020.

The stock of plug-in electric vehicles in Germany is the largest in Europe, and as of July 2021, there were 1 million plug-in electric vehicles on the road, including buses and commercial vehicles. The German fleet in use consists of 54% all-electric vehicles and 46% plug-in hybrids.[328] There were 588,944 plug-in passenger cars in circulation on January 1, 2021, representing 1.2% of all passenger cars on the road in Germany, up from 0.5% in 2020.[71][329] Germany had a stock of 21,890 light-duty electric commercial vehicles in 2019, the second largest in Europe after France.[1] As of March 2020, the country had 27,730 public charging stations.[330]

Germany listed as the top selling plug-in car market in the European continent in 2019 and achieved a market share of 3.10%.[59][93] Despite the global decline in car sales brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, the segment market share achieved a record 13.6% in 2020.[70] with a record volume of 394,632 plug-in passenger cars registered in 2020, up 263% from 2019, Germany listed for a second year running as the best selling European plug-in market.[74][70] Both years, the German market led both the fully electric and plug-in hybrid segments.[74] The only country that outsold Germany in 2020 was China.[314]

The Smart electric drive led the plug-in electric car segment in Germany until 2013.[331]

Under its National Platform for Electric Mobility, Chancellor Angela Merkel in 2010 set the goal of putting one million electric vehicles on German roads by 2020.[332][333] Initially, the government did not provide subsidies in favor of research.[332] The Bundestag passed the Electric Mobility Act in March 2015 that authorized local government to grant non-monetary incentives. The measures privilege battery-powered cars, fuel cell vehicles and some PHEVs, by granting local governments the authority to offer additional incentives.[334][335][336][337]

An incentive scheme was approved in April 2016 including purchase subsidies, charging stations and another federal government fleet purchases, with a target of 400,000 electric vehicles. Premium cars, such as the Tesla Model S and BMW i8, were not eligible.[338][339][340] In order to meet the climate targets for the transport sector, in 2016 the government set the goal to have from 7 to 10 million plug-in electric cars on the road by 2030, and 1 million charging points available in Germany also by 2030.[341]

As a result of the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the government approved in June 2020 an economic recovery plan which included €8 billion to promote electric vehicle adoption and deployment of charging infrastructure.[342] The purchase bonus for electric cars was raised from €6,000 to €9,000 up until the end of 2021, the highest economic incentive in any European country, but the subsidy is available only for cars costing less than €40,000. Also, other tax incentives for electric vehicles were introduced since 2020.[341][342] Later, the government decided to keep the €9,000 bonus for the purchase of new all-electric cars and plug-in hybrids until the end of 2025.[343] The original one million goal was achieved in July 2021.[344]

Greece[edit]

Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 35 in 2015 to 190 in 2019.[238] At the first three quarters of 2020, 292 new BEVs and 590 new PHEVs were sold.[345]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019[346] SEM 1-3 2020[345]
Total new BEV registrations 35 9 47 88 190 292
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.05% 0.09%

In June 2020, Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis announced the government's plan to support the adoption of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) by individuals and corporations, with the aim for one-in-three new vehicles in Greece to be electric by 2030. The plan includes purchase subsidizing, exemption from the road tax and any parking fees, as well as incentives for setting up charging stations, for pure electric private passenger cars and motorbikes, as well as for pure electric or plug-in hybrid taxis and light commercial vehicles. The government's subsidy covers the purchase of new BEVs and PHEVs with a total of 100 million euros for 18 months in the first phase, which is estimated to cover 25% of the cost of about 14.000 new electric vehicles.[347][348][349]

The government will subsidize the purchase of each new electric vehicle, covering 15% of its cost (up to 5.500) for private passenger and light commercial vehicles, 20% of the cost (up to 800) for motorbikes and 25% of the cost (up to 8.000) for taxis. Vehicle owners that will concurrently retire their old vehicle will receive an additional bonus of up to 2.500.[350] Furthermore, expenses for charging the electric car will be exempt from taxable income. The benefit for each new electric car, if combined with the ecological bonus and the relevant tax exemptions, will approach 10.000 euros.[347][348][349]

Hong Kong[edit]

As of December 2017, 10,666 plug in vehicles were registered in Hong Kong.[351] March 2017 saw 2,964 EVs registered in one month before first registration tax exemption was repealed. 2,939 of these cars were Tesla Model S and X.

Tesla Roadster charging at Central Star Ferry carpark in Hong Kong.

As of September 2016, 6,298 plug-in vehicles were on the roads in Hong Kong,[352] up from 3,253 in October 2015.[353] The plug-in segment market share achieved 4.8% of new car sales in Hong Kong in 2015.[352]

As of October 2015, more than 1,200 public electric vehicle charging points were available.[353] More than a dozen models were available for retail customers.[353]

Sales of electric cars took off in Hong Kong with the Tesla Model S in 2014.[354][355] The tax waiver made the Model S competitive in the luxury car segment, at about half the price of other high-end models.[354] According to Tesla, as of September 2016, Hong Kong had the world's highest density of Tesla superchargers, giving most Model S owners a supercharger within a 20-minute drive.[356]

The Government offered purchase incentives to consumers, businesses and service providers were available from 2011 to 2017. The Government further allocated HK$180 million for bus companies to purchase 36 electric buses.[353]

Hungary[edit]

In November 2018, 8,482 PEVs were registered in Hungary. The Hungarian government introduced its e-mobility plan in March 2014. The Jedlik plan supported the domestic production of electric vehicles, expanding the necessary infrastructure and promoting the purchase of EVs with public incentives,[357] including 1.5 million HUF, initiated at the end of 2016.

Sales of new passenger cars categorized as battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 115 in 2015 to 4837 in 2020.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total new BEV registrations 115 172 749 1300 3280 4837
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.6% 1.0% 1.1% 1.8%

Iceland[edit]

The plug-in car segment in Iceland reached 5.37% of all new vehicles registered in 2016, allowing the country to rank second in Europe after Norway that year.[358] Registrations of new plug-in electric cars totaled 2,990 units in 2017, up 157% from the previous year. The segment's market share achieved a record 14%, globally, second only to Norway.[359] The top selling plug-ins in 2017 were the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV with 884 units and the Nissan Leaf with 524.[359] In 2018, 284 new BEV units were sold and 423 in the first half of 2019, representing 5.8% of the overall new cars sales.[238]

The government eliminated VAT (24%) and CO2-based fees (up to 65%) on new car purchases for EVs.[when?][360]

As of 2017, Orka Náttúrunnar (ON) was working to complete a network of 50 kW CCS Combo/CHAdeMO stations along the Ring Road. Tesla opened its first supercharger in Reykjavík in December 2019, with 4 more planned around Iceland in 2020.[361]

Tesla started delivery in Iceland on 28 February 2020 and was quickly the number 1 new electric car sold in Iceland.[362] As of March 2020 passenger plug-in market share of total new car sales for the year 2020 has reached 55%.

India[edit]

As of December 2015, over 6,000 plug-in cars were registered, consisting of 4,350 BEV cars and 1,660 PHEVs.[21] The Indian government has Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric vehicles (FAME) scheme which provides incentives for purchasing electric vehicles.[363][clarification needed] Indian government has reduced GST rate on EVs from 12% to 5% in the Union Budget 2019 to encourage electric vehicles. The Indian government gives an additional tax benefit of Rs 1.5 lakh on the interest paid on loans taken to buy EVs.[364][365] The EVs in India are exempted from paying road tax for vehicle registration.[366]

Indonesia[edit]

The government supported some trial models made by Tucuxi. Conversion of some vehicles to electric drivetrains was introduced during the APEC Meeting in October 2013.

Ireland[edit]

Sales of electric cars in Ireland increased more than four times in 2014 from a low base.[367] Then, sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 466 in 2015 to 1233 in 2018. At the first half of 2019, 1954 new BEV were sold, representing 2.4% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 466 392 622 1233 1954
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.5% 1.0% 2.4%

The government committed to making 10% of all vehicles by 2020 (a projected 230,000 vehicles).[368] Government officials reached agreements with French car maker Renault and its partner Nissan. As of September 2014, purchase incentives became available.[369]

As of the start of 2020, Electric Vehicles (EVs) was as a proportion of all cars for sale in Ireland very small, which could be seen in a snapshot (7 February 2020) of four different car sales websites (Autotrader.ie, Carsireland.ie, Carzone.ie, and Donedeal.ie) which showed that out of circa 38,000 to 70,000 cars listed for sale, only circa 0.7% to 1.1% were EV's, so in real terms only 431-616 EV cars were advertised for sale in the market.

This very low level of EVs compared poorly to the circa 25,338 to 46,940 diesel cars shown available for sale on the same date, representing a much larger, circa 64-67% of the market at that time.

The Irish Government (to January 2020) had stated an aim to ban the sale of petrol, diesel and hybrid new ('non-electric') cars from 2030 (compared to the proposed EU ban by 2040, and the UK's proposed ban on the sale of new petrol, diesel and hybrid cars from 2035 as announced in the first week of February 2020) though car dealers were reported in 2020 to consider the Irish Government's target for one million electric and plug-in hybrid cars to be in use by 2030, as far too ambitious, though Government grants of up to €10,000 also available (as of 2020)(The Irish Times, 7 February 2020). It was also reported (The Irish Times, 7 February 2020) in the Irish newspapers in February 2020 that there were at that time about 1,200 electric car (EV) charging points in Ireland, but that this was compared to Norway, the European leader in EV transition, with approximately 12,000 charging stations for circa 300,000 EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).

