Electric car use by country

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For the more general category of electric drive for all type of vehicles, see electric vehicle. For the specific electric drive cars, see electric car and plug-in electric vehicle.
Top-selling light-duty plug-in electric vehicle global markets by country or region as of September 2016.[1][2]

This article describes the use, market penetration and market share of new car sales of electric cars by country. It also provides historical background, fleet size, existing government incentives, and deployment details by country. The article encompasses both low-speed neighborhood electric vehicle (NEVs) and highway-capable all-electric cars (BEVs). Several countries publish their statistics and have purchase incentives schemes in place for the more general category of plug-in electric cars (PEVs), which includes also plug-in hybrids (PHEVs). Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are not included because they can not be plugged and recharged from an off-vehicle electric energy source.

Cumulative global sales of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles passed the 1.5 million unit milestone in May 2016,[3]of which, about a third were sold in 2015.[3][4] The global ratio between all-electrics (BEVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) has consistently been 60:40 between 2014 and the first half of 2016, but in the U.S. and Europe, the ratio is approaching a 50:50 split.[5] Global sales of highway-capable pure electric cars passenger cars and utility vans passed the one million milestone in September 2016.[6] Cumulative sales of plug-in hybrids totaled over 517,000 units as of December 2015.[7] Despite their rapid growth, plug-in electric cars represented 0.1% of the one billion cars on the world's roads by the end of 2015.[7][8]

As of September 2016, cumulative sales of highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles by country are led by the United States and China, both with about 520,000 plug-in passenger cars sold.[1][9] Japan is the world's third largest plug-in car market with about 145,000 plug-ins sold through September 2016.[10] About 570,000 light-duty plug-in electric passenger cars have been registered in Europe up until September 2016, representing almost a third of global sales, and making the continent the world's largest light-duty plug-in regional market.[1] As of September 2016, sales in the European light-duty plug-in electric segment are led by Norway with over 121,300 units, followed by France with over 100,000 units registered by October 2016, and the Netherlands with almost 98,300 units registered at the end of September 2016.[11][12][13] China is the world's leader in the plug-in heavy-duty segment, including electric all-electric buses, and plug-in commercial and sanitation trucks. The stock of new energy vehicles sold in China totaled more than 733,000 units through September 2016.[1] As of December 2015, China was the world's largest plug-in electric bus market with a stock of almost 173,000 vehicles.[7]

Norway is the country with the highest market penetration per capita in the world, also the country with the largest plug-in electric segment market share of new car sales, and in March 2014 Norway became the first country where over 1 in every 100 passenger cars on the roads is a plug-in electric vehicle, and the segment's market penetration climbed to 3% in December 2015.[14][15][16][17] Estonia, which has the second largest EV market penetration per capita after Norway,[18] is the first country that completed the deployment of an EV charging network with nationwide coverage, with fast chargers available along highways at a minimum distance between 40 to 60 km (25 to 37 mi).[19][20]

Global outlook[edit]

Cumulative global sales of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles passed the one million unit milestone in September 2015.[21][22] Sales of plug-in electric vehicles achieved this million milestone almost twice as fast as hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). While it took four years and 10 months for the PEV segment to reach one-million sales, it took more than around nine years and a few months for HEVs to reach its first million sales.[21][22] The stock of plug-in electric cars represented 0.1% of the one billion cars on the world's roads by the end of 2015.[7][8] When sales are broken down by type of powertrain, all-electric cars have oversold plug-in hybrids, with pure electrics capturing 58.9% of the global stock of 1.257 million plug-ins on the world's roads by the end of 2015.[7] The global ratio between all-electrics (BEVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) has consistently been 60:40 between 2014 and the first half of 2016, mainly due to the large all-electric market in China. In the U.S. and Europe, the ratio is approaching a 50:50 split.[5] Cumulative global sales of highway-capable light-duty pure electric vehicles since 2010 passed the one million unit milestone in September 2016.[6]

Annual sales of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in the world's top markets between 2011 and 2015.[23]