A compromise in terms of transition and non-electric ban implementation around 2030 maybe for acceptance also of Hybrid cars with smaller conventional petrol engines (regardless of whether the vehicles are 'full' or 'mild' hybrids) of for example at/ less than 1.6 litre (1600 cc) capacity, and/ or say less circa 100 g/km CO2 or less in terms of emissions, or a good fuel efficiency rating (L/100 km ) for highway/extra urban and 'combined' journeys.

Italy[edit]

BMW i3 patrol car of the Italian police at Vatican City.

As of December 2015 over 6,100 plug-in cars were registered, consisting of 4,580 BEV cars and 1,550 PHEVs.[21] The top EV in 2015 was the Nissan Leaf (390 units sold).[370] About 10,000 electric vehicles[371] were sold in Italy in 2018, double the 2017 number of about 5,000.[372]

Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 1442 in 2015 to 4996 in 2018. At the first half of 2019, 5040 new BEV were sold, representing 0.5% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 H1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 1442 1373 2022 4996 5040
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.1% 0.3% 0.5%

The government discontinued incentives in 2014 amid a limited public charging infrastructure and tepid reception. Further, many Italian houses were equipped with electric contracts allowing only 3 kW of peak consumption, making home charging of electric cars impractical.[373][374][375]

Japan[edit]

The Nissan Leaf is the top selling plug-in car in Japan ever, with close to 140,000 units sold by February 2020.[376]

As of December 2019, Japan had a stock of plug-in passenger cars of 294,000 units on the road, consisting of 152,320 all-electric cars (51.8%) and 141,680 plug-in hybrids (48.2%).[1] The fleet of electric light commercial vehicles in use totaled 8,720 units in 2019.[1]

Sales totaled 24,690 units in 2016, rose to 54,100 in 2017, and then declined to 49,750 in 2018, and fell to 38,900 in 2019.[1] The segment market share declined from 0.68% in 2014 to 0.59% in 2016, and recovered to 1.1% in 2017, but drop to 0.9% in 2019.[1][194][193] The decline in plug-in sales reflects the governmental and domestic carmaker decision to promote hydrogen fuel cell vehicles instead.[377][378]

In May 2009 the Japanese Diet passed the "Green Vehicle Purchasing Promotion Measure".[379] The program provided purchasing subsidies for cars, mini and keis, trucks and buses, including an extra subsidy for purchases trading in a sufficiently old used car.[379][380] The program ended on 31 March 2010.[381][382] The Japanese electric vehicle charging infrastructure climbed from 60 public stations in 2010 to 1,381 in 2012.[383]

Mitsubishi introduced multiple plug-in vehicles: the Mitsubishi i MiEV in 2009,[383][384] the Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV in 2011,[385] a truck version of the Minicab MiEV[386] and the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV in 2013.[387] The Nissan Leaf launched in 2010.[388][389] The Toyota Prius PHEV was released in January 2012.[390]

The Leaf is Japan's all-time best-selling plug-in car, with about 140,000 units delivered by February 2020.[376] Prius PHEV sales since inception totaled about 61,200 units up to December 2018.[391][109] As of March 2018, the Outlander PHEV had sold 42,451 units.[392] Sales of the Outlander PHEV fell sharply from April 2016 as a result of Mitsubishi's fuel economy scandal.[393]

Kosovo[edit]

There have not been much effort in by Kosovo of using Plug-in electric vehicles. However ProCredit Bank, Kosova, became the first institution in Kosovo to use electric vehicles, by buying 10 new Mitsubishi i-MiEV vehicles.[394] In 2017, six teens in the city Gjakova, from BONEVET makerspace, became the first European teenager group to build an electric car out of a Renault Twingo, transforming it from a petrol-fuelled car to a fully functional electric car.[395][396][397][398]

Latvia[edit]

Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 17 in 2015 to 73 in 2018. At the first quarter of 2019, 46 new BEV were sold, representing 0.4% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 17 25 22 73 46
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.1% 0.4% 0.4%

Lithuania[edit]

As of 1 July 2018, 806 EVs were registered. Registrations were led by Nissan (50%). Also 11198 hybrids registered in Lithuania by 1 July 2018. Registrations were led by Toyota (64%).[399]

Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 37 in 2015 to 143 in 2018. At the first half of 2019, 75 new BEV were sold, representing 0.3% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 37 64 52 143 75
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.2% 0.4% 0.3%

Mexico[edit]

A Nissan Leaf charging at a public charge station in Colonia Condesa, Mexico City.

In October 2009 Nissan reached an agreement with the Mexico City government, purchasing 500 Leafs for use of government and corporate fleets. In exchange, recharging infrastructure was to be deployed by the city government.[400][401] The first 100 Leafs (destined for the taxi fleet) were delivered in 2011.[402][403][404]

As of February 2013, about 70 Leafs were deployed as taxis, 50 in Aguascalientes and 20 in Mexico City.[405][406]

Retail Leaf sales began in June 2014.[407] Retail deliveries of the BMW i3 began 2014.[408][409]

The second generation Volt[410] and Tesla Model S began in 2015.[411]

As of October 2012, no government purchase incentives were available. However, electric cars are exempted from Mexico City's driving restriction scheme Hoy No Circula.[406]

Nepal[edit]

A Mahindra e2o in Nepal

There are 45,000 electric vehicles running in Nepal as of 2019.[412] Nepal is one of the best countries to buy an EV. Electric cars are actually a better deal in Nepal due to following reasons:

  1. Extremely low import tax compared to fossil fuel vehicle. (238% for fuel and 10% for electric)
  2. Hydropower makes it clean energy. (91% of the electricity comes from hydro in Nepal)
  3. No fossil fuel production. (Nepal imports fossil fuels and the prices are usually high)

Netherlands[edit]

Stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles on the road in the Netherlands (2011-2020).

As of 31 December 2020, there were 297,380 highway-legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in the Netherlands, consisting of 182,481 fully electric cars, 108,652 plug-in hybrids, and 6,247 all-electric light utility vans.[78] The total number of all classes of plug-in electric vehicles (including buses, heavy-duty truck, mopeds, etc.) on the road totaled 382,721 units.[78] The plug-in market share declined from 9.9% in 2015, to 6.7% in 2016, and fell to 2.6% in 2017. After several adjustments in the financial incentives and tax code to favor the purchase of all-electric vehicles, the market share rose to 14.9% in 2019 and 24.6% in 2020, with ample dominance of battery electric vehicle sales in both years.[78]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 3989 4021 9405 26533 20069
% of total new registrations not available not available 2.3% 6.0% 8.8%
The Tesla Model S, released in the Dutch market in September 2013, is the country's top selling BEV car ever.[49]

From 1 January 2016, all-electric vehicles continue to pay a 4% registration fee, but for a plug-in hybrids the fee rises from 7% to 15% if its CO2 emissions do not exceed 50 g/km. The rate for a conventional internal combustion car is 25% of its book value.[413][414]

The Dutch government set a target of 15,000 electric vehicles in 2015, 200,000 in 2020 and 1 million in 2025.[415] The government exempted selected vehicles from registration fee and road taxes.[416][417][418] The exemption from the registration tax ended in 2013.[419] Battery electric vehicles have special access to parking spaces in Amsterdam, queues for which can otherwise reach up to 10 years.[420] Free charging is offered in public parking spaces.[421]

Other factors contributing to the rapid adoption of plug-in electric vehicles are the Netherlands' small size, which reduces range anxiety; a long tradition of environmental activism; high gasoline prices (US$8.50 per gallon as of January 2013); and some EV leasing programs that provide free or discounted gasoline-powered vehicles for covering long distances.[421]

New Zealand[edit]

Light EV fleet size in New Zealand[166]
Type 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
New PHEVs 11 224 451 779 1,199 1,939 2,880 3,626
New BEVs 99 138 205 581 1,263 2,003 3,860 5,368
Used PHEVs 0 2 15 116 456 897 1,544 2,238
Used BEVs 5 15 321 1,013 3,227 6,799 10,241 12,645
Total EVs 163 489 992 2,489 6,145 11,638 18,525 23,877

As of December 2020, about 23,900 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in New Zealand. The majority of the fleet consists of used imports from Japan and the UK. The most popular model by far is the Nissan Leaf, with 11,800 registered.[166]

In 2020 there were more EVs in New Zealand than Australia, despite Australia having five times the population of New Zealand.[422] The government also plan to have an additional 60,000 electric vehicles on New Zealand roads by 2023, to have a total fleet of approximately 84,000 EVs by 2023[422][166] However, in 2019 New Zealand planned to have 64,000 electric vehicle in the country by 2021, when it was projected New Zealand would reach 100% electric vehicle sales by 2030[423]

Electric vehicle charger in New Zealand

The New Zealand Government launched an Electric Vehicle Programme in May 2016, in order to encourage EV uptake.[424] Electric vehicles in New Zealand are exempt from road user charges until at least 31 December 2021,[425] and pay the lower petrol rates for ACC levies on motor vehicle licensing.[426]