The global stock of plug-in electric vehicles between 2005 and 2009 consisted exclusively of all-electric cars, totaling about 1,700 units in 2005, and almost 6,000 in 2009. The plug-in stock rose to about 12,500 units in 2010, of which, only 350 vehicles were plug-in hybrids.[7][24] By comparison, during the Golden Age of the electric car at the beginning of the 20th century, the EV stock peaked at approximately 30,000 vehicles.[25] After the introduction of the Nissan Leaf and the Chevrolet Volt in late December 2010, the first mass-production plug-in cars by major carmakers, plug-in car sales grew to about 50,000 units in 2011, jumped to 125,000 in 2012, and rose to almost 213,000 plug-in electric cars and utility vans in 2013. Sales totaled over 315,000 units in 2014, up 48% from 2013.[23]

In five years, global sales of highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have increased more than ten-fold, totaling more than 565,00 units in 2015. Plug-in sales in 2015 increased about 80% from 2014, driven mainly by China and Europe.[23] Both markets passed in 2015 the U.S. as the largest plug-in electric car markets in terms of total annual sales, with China ranking as the world's best-selling plug-in electric passenger car country market in 2015.[4][26] Cumulative global sales totaled over 1.5 million plug-in cars and utility vans by the end of May 2016.[3] About 438,000 plug-in cars and vans were sold during the first eight months of 2016.[27]

Timeline of key sales milestones
for highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles
Date Milestone
Dec 2008 100th Tesla Roadster delivered[28]
Dec 2010 Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt deliveries began[29]
Dec 2012 Annual global sales passed the 100,000 mark[7][23]
Mar 2014 Norway is the first country where 1% of passenger
cars on the road is a plug-in electric[14]
Dec 2014 100,000th plug-in electric car sold in Japan[7][30]
Sep 2015 Global plug-in car/van sales passed 1 million units.[21]
Dec 2015 Annual global sales passed the 500,000 mark[7][23]
3% of passenger cars on Norwegian roads are
plug-in electrics[17]
Mar 2016 500,000th new energy vehicle sold in China[31]
(includes heavy-duty commercial vehicles)
Norway achieved the highest-ever monthly plug-in
market share with 33.5% of new car sales[32]
200,000th plug-in electric car sold in California[33]
Apr 2016 100,000th plug-in electric car/van sold in Norway[34]
May 2016 Global pug-in car/van sales passed 1.5 million units[3]
May 2016 500,000th plug-in electric car/van sold in Europe[35]
Aug 2016 500,000th plug-in electric car sold in the U.S.[36]
Sep 2016 500,000th new energy passenger car sold in China[37]
Sep 2016 Global all-electric car/van sales passed 1 million.[6]
Oct 2016 100,000th plug-in electric car/van sold in France[11][12]
Nov 2016 100,000th plug-in electric car/van sold in the Netherlands[38]

As of September 2016, cumulative sales of highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles by country are led by the United States and China, both with about 520,000 plug-in passenger cars sold.[1][9] Total sales of light-duty plug-in vehicles in each country represent 29.2% of the global stock of plug-ins.[1] Japan has the world's third largest plug-in stock, with about 145,000 highway legal plug-in electric vehicles sold in the country between July 2009 and September 2016.[10] Total Japanese sales of light-duty plug-in vehicles represent 8.1% of the global stock of plug-ins as of September 2016.[1] In 2014 Japan ranked second with about 108,000 units.[30]

As of September 2016, about 570,000 plug-in electric passenger cars and vans have been registered in Europe, representing 31.9% of the global stock, making the continent the world's largest light-duty plug-in regional market.[1] Of these, 186,170 plug-in passenger cars were registered in 2015,[39] and 143,315 were registered during the first three quarters of 2016, consisting of 65,270 all-electric cars and 76,037 plug-in hybrids.[40] By the end of 2015, almost 25% of the European plug-in stock was registered in the Nordic countries, with over 100,000 registered plug-in electric cars. Combined registrations in the four countries in 2015 were up 91% from 2014.[41][42] As of September 2016, European sales in the light-duty plug-in electric segment, which includes utility vans, are led by Norway with more than 121,300 units,[10][43] followed by France with more than 100,000 units registered by October 2016,[11] and the Netherlands with almost 98,300 units registered at the end of September 2016.[13] As of September 2016, ranking next is the UK with about 90,000 units, followed by Germany with almost 67,000, and Sweden with over 26,000. The other top selling country market is Canada with about 25,000 new plug-in cars sold since 2011.[1]