Norway[edit]

Registration of EVs in Norway by year between 2004 and 2020. Includes PHEVs and BEV cars and vans. Used imports are included.
Distribution of the Norwegian stock of passenger cars in use by type of fuel or powertrain at the end of September 2021.[427]

As of 30 September 2021, the stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in Norway totaled 603,962 units in use, consisting of 435,385 all-electric passenger cars and vans (including used imports), and 168,577 plug-in hybrids.[428]

Norway's fleet of electric cars is one of the world's cleanest, because 99% of its power comes from hydropower (see also renewable energy in Norway).[429][430] Norway has the world's largest EV ownership per capita.[431]

The plug-in electric passenger car segment captured a market share of 29.1% in 2016,[432] 39.2% in 2017,[98] 49.1% in 2018,[97] rose to 55.9% in 2019,[95] and achieved 74.7% in 2020,meaning that three out of every four new passenger car sold in Norway in 2020 was a plug-in electric.[17] In January 2017 the electric-drive segment surpassed combined conventional internal combustion engine sales for the first time ever, achieving a combined market share of 51.4% of new car sales.[433][434] In October 2018, Norway became the first country where 1 in every 10 passenger cars registered was a plug-in electric vehicle.[18][435] As of 30 September 2021, plug-in electric cars represented 20.7% of all passenger cars in circulation in Norway.[427]

For all-battery cars alone, the sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 25,779 in 2015 to 46,092 in 2018. During 2019, 60,316 new passenger BEV were sold, representing 42.4% of the overall sales.[95]

Total of new battery electric passenger cars registered per year*
Year 2015[436] 2016[437] 2017[98] 2018[97] 2019[95] 2020[17]
Total new BEV registrations 25,788 24,245 33,080 46,143 60,345 76,804
% of total new registrations 17.1% 15.7% 20.9% 31.2% 42.4% 54.3%

*Note: these figures are for registrations of new zero-emission passenger cars (ZEVs) so it includes a few FCVs

Norway was the first country in the world to have all-electric cars ranking as the best selling passenger car model of the year, and for two consecutive years. First, the Nissan Leaf, with 12,303 units registered in 2018, ended as the country's best selling new passenger car model, marking the first time an electric car tops annual sales of the passenger car segment.[438][439] Thereafter, the Tesla Model 3 topped annual passenger car sales in 2019 with 15,683 units registered.[440][441] Also, in March 2019, the Model 3, with over 5,300 units delivered, set the all-time record for monthly sales of a single passenger car model.[441] Another record was set in 2018 and repeated in 2019, as the top 5 best selling passenger car models in both years were all plug-in electric models.[438][439][440]

As of March 2018, the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV remained as the top selling plug-in hybrid with 14,196 new units sold.[442] The Nissan Leaf continued to be the most popular model in the plug-in segment with 50,000 units registered by early December 2018, including used imports from neighboring countries,[443] and representing 25% of total all-electric car registrations in Norway.[443][444]

Government incentives[edit]

The Norwegian government set a series of incentives to promote the adoption of zero emission vehicles (ZEVs). Electric vehicles are exempt from all non-recurring vehicle fees, making electric cars price competitive with conventional cars.[445] BEVs are exempt from the annual road tax, public parking fees and toll payments (including domestic ferries), as well as given access to bus lanes.[431] Plug-in hybrids have a smaller market share than ZEVs because they are not eligible for the same incentives.[445][446][447] In 2013 the government reduced taxes for to improve PHEV sales.[447][448]

The initial 50,000 vehicle target was reached on 20 April 2015 at a cost of up to 4 billion krone (around US$640 million).[449][450][451] The Government decided to continue the incentives through 2017, although the Parliament phased out some of the incentives.[452][453] As of January 2018, 24 out of 58 major municipalities kept the free parking for EVs. Among the 34 municipalities that terminated the benefit, six kept different variants of partial free parking.[454]

In 2016, the government proposed its National Transport Plan 2018-2029 (NTP) with the goal that all new cars, buses and light commercial vehicles in 2025 should be zero emission vehicles. By 2030, heavy-duty vans, 75% of new long-distance buses, and 50% of new trucks must be zero emission vehicles.[455][456][457]

Pakistan[edit]

Dynasty IT was bought by Karakoram Motors of Pakistan, and now it is manufactured in Pakistan.[458]

Pakistan already has a significant market for hybrid vehicles with the Honda Vezel, Toyota Prius, Toyota Aqua, and other models seen on the roads. The Automotive Development Policy (2016-2021) and the launch of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) are encouraging foreign investments for the new automobile brands to enter Pakistani market, while the leading manufacturers in the automobile industry in Pakistan are now introducing EV models with a wide range of prices which target consumers of diverse income groups.[459] Several members of the international automobile industry including South Korea, China, and Japan also believe that Pakistan has a

In January 2017, Dewan Motors with BMW inaugurated Pakistan's first public charging station for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Emporium Mall, Lahore. Dewan Motors had installed another station for plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles at Dolmen Mall in Karachi in February 2017.[460][461] Rahmat Group has acquired 25 acres of land to establish Electrical Complex at Nooriabad to produce electric vehicles. At the initial stage, the group will produce electric buses to tap the transport market, and in the second phase, a manufacturing plant would be established at the complex to produce electric cars and two-wheelers.[462]

On 2017, Jolta International had created the first locally manufactured electric motorcycle. The company is based just outside of Bahria Town Rawalpindi, and showcased three Jolta Chargeable Electrical Motorcycles in Gwadar.[463][464]

Leading automobile manufacturers, including Super Power Motorcycles, have started introducing EV models. Neon, a Pakistan-based motorcycle assembler, has introduced an all-electric Neon M3 motorbike in Pakistan. The macho looking sports bike comes with emission free and noiseless features. Neon also assembles Electric scooters in Pakistan.[465]

Philippines[edit]

The country's first electric was launched at Silliman University by Insular Technologies in August 2007.[466][467] In some major cities such as Makati, electric Jeepneys (e-jeepneys) are used as well as electric tricycles (e-tricycles). The Philippine Public Utility Modernization Program (PUVMP) aims to employ around 100,000 e-tricycles annually and 200,000 e-jeepney in the next six years.[468]

The Eagle G-Car is a Philippine BEV car (at a cost as low as $3,000-$6,000).[469] E-Jeepneys were a venture of Renewable Independent Power Producer Inc., which sprang from Greenpeace and other groups, and Solarco, which in turn is a part of GRIPP.[470]

During a demonstration at Nanyang Technological University on 7 February 2018, Nissan Philippines' president and managing director Ramesh Narasimhan has announced that they would like to bring the Leaf to the Filipino market.[471]

Poland[edit]

A Mitsubishi i-MiEV charging at a charging station.

In 2009, Poland began developing charging station infrastructure in Gdańsk, Katowice, Kraków, Mielec and Warsaw with EU funds. In November 2017 an electric car sharing network opened in Wrocław. The fleet is based on 2013 model of Nissan Leaf.

The biggest organization in Poland in the area of electric vehicles is Klaster Green Stream.[472] The Polish company 3xE - samochody elektryczne (3xE - electric cars) offer electric vehicle conversions of small city cars such as the Smart ForTwo, Citroën C1, Fiat Panda, Peugeot 107, Audi A2. The converted cars have a range of about 100 km (60 mi), using lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO
4
) batteries
and brushless DC electric motors.[473]

Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 70 in 2015 to 620 in 2018. At the first half of 2019, 947 new BEV were sold, representing 0.3% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 70 112 435 620 947
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.09% 0.12% 0.30%

Portugal[edit]

As of December 2019, there were 29,700 plug-in passenger cars in use in Portugal. Of these, 15,980 were fully electric cars and 13,720 were plug-in hybrids.[1] The market share rose from 0.8% in 2016 to 3.7% in 2018, and achieved 5.7% in 2019.[1]

In 2015, the stock of EVs was about 2,000, consisting of 1,280 BEV cars and 720 PHEVs. EV sales totaled 1,305 units in 2015, up 260% from 2014. The top selling model was the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (229).[474] Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 645 in 2015 to 4073 in 2018. At the first half of 2019, 3905 new BEV were sold, representing 3.0% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 1 Half 2019
Total new BEV registrations 645 764 1640 4073 3905
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.7% 1.8% 3.0%

In 2009, Portugal worked with Renault and Nissan to create a national charging network.[475]

In 2010, the government offered purchase incentives for the first 5,000 EVs and a separate scrappage incentive.[476] EVs were exempted from the vehicle registration tax.[243] These incentives were discontinued at the end of 2011.[477]

Romania[edit]

Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 24 in 2015 to 605 in 2018. At the first half of 2019, 456 new BEV were sold, representing 0.6% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 24 74 188 605 456
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.2% 0.5% 0.6%

As of June 2019, over 3,000 EVs were registered. Registrations were led by the Renault Zoe.[citation needed] The government offered purchase incentives of 4200 euro (20000 RON) for a PHEV and 8400 euro (40000 RON) for BEV, although yearly capped (but not reached) and limited in time due to a yearly approval.[citation needed]

Russia[edit]

As of January 2020, 6.3 thousand EVs were registered. A lot of them (83%) are cheap Nissan Leaf models, which were being imported from Japan.[478]