As of December 2015, France ranked as the largest European market for light-duty electric commercial vehicles or utility vans, accounting for nearly half of all vans sold in the European Union.[44] The French market share of all-electric utility vans reached a market share of 1.22% of new vans registered in 2014, and 1.30% in 2015.[45] Denmark is the second largest European market, with over 2,600 plug-in electric vans sold in 2015, with an 8.5% market share of all vans sold in the country. Most of the van sold in the Danish market are plug-in hybrids, accounting for almost all of the plug-in hybrid van sales across the EU.[44]

New energy vehicle sales in China totaled more than 733,000 units units sold between January 2011 and September 2016.[37][46] These figures include heavy-duty commercial vehicles such buses and sanitation trucks, and only include vehicles manufactured in the country as imports are not subject to government subsidies.[31] The country achieved record sales of more than 200,000 new energy passenger cars in 2015, allowing China to rank as the world's top selling plug-in passenger car country market in 2015, ahead of the United States, the leading market in 2014.[4][7] As of December 2015, China is also the world's leader in the plug-in heavy-duty segment, including electric buses, plug-in trucks, particularly sanitation/garbage trucks.[21][47] As of December 2015, the global stock of plug-in electric buses was estimated to be about 173,000 units, almost entirely deployed in China, the world's largest electric bus market. Of these, almost 150,000 were all-electric buses. The Chinese electric bus stock grew nearly sixfold between 2014 and 2015.[7] In a few other countries, there are electric bus fleets, deployed in a few major cities mainly as pilots and demonstration projects. As of December 2015, there are 100 electric buses in India, 94 in the Netherlands, 30 in Sweden, and 21 in Japan.[7]

The following table presents plug-in electric vehicle stock and PEV market share of new car sales between 2013 and 2015 for the ten countries with the largest plug-in electric-drive stock as of December 2015.

Light-duty plug-in electric vehicle stock and PEV market share of total new car sales
in the top ten PEV selling countries as of December 2015
Country PEV stock(1) PEV market share Sales
since
2015[4] 2014[48] 2013[49] 2015[4] 2014[48] 2013[49]
 United States ~410,000 291,332 172,000 0.66% 0.72% 0.62% 2008(2)
 China 258,328 83,198[30] 28,619 0.84%[50] 0.23% 0.08% 2008(2)
 Japan(4) 126,420[7] 108,248[30] 74,124 n.a. 1.06% 0.85% 2009(3)
 Netherlands 88,991 45,020[51] 28,673 9.74% 3.87% 5.37% 2009(3)
 Norway(5) 84,401[52][53] 43,442 20,486 22.39% 13.84% 5.60% 2003(3)
 France 74,294 43,605(6) 28,560(6) 1.2% 0.70% 0.65% 2010(3)
 United Kingdom 53,524 ~24,500[54] 9,982[54][55] 1.1% 0.59%[55] 0.16%[55] 2006(3)
 Germany 48,669[4][48] 25,205[56][57] 12,156[57] 0.73%[58] 0.43% 0.25% 2006(2)
 Canada 17,058[59] 10,658[60] 5,596[60] 0.35%[59] 0.27%[60] 0.18%[60] 2011(2)
 Sweden 16,996[48][61] 8,076[62] 3,138[62] 2.49%[61] 1.53%[63] 0.57% 2011(3)
Global Total
(since 2003)
1,235,000[4] 712,000[48] 405,000[48]
Light-duty plug-in electric vehicle stock and PEV market share of total new car sales
in selected regional markets
 Europe(7) 425,849[64][65][66] 233,022[64] n.a. 1.41%[65] 0.66%[67] 0.49%[68] 2010(2)
 California[69][70] 191,650 129,484 69,999 3.1% 3.2% 2.5% 2010(2)
Plug-in electric vehicle stock for all class segments in China[71][72][73][74][75]
 China 444,447 113,355 38,592 2011(8)
Notes

(1) Plug-in electric vehicle stock only includes cumulative sales or registrations of highway legal light-duty vehicles except where noted.
(2) Only includes plug-in passenger cars. (3) Includes plug-in cars and all-electric utility vans.
(4) Kei cars are not included for the Japanese market share estimate.[49] (5) Includes registrations of used imports.
(6) French registrations do not include plug-in hybrids, which were accounted together with regular hybrids (HEVs).[76]
(7) European figures correspond to European Union member countries plus two EFTA countries (Norway and Switzerland)
(8) Includes plug-in electric passenger cars and heavy-duty commercial vehicles such as buses and trucks.

Comparison of concentration of registered plug-in electric cars per 1,000 people among top selling PEV countries and California.

U.S. plug-in car sales are led by California, the largest American car market, with about 250,000 units sold by November 2016, representing 46% of all plug-in cars sold in the U.S. since 2010.[77] During 2014 California's PEV market share reached 3.2% of total new car sales in the state, up from 2.5% in 2013.[70][78] In 2015 the state's plug-in market share fell to 3.1%.[69] Until December 2014 California had more plug-in electric vehicles than any other country,[79][80] and in 2015 only two countries, Norway (22.4%) and the Netherlands (9.7%), achieved a higher plug-in market share than California.[81] As of November 2016, China is the only country market that exceeds California in terms of cumulative plug-in electric car sales.[77] Plug-in electric cars represented about 0.5% of the passenger fleet on the Californian roads by September 2015.[82] Among U.S. states, California has the highest concentration of registered plug-in cars per 1,000 people, 4.68, as of December 2015. Only Norway has a higher concentration of plug-ins per capita.[83]

Norway, with a population of about 5.2 million, is the country with the highest plug-in electric car ownership per capita in the world,[15][49] with a market concentration of 21.5 registered plug-in cars per 1,000 people, 3.6 times higher than California's, the leading American market, and exceeding the U.S. average concentration by 14.2 times.[83][84] In March 2014, Norway became the first country where over 1 in every 100 passenger cars on the roads is a plug-in electric,[85][86] and the segment's market penetration reached 2% in March 2015,[16] and passed 3% in December 2015.[17][87] Norway also has the world's largest plug-in electric segment market share of total new car sales, growing from 5.6% in 2013, to 13.8% in 2014, and reaching 22.4% in 2015.[4][48][88] Ranking next is the Netherlands, with a market share of 3.9% in 2014, and 9.7% in 2015.[4][48] In 2015 nine countries achieved plug-in electric car sales with a market share equal or higher than 1% of total new car sales,[4] up from six in 2014.[48][63][89] The nine countries are Norway (22.39%), the Netherlands (9.74%), Hong Kong (4.84%), Iceland (2.93%), Sweden (2.49%), Denmark (2.29%), Switzerland (1.98%), France (1.2%), and the UK (1.1%).[4][61][90][91] In 2015 the European plug-in passenger car market share passed the one percent mark (1.41%) for the first time.[65] The highest-ever monthly market share for plug-in electric segment was achieved in March 2016 in Norway, with one in three new passenger cars registered being a plug-in electric car (33.5%).[32]

The following table presents the top 10 countries according to their PEV market share of total new car sales between 2015 and 2013.

Top 10 countries by plug-in electric passenger car market share
of total new car sales between 2015 and 2013
Rank Country Market
share (%)
2015[4][90]
Rank Country Market
share (%)
2014[48]
Rank Country Market
share (%)
2013[92]
1  Norway 22.39 % 1  Norway 13.84 % 1  Norway 6.10 %
2  Netherlands 9.74 % 2  Netherlands 3.87 % 2  Netherlands 5.55 %
3  Iceland[91] 2.93 % 3  Iceland[89] 2.71 % 3  Iceland 0.94 %
4  Sweden 2.62 % 4  Estonia[89] 1.57 % 4  Japan 0.91 %
5  Denmark 2.29 % 5  Sweden[63] 1.53 % 5  France(2) 0.83 %
6   Switzerland 1.98 % 6  Japan 1.06 % 6  Estonia 0.73 %
7  France 1.19 % 7  Denmark[93] 0.88 % 7  Sweden[63] 0.71 %
8  United Kingdom 1.07 % 8   Switzerland[94] 0.75 % 8  United States 0.60 %
9  Austria[95] 0.90 % 9  United States 0.72 % 9   Switzerland 0.44 %
10  China[50] 0.84 % 10  France(2) 0.70 % 10  Denmark 0.29 %
Selected regional markets
Plug-in electric passenger car market share between 2015 and 2013
 Hong Kong[96] 4.84 %  Hong Kong -  Hong Kong[96] 0.39 %
 California[69] 3.1 %  California[69] 3.2 %  California[69] 2.5 %
 Europe(1)[65] 1.41 %  Europe(1)[67] 0.66 %  Europe(1)[68] 0.49 %
Notes: (1) European figures correspond to European Union member countries plus two EFTA countries (Norway and Switzerland)
2) The French market share corresponds to combined sales all-electric passenger cars and utility vans only (plug-in hybrids not included).