Russian infrastructure can't offer a decent EV experience, considering huge distances between cities and lack of chargers in smaller towns, though the local governments try to increase the usage of electrocars (e.g. by removing taxes[479][480])

Serbia[edit]

As of September 2019, 148 EVs were registered. Serbia has a network of over 30 charing stations (including 5 that are solar powered & 2 Tesla Super Chargers) with more planned for construction.[481][482] In 2020, Serbia introduced new purchase & tax incentives for EVs & Hybrids offering up to 5000 euros to help accelerate electrification.[483] Serbia is also home to about 10% of global Lithium reserves, the mining & processing of which will be done in partnership with Rio Tinto who have committed $1.5 billion of investment in the country.[484] The government is currently looking to utilize this resource to produce a major EV battery plant & Rio Tinto is helping locate a strategic partner for this venture.[485]

Singapore[edit]

BYD e6 electric taxi in Singapore

As of January 2021, there were 1,274 electric cars in Singapore, out of a total car population of 636,483 units (0.2%).[486] Adoption has been slowed due to high purchase prices, lack of public charging infrastructure and unclear national policies. As of October 2016, 74 public charging stations were operating.[352]

Until 2020, the government offered purchase incentives, although the country's taxation scheme made EVs more expensive than a conventional car. Electric cars faced a carbon surcharge and a scrap rebate, along with the annual road tax.[352] In February 2021, the government announced the Singapore Green Plan 2030, which set the goals of deploying 60,000 charging points by 2030, new monetary purchase incentives, and for all new car registrations to be cleaner-energy models by the same year.[486]

As of October 2016, there were 129 electric cars registered, with the BMW i3 and i8 range being the highest selling brand.[352] In February 2017, Singapore had the largest fleet of electric taxis in Southeast Asia, with 100 vehicles from BYD.[487] By December 2018, there were 466 fully electric cars registered in Singapore, 0.08% of the total car stock, and 357 plug-in hybrids, 0.06%.[488]

Slovakia[edit]

Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 52 in 2015 to 309 in 2018. At the first half of 2019, 95 new BEV were sold, representing 0.2% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 52 59 229 309 95
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.2% 0.3% 0.2%

Slovenia[edit]

Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 288 in 2017 to 467 in 2018. At the first half of 2019, 264 new BEV were sold, representing 0.7% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 288 467 264
% of total new registrations 0.4% 0.6% 0.7%

South Africa[edit]

As of December 2015, about 290 plug-in cars were registered, all in 2015.[21] The Nissan Leaf was introduced in October 2013. As of January 2018, this number has increased to 375, 0.2% of all registered vehicles.

GridCars is a Pretoria-based company promoting Commuter Cars, based on the TREV from Australia. The concept is to build ultra-light EVs, lessening demand on battery requirements, and making the vehicle more affordable.[489] The Joule, designed by Cape Town-based failed start-up Optimal Energy,[490] was announced at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, with a maximum range of 300 km (190 mi).[491]

The country has a 45% tax on electric vehicles which discourages their import.[492] New internal combustion engine vehicles face a surcharge based on engine capacity.[493]

South Korea[edit]

Registration of highway-capable plug-in cars by model in South Korea between 2012 and 2013[494]
Model Total
Sales
2012–2013
Sales
2013
Sales
2012
Kia Ray EV 929 398 531
Samsung SM3 Z.E. 294 277 17
Chevrolet Spark EV 40 40
Total registrations 1,263 715 548

As of December 2020, South Korea had 92,400 plug-in passenger cars in circulation, of which, 84,070 were fully electric cars (91%).[1] At the end of 2019, the country had 9,187 public slow and fast chargers.[1]

As of 2014, all electric models on sale were manufactured by local firms.[citation needed] The top selling models during 2015 were the Kia Soul EV (657) and the Samsung SM3 Z.E. (640).[495] The Hyundai Ioniq Electric was released in July 2016.[496]

The government offers a purchase subsidy for electric cars. Starting in 2016, the EV purchase tax surcharge was reduced, although EV drivers see various fees.[497]

As of October 2016, about 7,200 plug-in cars had been sold.[21][498] 2,896 EVs were sold during the first ten months of 2016, up 12% year-on-year.[498] By 2018 there were a total of 59,600 electric cars on Korean streets. Nearly 34,000 electric vehicles have been sold in 2018 in Korea. The market share of battery-electric and plugin-electric vehicles in Korea was 2.21%.[citation needed]

Spain[edit]

EV registrations in Spain by year between 2010 and 2017.

The stock of plug-in cars reached almost 6,000 plug-in as of 2015, consisting of 4,460 BEV cars and 1,490 PHEVs.[21] The top selling model in 2015 was the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (389).[499]

3,129 EVs were sold in Spain during the first three quarters of 2016. Sales continued to grow at an accelerated pace, up 79% from the same period in 2015.

Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 1342 in 2015 to 5984 in 2018. At the first half of 2019, 5452 new BEV were sold, representing 0.8% of the overall sales.[238] For the whole 2019, the sales came to 1.4% of all new registrations.

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 1342 2005 3920 5984 5452
% of total new registrations not available not available 0.3% 0.5% 0.8%

In 2011 the national government initiated EV purchase incentives.[500] Aragón, Asturias, Baleares, Madrid, Navarra, Valencia, Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia, Castile and León offered additional incentives.[243]

Sri Lanka[edit]

As of September 2015, 2,072 electric cars had been registered, led by the Nissan Leaf. EV sales experienced a record month in September 2015 with 471 units registered, up from only 15 in September 2014.[501]

Sales of the Nissan Leaf began in 2013.[502]

No government incentives promote EVs. Electric vehicle tax increased from 5% to 50% through the new government's Interim Budget.[citation needed]

Sweden[edit]

EV registrations in Sweden by year between 2011 and 2020.

As of December 2020, a total of 217,704 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have been registered since 2011, consisting of 148,889 plug-in hybrids, 62,870 all-electric cars and 5,945 all-electric utility vans.[135][136][503][504][505][506][507][110][80] The Swedish market is dominated by plug-in hybrids, representing 74.9% of plug-in car registrations through 2017, but began to decline thereafter, reaching 70.3% in 2020.[136][80] Passenger plug-ins increased their market share from 3.5% in 2016 to 5.2% in 2017, rose to 11.3% in 2019, and achieved a record take rate of 32.2% in 2020.[110][136][80]

As of December 2017, the Outlander PHEV continues to rank as the all-time top selling plug-in electric car with 9,957 units registered.[508] As of December 2016, the Renault Kangoo Z.E. continued as the all-time the leader in the commercial utility EV segment with 1,024 units.[135][503][505][506]

Effective January 2012 Sweden offered subsidies for the purchase and operation of 5,000 electric cars and other "super green cars" with low/no carbon emissions.[416][509] The program was belatedly renewed through 2015[507] and again for 2016 with the addition of subsidies for electric buses.[510]

Switzerland[edit]

Top 10 electric vehicles in Switzerland, January to May 2019
Model Units
1 Tesla Model 3 1991
2 Renault Zoe 646
3 BMW i3 394
4 Jaguar I-Pace 247
5 Nissan Leaf 219
6 Tesla Model S 189
7 Audi e-tron 174
8 Tesla Model X 150
9 Hyundai Ioniq 98
10 Mitsubishi i-MiEV 31

As of April 2016, over 12,000 EVs had been registered since 2012.[511]

Sales of new battery electric vehicles (BEV) rose from 3257 in 2015 to 5139 in 2018. At the first half of 2019, 5938 new BEV were sold, representing 3.8% of the overall sales.[238]

Total of new battery electric vehicles registered per year
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 SEM 1 2019
Total new BEV registrations 3257 3295 4775 5139 5938
% of total new registrations not available not available 1.5% 1.7% 3.8%

Deliveries of the Mitsubishi i MiEV.[512] the Nissan Leaf were launched in 2011.[513][514]

The government offers no subsidies or incentives for purchasing EVs.[515] Cantons can propose special discounts on annual taxes depending on the car's efficiency label and range from 100% rebate (e.g. Solothurn) to 0%.[516]

Taiwan[edit]

Taiwan has a plan to ban all non-electric vehicles in the coming decades, due to concerns over air quality. The plan calls for all new government vehicles and public buses to be electric by 2030, ban sales of nonelectric motorcycles by 2035, and ban sales of nonelectric four-wheel vehicles by 2040.[517]

In 2014 a local taxi association purchased over 1,500 electric minivans.[518]

Turkey[edit]

In 2019, 0.1% of cars sold in Turkey were hybrid or electric.[519]

Ukraine[edit]

Nissan Leaf in Kharkiv—EcoTaxi, 2016

As of June 1, 2021, it is registered in Ukraine 64 459 green cars. 28 865 were fully electric vehicle and 35 594 hybrids.[520] This is more than in all neighboring to Ukraine countries combined. It can be concluded that Ukraine is the leader of electric car mobility in the region of Eastern Europe.

As of 1 August 2020, 46,000 green cars were registered in Ukraine. Of these, 23,000 were fully electric vehicles.[521]

As of 1 January 2019, a total of 19,884 plug-in cars and conventional hybrids are registered in Ukraine, consisting of 10,714 plug-ins and 9,170 hybrids.[522] Over the year 2018, the number of electric vehicles increased by 73% (5,557 cars).[523] The EV market share of total new and used cars first registered during 2018 was 2.8% based on 5,557 out of a total of 198,600 first registered cars.[524]

The Ukrainian Government passed a 2019 budget law which extended existing 2018 tax privileges for plug-in cars until 2023.[525] Both new and second hand plug-in BEVs ( without gasoline range extenders) may be imported free of VAT, import duty and excise duty. As a consequence of the law, new cars like for example the Tesla Model 3 can be purchased for a lower price than in any other country in Europe.[526] This has stimulated demand in 2018 and the trend will most likely continue through 2019.

In November 2018 EV imports were almost 250% those of November 2017.[527]

7,542 vehicles were registered in this country over 2019. The market of commercial electric vehicles grew even more - by one and a half times. The most popular electric vehicle in Ukraine is NISSAN Leaf. Last year, 3,217 vehicles of this particular model joined the car pool in this country. Tesla Model S comes second, with 623 car owners in Ukraine. Third place belongs to VOLKSWAGEN e-Golf, with 360 Ukrainians making their choice in its favor.[528]

United Kingdom[edit]

Annual registration of plug-in electric cars in the UK between 2011 and 2020.
The REVAi/G-Wiz i electric car charging at an on-street station in London.

A total of 651,829 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles had been registered in the UK up until September 2021, consisting of 330,991 all-electric vehicles and 320,838 plug-in hybrids.[529] of which, over 10,000 were plug-in commercial vans.[104]

As of 18 January 2018, the UK had 19,108 public charging points at 6,703 locations, of which 4,391 were rapid charging points at 1,332 locations.[530]

A surge in plug-in car sales took place beginning in 2014. Total registrations went from 3,586 in 2013, to 37,092 in 2016, and rose to 59,911 in 2018.[105][161][531] Sales climbed to 72,834 plug-in cars in 2019, and achieved a record of 175,082 units in 2020, 140.4% up from 2019.[76]

The market share of the plug-in segment went from 0.16% in 2013 to 0.59% in 2014, and achieved 2.6% in 2018.[105][160][531] The segment market share was 3.1% in 2019, and rose to a record 10.7% in 2020.[76]

As of June 2020, the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the all-time top selling plug-in car in the UK over 46,400 units registered, followed by the Nissan Leaf more than 31,400 units.[104]

Government incentives[edit]

The government offered purchase incentives via the Plug-in Car Grant program beginning in 2011. The program was extended to include vans in February 2012 and in October 2016 to include large electric trucks. As of September 2018, a total of 176,962 eligible cars have benefited with the subsidy since the launch of the Plug-in Car Grant in 2011,[532] and, as of September 2018, the number of claims made through the Plug-in Van Grant scheme totaled 5,218 units since the launch of the programme in 2012.[533] In April 2014 and December 2015, the government extended the program with modifications. Eligible ultra-low emission vehicles (ULEVs) included hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.[534][535][536]

Separately, the government subsidized homeowners to install charge points at home via the "Electric Vehicle Homecharge Scheme".[535][536] All-electric vehicles and eligible plug-in hybrids qualify for a 100% discount from the London congestion charge.[537] However, effective from 8 April 2019, the ULED scheme will be replaced with the Cleaner Vehicle Discount, which restrict the discount only to vehicles which are Euro 6, emit up to 75g/km of CO2 and have a minimum 20-mile (32 km) zero-emission range. A further phase from October 2021 will mean that only zero-emission vehicles (battery electric vehicle and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles) will qualify for the discount, which will be phased out completely from December 2025.[538]

United States[edit]

U.S. annual sales of plug-in passenger cars between December 2010 and 2019.

As of September 2021, cumulative sales of highway legal plug-in electric cars in the U.S. totaled 2,137,480 units since 2010.[539] California is the largest plug-in regional market in the country, with 803,816 plug-in cars registered up until December 2020, 46% of national sales.[14] The other nine states that follow California Air Resources Board's Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) regulations accounted for another 10% of the American stock.[540]

A total 157,181 plug-in cars were sold nationwide in 2016, sales rose to 199,818 in 2017, and achieved a record sales volume of 361,307 units in 2018. Sales declined to 329,528 units in 2019.[88][541][87]

The Tesla Model S (front) was the U.S. best selling plug-in car from 2015 to 2017, and the Tesla Model 3 (back) has led sales from 2018 and 2020.[87][88][542][543]

The plug-in segment had a market share of 1.13% in 2017, up from 0.90% in 2016, then rose to 2.1% in 2018.[90][182][541] A slightly declined to 1.9% occurred in 2019, and rose to 2.2% in 2020.[34]

Until 2018, the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid was the all-time best selling plug-in electric car with 152,144 units of both generations.[88][544][545] The Tesla Model 3 all-electric car surpassed in 2019 the discontinued Chevrolet Volt to become the all-time best selling plug-in car in U.S. history, with an estimated 300,471 units delivered since inception, followed by the Tesla Model S with about 157,992, and the Chevrolet Volt with 157,054.[546] The Tesla Model S was the best selling plug-in car in the U.S. for three consecutive years, from 2015 to 2017,[542] and the Model 3 topped sales also for three years running, from 2018 to 2020.[87][88][543]

The federal tax credit for new plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is worth between US$2,500 and US$7,500 depending on battery capacity.[547] Most states have established additional incentives.[548]