Australia[edit]

In 2008 Australia started producing its first commercial all-electric vehicle. Originally called the Blade Runner, its name was changed to Electron, and is already being exported to New Zealand with one purchased by the Environment Minister Dr. Nick Smith.[97][98] The Electron is based on the Hyundai Getz chassis and has proven popular with government car pools.[99]

In October 2008, Better Place announced plans to deploy charging network to power electric cars in Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane in partnership with Australian power company AGL and finance group Macquarie Capital.[100] The initial network deployment was planned to take place in Canberra in late 2011.[101] As of December 2011, 12 public charge spots (power outlets, not battery swap stations) had been installed in Australia.[102] The roll out of the Australian network was initially planned to begin 6 months to a year after the roll out of the network in Denmark.[103] In December 2012, Renault announced that the launch of the Renault Fluence Z.E. was postponed indefinitely following delays with the roll out of Australia's electric vehicle infrastructure. The electric car was scheduled to go on sale to the public from a number of dealers across the country in the fourth quarter of 2012. Better Place explained that delays in the deployments in Israel and Denmark are reflecting in the Australian roll out, which would take place between 12 and 18 months behind the other markets.[104] Better place have since gone bust with the only sign they ever existed being a few lone silver posts standing in (mostly university) car parks. Chargepoint is now the only major operator of a charging network still based and active in Australia.[105]

Beginning in mid-2009, twelve-month field trial was conducted with the Mitsubishi i-MiEV with potential electric vehicle customers, such as local, state and federal government bodies, and major fleet operators.[106] Leasing for fleet customers began in Australia in August 2010.[107][108] As of May 2011, a total of 110 i-MiEVs had been leased to government and corporate fleets, while retail sales to the public began in August 2011. As of September 2013, the Australian government does not offer any form of incentive or rebate scheme for the purchase of fuel-efficient vehicles by its citizens.[109] As of December 2012, 125 i-MiEVs had been sold in the country, 30 of which were sold by December 2011.[110]

A two-year fleet trial of 10 converted Ford Focus Electric cars, that also included 14 i-MiEVs and 3 Toyota Prius PHEVs,[111] commenced in Western Australia in 2010.[112] Each converted car was equipped with a 23 kWh battery pack, a 27 kW DC motor and a 1000A motor controller. These cars were then used in the study as regular fleet vehicles to find their usability for everyday driving.[113] In July 2011, Nissan Australia provided 16 Nissan Leaf vehicles, to be used by both personal and commercial users, for an electric vehicle trial in Victoria.[114] A total of 19 Leafs were registered in 2011, while sales of the Nissan Leaf in Australia began in June 2012—77 units were sold during 2012.[110][115] The Holden Volt, a plug-in hybrid model, was released onto the Australian market by late 2012 and a total of 80 units were delivered during that year.[110]

A total of 258 plug-in electric cars were sold during 2012, with the i-MiEV as the top selling model, with 95 units sold.[116] Sales during 2013 totaled 304 units, up 20% from 2012. The Nissan Leaf was the top selling plug-in car with 188 units followed by the Holden Volt with 101 units. The EV market share in 2013 was 0.036% of total new car sales in the country.[117][118] As of September 2013, the largest public charging networks exist in the capital cities of Perth and Melbourne, with around 30 stations (7 kW AC) established in both cities—smaller networks exist in other capital cities. An Australian standard for charging connectors does not exist as of September 2013.[119]

Since 2014 Mitsubishi is no longer importing the i-MiEV after slow sales due to the high price and due to competition from the more successful Outlander PHEV for battery components. Sales during the first quarter of 2014 totaled 42 units, representing a 0.015% market share of new car sales,[120] and during the first half of 2014 sales reached 114 units.[121] Deliveries of the Tesla Model S in Australia began in late 2014.[122] Deliveries of the BMW i3 also commenced at the end of 2014. Sales during 2014 totaled 1,228 units, up 288% from 2013.[123] The plug-in electric segment reached a 0.11% market share of total new car sales in the country, up threefold from 0.036% in 2013.[117][123] The surge in sales was due to the introduction of the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, which sold 895 units during 2014, and became Australia's top selling plug-in electric vehicle.[123] Cumulative sales in the Australian market since 2010 reached over 1,950 units by the end of December 2014, up from 304 units in 2013.[110][117][123][124][125][126]