In addition, as of April 2021, three US states have introduced government mandates to ban the sale of gasoline powered cars in the future to push the transition to electric vehicles. Washington state's legislation would ban all sales and registrations of gasoline powered light vehicles made for or after their 2030 model year. California would ban the sale of all new fuel burning cars by 2035. Massachusetts would ban the sale of all new gasoline powered cars by 2035.[549]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (June 2020). "Global EV Outlook 2020: Enterign the decade of electric drive?". IEA Publications. Retrieved 15 June 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) See Statistical annex, pp. 247–252 (See Tables A.1 and A.12). The global stock of plug-in electric passenger vehicles totaled 7.2 million cars at the end of 2019, of which, 47% were on the road in China. The stock of plug-in cars consist of 4.8 million battery electric cars (66.6%) and 2.4 million plug-in hybrids (33.3%). In addition, the stock of light commercial plug-in electric vehicles in use totaled 378 thousand units in 2019, and about half a million electric buses were in circulation, most of which are in China.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (29 April 2021). "Global EV Outlook 2021: Accelerating ambitions despite the pandemic". International Energy Agency. Retrieved 16 May 2021. After a decade of rapid growth, in 2020 the global electric car stock hit the 10 million mark, a 43% increase over 2019, and representing a 1% stock share. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) accounted for two thirds of new electric car registrations and two-thirds of the stock in 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ a b Jeff Cobb (16 September 2015). "One Million Global Plug-In Sales Milestone Reached". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  4. ^ a b c Watson, Frank (11 February 2019). "December global electric vehicle sales set new record: S&P Global Platts data". S&P Global Platts. London. Retrieved 11 February 2019. At the end of 2018, some 5.3 million plug-in EVs were on the road
  5. ^ a b c d Shanahan, Jess (21 January 2021). "There are now more than 10 million electric vehicles on the road". Zap Map. Retrieved 21 January 2021. there are now more than 10 million of these vehicles on the road around the world. According to EV Volumes, the total is now 10.8 million worldwide
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Jose, Pontes (31 January 2019). "Global Top 20 - December 2018". EV Sales. Retrieved 31 January 2019. "Global sales totaled 2,018,247 plug-in passenger cars in 2018, with a BEV:PHEV ratio of 69:31, and a market share of 2.1%. The world's top selling plug-in car was the Tesla Model 3, and Tesla was the top selling manufacturer of plug-in passenger cars in 2018".
  7. ^ a b c d e Staff (January 2018). "Global Plug-in Sales for 2017-Q4 and the Full Year (prelim.)". EVvolumes.com. Retrieved 17 February 2018. Global registrations totaled around 1.2 million units in 2017, 57% higher than 2016. These include all global BEV and PHEV passenger cars sales, light trucks in USA/Canada and light commercial vehicle in Europe. In 2017, 66% of sales were pure electric (BEV) and 34% were plug-in hybrids (PHEV). The segment market share was 1.3%, and in December the global plug-in share touched the 2% mark for the first time.
  8. ^ a b c d Jose, Pontes (31 January 2020). "Global Top 20 - December 2019". EVSales.com. Retrieved 10 May 2020. "Global sales totaled 2,209,831 plug-in passenger cars in 2019, with a BEV to PHEV ratio of 74:26, and a global market share of 2.5%. The world's top selling plug-in car was the Tesla Model 3 with 300,075 units delivered, and Tesla was the top selling manufacturer of plug-in passenger cars in 2019 with 367,820 units, followed by BYD with 229,506."
  9. ^ a b Hertzke, Patrick; Müller, Nicolai; Schenk, Stephanie; Wu, Ting (May 2018). "The global electric-vehicle market is amped up and on the rise". McKinsey & Company. Retrieved 27 January 2019. See Exhibit 1: Global electric-vehicle sales, 2010-17.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Irle, Roland (19 January 2021). "Global Plug-in Vehicle Sales Reached over 3,2 Million in 2020". EV-volumes.com. Retrieved 19 January 2021. Plug-in sales totaled 3.24 million in 2020, up from 2.26 million in 2019. Europe, with nearly 1.4 million untits surpassed China as the largest EV market for the first time since 2015.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (CAAM) (14 January 2021). "Sales of New Energy Vehicles in December 2020". CAAM. Retrieved 8 February 2021. NEV sales in China totaled 1.367 million in 2020, consisting of 1.246 million passenger cars and 121,000 commercial vehicles.
  12. ^ a b c d e f European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) (4 February 2021). "New Passenger Car Registrations By Fuel Type In The European Union: Quarter 4 2020" (PDF). ACEA. Retrieved 5 February 2020. See table: Total Electric Rechargeable Vehicles (ECV) - New Passenger Car Registrations By Market In The EU + EFTA. Shows Total registrations for EU + EFTA + UK in Q1-Q4 20199 and 2020. A total of 1,364,813 plug-in cars were registered in 2020, up from 559,871 in 2019 (+143.8%).
  13. ^ a b c d e Argonne National Laboratory (February 2021). "Light Duty Electric Drive Vehicles Monthly Sales Updates: Plug-In Vehicle Sales". Argonne National Laboratory. Retrieved 12 February 2021. Cumulatively, 297,939 PHEVs and BEVs have been sold in 2020. In total, 1,741,566 PHEVs and BEVs have been sold since 2010.
  14. ^ a b c d VELOZ (1 February 2021). "Electric Car Sales in California and the U.S." (PDF). Veloz.org. Retrieved 2 February 2021. National sales 2020: 322,442, cumulative sales 1,786,258. California sales 2020: 145,099, cumulative sales 803,816.
  15. ^ a b c Kane, Mark (16 January 2021). "Germany: Plug-In Car Share At 26%: Records Everywhere In December 2020". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Cobb, Jeff (17 January 2017). "Top 10 Plug-in Vehicle Adopting Countries of 2016". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  17. ^ a b c d e Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (5 January 2021). "Bilsalget i desember og hele 2020" [Car sales in December and throughout 2020] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  18. ^ a b c d Kane, Mark (7 October 2018). "10% Of Norway's Passenger Vehicles Are Plug Ins". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  19. ^ a b c Haugneland, Petter (January 2021). "Personbilbestanden i Norge fordelt på drivstoff" [passenger car stock in Norway by fuel] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 22 January 2021. See graph under "Personbilbestanden i Norge fordelt på drivstoff" - As of 31 December 2020, there were 12.06% all-electric cars and 5.11% are plug-in hybrid cars in use on Norwegian roads. Combined, plug-in electric passenger cars represented 17.17% of all cars in circulation in the country, up from 13.45% in 2019.
  20. ^ Paulraj, Pon (14 December 2019). "The Netherlands has the highest density of Electric Vehicle chargers in the world". Emobility Simplified. Retrieved 17 June 2020. Latest figures released by the Ministry of Infrastructure (RVO) shows that every square kilometer in the country has an average of 1.18 semi-public charge points!
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (May 2016). "Global EV Outlook 2016: Beyond one million electric cars" (PDF). IEA Publications. Retrieved 24 August 2016.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) See pp. 4-5, and 24-25 and Statistical annex, pp. 34-37.
  22. ^ Clark, Pilita; Campbell, Peter (31 August 2016). "Motor Industry: Pressure on the Pump". Financial Times. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  23. ^ Justin Gerdes (11 May 2012). "The Global Electric Vehicle Movement: Best Practices From 16 Cities". Forbes. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  24. ^ a b c Argonne National Laboratory, United States Department of Energy (28 March 2016). "Fact#918: March 28, 2016 - Global Plug-in Light Vehicles Sales Increased By About 80% in 2015". Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  25. ^ a b Klippenstein, Matthew (8 April 2014). "One Percent Of Norway's Cars Are Already plug-ins". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Cobb, Jeff (16 January 2017). "The World Just Bought Its Two-Millionth Plug-in Car". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 17 January 2017. An estimated 2,032,000 highway-legal plug-in passenger cars and vans have been sold worldwide at the end of 2016. The top selling markets are China (645,708 new energy cars, including imports), Europe (638,000 EVs), and the United States (570,187 plug-in cars). The top European country markets are Norway (135,276), the Netherlands (113,636), France (108,065), and the UK (91,000). Total Chinese sales of domestically produced new energy vehicles, including buses and truck, totaled 951,447 vehicles. China was the top selling EV market in 2016, and also has the world's largest stock of plug-in cars.
  27. ^ a b c Jose Pontes (18 January 2018). "China December 2017". EV Sales. Retrieved 19 January 2018. Sales of plug-in electric cars in China, including imports, totaled 600,174 units in 2017. The BAIC EC-Series was the top selling plug-in with 78,079 units sold in China, making the city car the world's top selling plug-in car in 2017. The top selling plug-in hybrid was the BYD Song PHEV with 30,920 units. BYD Auto was the top selling car manufacturer. Foreign brands captured only about 4% of plug-in sales in 2017, with about half by Tesla. The Chinese plug-in car market represented roughly half of the 1.2 million plug-ins sold worldwide in 2017.
  28. ^ a b c Jose, Pontes (29 January 2018). "World Top 20 December 2017 (Updated)". EV Sales. Retrieved 17 February 2018. "Global sales totaled 1,224,103 plug-in cars in 2017, with a market share of over 1%."
  29. ^ Staff (February 2017). "Global Plug-in Sales for 2016". EV-Volumes.com. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
  30. ^ a b Vaughan, Adam (25 December 2017). "Electric and plug-in hybrid cars whiz past 3m mark worldwide". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 January 2018. "The number of fully electric and plug-in hybrid cars on the world's roads passed the 3 million mark in November 2017."
  31. ^ Irle, Roland (3 February 2020). "Global BEV & PHEV Sales for 2019". EV-volumes.com. Retrieved 10 May 2020. At the end of 2019 the global fleet of plug-ins was 7,5 million, counting light vehicles. Medium and heavy commercial vehicles add another 700 000 units to the global stock of plug-ins.
  32. ^ Heleen Ekker (1 September 2020). "Nieuwe studie: elektrische auto gaat langer mee dan gedacht". NOS (in Dutch). Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  33. ^ Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (1 June 2020). "FOTW #1136, June 1, 2020: Plug-in Vehicle Sales Accounted for about 2% of all Light-Duty Vehicle Sales in the United States in 2019". U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  34. ^ a b c d Stacy C. Davis; Robert G. Boundy (April 2021). "Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 39 (updated April 2021)" (PDF). Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 16 May 2021. See Table 6.2: Hybrid and Plug-In Vehicle Sales, 1999-2020
  35. ^ Quiroga, Tony (August 2009). "Driving the Future". Car and Driver. Hachette Filipacchi Media U.S., Inc. p. 52.
  36. ^ Sherry Boschert (2006). PHEVs: The Cars that will Recharge America. Gabriola Island, Canada: New Society Publishers. ISBN 978-0-86571-571-4.
  37. ^ "Tesla Motors hands keys to 100th Roadster owner". The Mercury News. 10 December 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  38. ^ Cobb, Jeff (10 December 2014). "Retrospective: Four Years of Nissan Leaf and Chevy Volt". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  39. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A32014L0094
  40. ^ International Energy Agency, Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (March 2015). "Global EV Outlook 2015" (PDF). Clean Energy Ministerial. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) The EV Outlook 2015 figures include only passenger EVs and SUVs (excludes light-weight utility vehicles) Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine and total sales/registrations figures correspond to the 16 EVI countries, which are estimated to represent 95% of the global PEV stock. As of December 2014, the Japanese stock of EVs totaled 108,241 units, and China had about 36,500 BEV buses.
  41. ^ Cobb, Jeff (11 May 2016). "China Reports 500,000th Plug-in Vehicle Sold". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 12 May 2016. As of March 2016, a total of 502,572 new energy vehicles have been sold in China since 2011, consisting of 366,219 BEV vehicles (72.9%) and 136,353 PHEVs (27.1%). Sales since 2011 includes heavy-duty commercial vehicles such buses and sanitation trucks, and only accounts for vehicles manufactured in the country.
  42. ^ Cobb, Jeff (9 May 2016). "Norway Is Fourth Country To Register 100,000 Plug-in Cars". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 9 May 2016. As of April 2016, the United States is the leading country market with a stock of about 450,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in vehicles delivered since 2008. China ranks second with around 300,000 units sold since 2011, followed by Japan with about 150,000 plug-in units sold since 2009, both through March 2016. European sales are led by Norway with over 100,000 units registered by the end of April 2016.
  43. ^ Cobb, Jeff (15 June 2016). "Europe Buys Its 500,000th Plug-in Vehicle". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 15 June 2016. As of May 2016, cumulative sales by country are led by the United States with a stock of more than 460,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in vehicles delivered since 2008. China ranks second with almost 390,000 units sold since 2011. Europe is the largest regional market with more than 500,000 plug-in passenger cars and vans registered through May 2016.
  44. ^ Cobb, Jeff (1 September 2016). "Americans Buy Their Half-Millionth Plug-in Car". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2 September 2016. See other figures in graphs.
  45. ^ Cobb, Jeff (28 September 2016). "China Buys Half-Millionth Passenger Plug-in Car; On Track To Surpass US". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 28 September 2016. Sales of new energy vehicles totaled 689,447 units between 2011 and August 2016. Cumulative sales of new energy passenger cars totaled 493,290 units between 2010 and August 2016.
  46. ^ Shahan, Zachary (22 November 2016). "1 Million Pure EVs Worldwide: EV Revolution Begins!". Clean Technica. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  47. ^ a b c Cobb, Jeff (10 October 2016). "France Becomes Fifth Nation To Buy 100,000 Plug-in Vehicles". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  48. ^ Foucaud, Isabelle (1 October 2016). "Plus de 100.000 véhicules électriques circulent aujourd'hui en France" [More than 100,000 electric vehicles currently on the road in France]. Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 10 October 2016. Environment Minister, Ségolène Royal, announced during the 2016 Paris Motor Show that there are more than 100,000 electric vehicles currently on French roads.
  49. ^ a b Cobb, Jeff (17 November 2016). "The Netherlands Becomes Sixth Country To Buy 100,000 Plug-in Vehicles". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  50. ^ "Electric cars exceed 1m in Europe as sales soar by more than 40%". The Guardian. 26 August 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  51. ^ Kane, Mark (6 October 2018). "Plug-In Electric Cars Sales In U.S. Surpass 1 Million". InsideEVs. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  52. ^ Automotive News China (23 October 2018). "China's electrified vehicle fleet tops 2.21 million". Automotive News China. Retrieved 21 October 2018. China's fleet of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids topped 2.21 million by the end of September as sales of electrified vehicles continued to surge in the country. Of the total, EVs accounted for 1.78 million, or nearly 81 percent. The rest were plug-in hybrids, China's Ministry of Public Security said this week. Electrified cargo vehicles—which include trucks, pickups and delivery vans—approached 254,000, representing 11 percent of the electrified vehicle fleet as of last month.
  53. ^ McCarthy, Niall. "Netherlands Top For Electric Vehicle Charger Density [Infographic]". Forbes. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  54. ^ Szczesny, Joseph (11 December 2018). "Sales of Electric Vehicles Growing Steadily in California". The Detroit Bureau. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  55. ^ Deloitte UK (21 January 2019). "21 million more electric vehicles expected worldwide by 2030". Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited (Press release). UK. Retrieved 22 January 2019. 2018 a record year for electric vehicles as two million units sold globally
  56. ^ Jian, Yang (28 January 2019). "Now we know who is really buying electric vehicles in China". Autonews. Retrieved 29 January 2019. In 2018, electrified-vehicle sales in China for the first time topped 1 million, reaching 1.26 million
  57. ^ Routley, Nick (16 March 2019). "Visualizing EV Sales Around the World". Visual Capitalist. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  58. ^ "Electric Vehicle Charging Posts in China Surpass 1 Million as of June". interestingengineering.com. 15 July 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  59. ^ a b c d e f European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) (6 February 2020). "New Passenger Car Registrations By Alternative Fuel Type In The European Union: Quarter 4 2019" (PDF). ACEA. Retrieved 11 May 2020. See table New Passenger Car Registrations By Market In The EU + EFTA - Total Electric Rechargeable Vehicles: Total EU + EFTA in Q1-Q4 2018 and 2019 (revised figures for 2018).
  60. ^ a b Schmidt, Matthias (3 December 2020). "Exclusive: Western Europe's plug-in electric car market surpasses 1 million landmark". Schmidt Automotive Research. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  61. ^ a b c Jacobs, Frank (7 January 2021). "Yes, 2021 is the year EVs go mainstream". Fleet Europe. Retrieved 12 January 2021. Close to 1.25 million EVs were sold in Europe in 2020
  62. ^ Holl, Dr Maximilian (4 May 2021). "Norway Plugin Electric Vehicles Take Over 80% Share In April". CleanTechnica. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  63. ^ Shahan, Zachary (26 August 2021). "Tesla Model 3 Has Passed 1 Million Sales". CleanTechnica. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  64. ^ "California Milestone, 1 Million EVs Sold: Tesla Played Huge Role". InsideEVs. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  65. ^ Liu Fangyu (8 January 2021). "2020年全国机动车保有量达3.72亿辆 机动车驾驶人达4.56亿人" [In 2020, the number of motor vehicles in the country will reach 372 million, and the number of motor vehicle drivers will reach 456 million]. People's Daily Online (in Chinese). Xinhuanet. Retrieved 6 March 2021. As of the end of 2020, the number of new energy vehicles in the country reached 4.92 million, accounting for 1.75% of the total number of vehicles (quote translated to English)
  66. ^ a b c d e f "En 2017, près de 150 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés à travers l'Europe" [Almost 150,000 electric vehicles registered across Europe in 2017] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France. 23 January 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2018. Registrations of new light-duty all-electric vehicles totaled 149,086 cars and vans in 2017 (excluding range-extender models), of which 132,687 units were passenger cars.
  67. ^ a b c d France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (21 April 2020). "Près de 29 000 véhicules utilitaires électriques immatriculés en Europe en 2019" [Nearly 29,000 electric utility vehicles registered in Europe in 2019] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 12 May 2020. A total of 28,704 light-duty electric utility vehicles (vans) were registered in Europe in 2019, up 23% from 2018 (23,337). France is the leading market in the region with more than 8,000 units sold, followed by Germany with 6,704 units, the UK with 3,427 and Norway with over 2,000. Electric utility vans captured a market share of 1.2% of the European sales in 2019.
  68. ^ Cristea, Mihai (19 February 2021). "EY Study: Fleet electrification can help Europe meet its carbon reduction targets". EY and Eurelectric: Accelerating fleet electrification in Europe - When does reinventing the wheel make perfect sense?. Business Review. Retrieved 20 February 2021. Of the 308 million motor vehicles on Europe's roads today, just 3 million are electric.
  69. ^ Elgin, Ben; Chapman, Lizette (10 May 2021). "How Uber and Lyft Are Losing the Race to the Electric Future". Bloomberg Green + Technology. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  70. ^ a b c d Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (8 January 2021). "Pressemitteilung Nr. 02/2021 - Fahrzeugzulassungen im Dezember 2020 - Jahresbilanz" [Press release No. 02/2021 - Vehicle registrations in December 2020 - Annual balance sheet] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 10 January 2021. A total of 394,632 plug-in electric passenger cars were registered in Germany in 2020, consisting of 200,469 plug-in hybrids (6.9% market share) and 194,163 all-electric cars (6.7% market share).
  71. ^ a b Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (6 January 2021). "Pressemitteilung Nr. 01/2021 - Elektromobilität in Deutschland auf der Überholspur" [Press release No. 01/2021 - Electromobility in Germany in the fast lane] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 24 January 2021. In the case of cars with electric drive, this positive development was even more pronounced at +147.1 percent - here the share of the total stock rose from 0.5 percent to 1.2 percent (Translated from the original) The term electric drive used by KBA includes battery-electric, plug-in and fuel-cell cars.
  72. ^ California Energy Commission. California Energy Commission Zero Emission Vehicle and Infrastructure Statistics (30 April 2021). "Vehicle Population in California Dashboard". California Natural Resources Agency - DMV Data Portal. Retrieved 16 May 2021.At the end of 2020, California had 28,030,332 light-duty vehicles on the road, of which, 635,602 were light-duty ZEV vehicles in use (2.27%), consisting of 369,364 BEVs, 259,109 PHEVs and 7,129 FCEVs.
  73. ^ a b Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association) (January 2021). "Statistikk elbil: Bestand og markedsandel" [Electric car statistics: Stock and market share] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening. Retrieved 14 January 2021. Click on the tab "Elbil" for the stock of electric cars and "Ladbar hybrid" for the stock of plug-in hybrids. Place the pointing device over the graph to show the number of vehicles in use (on the road) at the end of each year or month. As of 31 December 2020, the stock of registered light-duty plug-in electric vehicles totaled 480,008 units, consisting of 337,201 battery electric vehicles and 142,8073 plug-in hybrids.
  74. ^ a b c d e f g h France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (8 January 2021). "Baromètre des immatriculations - En décembre 2020, les véhicules électriques et hybrides rechargeables ont représenté plus de 16 % du marché français : du jamais vu !" [Registrations barometer - In December 2020, electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles represented more than 16% of the French market: unprecedented!] (in French). AVERE France. Retrieved 9 January 2021. See infograh "Parc Roulant et Immatriculations Annuelles depuis Janvier 2010" - As of December 2020, there were 470,295 plug-in electric cars and utility vans, consisting of 337,986 all-electric cars and vans, and 132,309 plug-in hybrids registered.
  75. ^ EAFO: AF FLEET PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL FLEET M1 Electricity (France 2020)
  76. ^ a b c d e f Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) (6 January 2021). "UK automotive looks to green recovery strategy after -29.4% fall in new car registrations in 2020". SMMT. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  77. ^ EAFO: AF FLEET PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL FLEET M1 Electricity (UK 2020)
  78. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Statistics Electric Vehicles in the Netherlands (up to and including December 2020)" (PDF). Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) - Dutch National Office for Enterprising -. RVO. February 2021. Retrieved 2 February 2021. As of 31 December 2020, there were 297,380 highway-legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered (in use) in the Netherlands, consisting of 182,481 fully electric cars, 108,652 plug-in hybrids, and 6,247 all-electric light utility vans. The total number of all classes of plug-in electric vehicles (including buses, heavy-duty truck, mopeds, etc.) on the road totaled 382,721 units. Source includes figures from 2016 to 2020. Sales of plug-in passenger cars totaled 87,946 vehicles and the segment market share was 24.6%.
  79. ^ a b c European Alternative Fuels Observatory (March 2021). "On the electrification path: Europe's progress towards clean transporttion" (PDF). The International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT). Retrieved 6 March 2021. The geographical scope focuses on the EU-27 Members States, the United Kingdom, and the countries of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA,) including Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland. See pp. 3-6.
  80. ^ a b c d e f g Bil Sweden (8 January 2020). "Definitiva nyregistreringar under 2020" [Definitive new registrations in 2020] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 10 January 2020. Download the pdf file "PressRel with tables and diagram_dec2020DEF.pdf" See tables: "Nyregistrerade personbilar per drivmedel december 2020" and "Nyregistrerade eldrivna lätta lastbilar (högst 3,5 ton) per modell:" - A total of 96,054 light-duty plug-in vehicles were registered in 2020, consisting of 66,109 plug-in hybrids, 27,968 all-electric cars, and 1,977 all-electric vans. Passenger car registrations totaled 292,024 units in 2020, of which, the plug-in segment captured a market share of 32.2%.
  81. ^ Rabson, Mia (7 November 2020). "Canada not on track to hit 1st electric vehicle target by 2025". TheCanadian Press. Global News Canada. Retrieved 20 February 2021. there are 168,000 electric vehicles on Canadian roads now, less than one per cent of the 23 million light-duty vehicles registered in total. Figures by October 2020 from the group Electric Mobility Canada.
  82. ^ Azeez, Walé (12 May 2021). "5 things to know about the future of electric vehicles". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  83. ^ a b c d e Kane, Mark (4 February 2020). "Chinese NEVs Market Slightly Declined In 2019: Full Report". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 30 May 2020. Sales of new energy vehicles totaled 1,206,000 units in 2019, down 4.0% from 2018, and includes 2,737 fuel cell vehicles. Battery electric vehicle sales totaled 972,000 units (down 1.2%) and plug-in hybrid sales totaled 232,000 vehicles (down 14.5%). Sales figures include passenger cars, buses and commercial vehicles..
  84. ^ a b c d e f g h i j International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (May 2018). "Global EV Outlook 2017: 3 million and counting" (PDF). IEA Publications. Retrieved 21 January 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) See pp. 9–10, 19–23, 29–28, and Statistical annex, pp. 107–113.
  85. ^ a b "China's new energy PV wholesale volume in 2018 shoots up 83% year on year". Gasgoo. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019. Sales of new energy passenger cars totaled 1,016,002 units in 2018.The BAIC EC series ranked as China's top selling plug-in car in 2018 with 90,637 units delivered.
  86. ^ a b c d e f Automotive News China (16 January 2018). "Electrified vehicle sales surge 53% in 2017". Automotive News China. Retrieved 19 January 2018. Chinese sales of domestically-built new energy vehicles in 2017 totaled 777,000, consisting of 652,000 all-electric vehicles and 125,000 plug-in hybrid vehicles. Sales of domestically-produced new energy passenger vehicles totalled 579,000 units, consisting of 468,000 all-electric cars and 111,000 plug-in hybrids. Only domestically built all-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids and fuel cell vehicles qualify for government subsidies in China.
  87. ^ a b c d Loveday, Steven (17 January 2020). "FINAL UPDATE: Quarterly Plug-In EV Sales Scorecard". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 8 May 2020. See Chart: "2019 Monthly/Q4 Sales Chart : Annual" - Cumulative sales in the U.S. totaled 329,528 units in 2019, and the top selling models were the Tesla Model 3 with 158,925 units, the Toyota Prius Prime with 23,630, the Tesla Model X with 19,225, the Chevrolet Bolt EV with 16,418 and the Tesla Model S with 14,100 units.
  88. ^ a b c d e f g Kane, Mark (24 January 2019). "US Plug-In Electric Car Sales Charted: December 2018". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 24 January 2019. See Graph: "Top 10 U.S. Plug-in cars (cumulative sales)" and "U.S. Plug-in Car Sales (cumulative)"
  89. ^ Cobb, Jeff (11 January 2017). "America's Plug-in Car Sales Were Their Best Ever in 2016". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 12 January 2017. Plug-in electric car sales in the U.S. totaled 157,181 units, up 37.6% from 2015 (114,248). The plug-in car segment achieved an all-time high market share of 0.90% of new car sales in 2016. As of December 2016, cumulative sales totaled 570,187 plug-in cars since 2008, with the Chevrolet Volt as the all-time best selling plug-in car with 113,489 units.
  90. ^ a b c Cobb, Jeff (4 January 2018). "December 2017 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 21 January 2018. Plug-in electric car sales in the U.S. totaled 194,479 units in 2017, consisting of 104,487 all-electric cars and 89,992 plug-in hybrids. The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 1.13% of new car sales.
  91. ^ a b c d e Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (12 January 2018). "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2017" [New Registrations Barometer December 2017] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 12 January 2018. A total of 29,436 plug-in hybrids and 25,056 all-electric cars were registered in Germany in 2017.
  92. ^ a b c d Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA) (January 2019). "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2018" [New registration barometer in December 2018] (in German). KBA. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2019. Click on Kraftstoffarten for the market shares by fuel: Electric was 1.0% in 2018, and plug-in hybrid was 0.9%
  93. ^ a b c Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2020). "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2019" [New Registrations Barometer December 2019] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 14 May 2019. See the tab Kraftsoffarten: A total of 45,348 plug-in hybrids (market share 1.3%) and 63,321 all-electric cars (market share 1.8%) were registered in Germany in 2019.
  94. ^ Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association) (January 2020). "Norwegian EV market". Norsk Elbilforening. Retrieved 8 May 2020. Place the pointing device over the graph to show the cumulative number of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids in Norway at the end of each year. As of 31 December 2019, the registered light-duty plug-in electric stock totaled 384,066 units, consisting of 268,024 battery electric vehicles and 116,042 plug-in hybrids.
  95. ^ a b c d e Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (2 January 2020). "Bilsalget i 2019" [Car sales in 2019] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  96. ^ a b Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association) (January 2019). "Norwegian EV market". Norsk Elbilforening. Retrieved 10 January 2019. Place the pointing device over the graph to show the cumulative number of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids in Norway at the end of each year. As of 31 December 2018, the registered light-duty plug-in electric stock totaled 296,214 units, consisting of 200,192 battery electric vehicles and 96,022 plug-in hybrids.
  97. ^ a b c d Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (2 January 2019). "Bilsalget i 2018" [Car sales in 2018] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  98. ^ a b c d Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken AS (OFV). "Bilsalget i 2017" [Car sales in 2017] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 11 January 2018. A total of 71,737 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2017, consisting of: 33,025 new electric cars, 8,558 used imported all-electric cars, 29,236 new plug-in hybrid cars, 742 new all-electric vans, and 176 used imported all-electric vans.
  99. ^ France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (9 January 2020). "Baromètre annuel : près de 70 000 véhicules légers rechargeables immatriculés en 2019 !" [Annual barometer: nearly 70,000 rechargeable light vehicles registered in 2019!] (in French). AVERE France. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
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  102. ^ a b c d "Baromètre annuel : près de 40 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés en France en 2018 !" [Annual barometer: nearly 40,000 electric vehicles registered in France in 2018!] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France. 9 January 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2019. A total of 53,745 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in France in 2018 consisting of 31,055 all-electric cars plus 1,148 REx vehicles, 8,103 electric utility vans, and 13,439 plug-in hybrid cars. The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 2.1% of new car registrations in the country in 2018. Includes revised figures for 2017
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  106. ^ Jose, Pontes (7 January 2021). "Netherlands December 2020". EVSales.com. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
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  108. ^ "In 2019, The Japanese Plug-In Electric Car Market Declined Again". InsideEVs. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
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  111. ^ a b c d Bil Sweden (7 January 2019). "Nyregistreringar december 2018 (def)" [Definitive new registrations December 2018 (final)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 20 January 2018. Download the pdf file "PressRel1812_DEF.pdf" See tables: "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar december 2018", "Nyregistrerade miljöbilar per typ december 2018" and "Nyregistrerade eldrivna lätta lastbilar (högst 3,5 ton) per modell" - A total of 29,909 light-duty plug-in vehicles were registered in 2018, consisting of 22,074 plug-in hybrids, 7,078 all-electric cars, and 757 all-electric vans. Passenger car registrations totaled 379,393 units in 2017, of which, the plug-in segment captured a market share of 8.2%.
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  131. ^ Jose, Pontes (29 January 2016). "Iceland December 2015". EV Sales. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  132. ^ Jose Pontes (6 February 2015). "Markets Roundup December 2014 (Special Edition)". EV Sales. Retrieved 15 March 2015. See section "Engines of Growth - by EV share" Estonia's market shared in 2014 climbed to 1.57% from 0.68% in 2013. Iceland's market share grew from 0.21% in 2012, to 0.94% in 2013, to 2.71% in 2014.
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