A total of 246 Holden Volts had been sold in the country by mid April 2015, with the stock of the first generation almost empty. General Motors announced that it will not build the second generation Volt in right-hand-drive configuration, so the Holden Volt will be discontinued in the country when the remaining stock is sold out.[127] As of April 2015, the following models are available in the Australian market: Nissan Leaf, Tesla Model S, both variants of the BMW i3 (REx and all-electric), BMW i8, Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, and Porsche plug-in hybrids, 918 Spyder, Panamera and Cayenne.[127][128][129] Other models scheduled to be launched in the country include the Audi A3 e-tron and the Audi Q7 e-tron.[127]

As of December 2014, a total of 65 Model S cars were registered in New South Wales and only four in Victoria.[124] At the end of March 2015, registrations totaled 119 in New South Wales and 54 in Victoria. Although there were no sales figures reported for Tesla in other states, the combined sales of these two states alone were enough for the Model S to rank as the top selling all-electric car in the country for the first quarter of 2015, ahead of the BMW i3 (46) and the Nissan Leaf (31).[124] Australia's top selling plug-in electric vehicle for the first quarter of 2015 was the Outlander P-HEV, with 198 units sold,[130] again in the first quarter of 2016 ranked as the top selling plug-in with 195 units,[131] and continued as the country's all-time best selling plug-in with 2,015 units sold through March 2016 since its introduction in 2013.[132]

The following table presents registrations of highway-capable plug-in electric cars by year between 2010 and March 2016:

Registration of highway-capable plug-in electric cars by model in Australia
between 2010 and March 2016
Model Total
2010–2016(1)
1Q
2016[131]
1Q
2015[124][130]
2014[123][124] 2013[117] 2012[125] 2011[110] 2010[126]
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV 2,015[132] 195 198 895
Nissan Leaf 528(1) 40 31 173 188 77 19
Tesla Model S 323(1) 150 104(2) 69(2)
Mitsubishi i MiEV 252 0 0 0 15 95 30 112
Holden Volt 245(1) 0 6 58 101 80
BMW i3 106(1) 27 46 33
Tesla Roadster 11 0 0 0 0 5 6
BMW i8 7 7
Total registrations 3,487 419 385 1,228 304 257 55 112
Notes: (1) 2015 figures includes sales only for the first quarter of 2015, except for the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV.
(2) Model S figures correspond only to registrations in New South Wales and Victoria.[124]

Belgium[edit]

Sales of electric cars in the country rose from 97 units in 2009, to 116 in 2010, 425 in 2011, to 1,038 electric-drive vehicles by early October 2012. Of the latter, only 350 units were sold to individual customers. The three top selling plug-electric cars sold in 2012 through September 2012 are the Opel Ampera with 155 units, the Peugeot iOn with 95, and the Renault Fluence Z.E. with 86 units.[133] The Nissan Leaf sold 57 units during the first half of 2012,[134] and the Chevrolet Volt 24 units during the same period.[135] A total of 900 electric cars were sold in 2012.[136]

The Belgian government established a personal income tax deduction of 30% of the purchase price including VAT of a new electric vehicle, up to €9,510. Plug-in hybrids are not eligible.[137][138][139] This tax incentive will end on December 31, 2012.[133] There is also available a tax deduction up to 40% for investments in external recharging stations publicly accessible, to a maximum of €250.[137] The Wallonia regional government has an additional €4,500 eco-bonus for cars registered before December 31, 2011.[140]

Brazil[edit]

Nissan Leaf operating as a taxi at Santos Dumont airport as part of a demonstrations program in Rio de Janeiro.

A total of 117 electric drive vehicles were registered in Brazil in 2012, and 383 during the first ten months of 2013. These figures include both conventional hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in electric cars. Registrations during 2013 represent a 0.01% market share of new cars sales in the country through October 2013.[141] As of February 2013, there were only 70 electric cars registered in the country, of which, 68 are corporate cars, including 9 Nissan Leafs that are being demonstrated as taxis in São Paulo.

As of September 2015, there were 2,214 hybrid and electric vehicles registered in the state of São Paulo, including passenger cars (723), buses, motorcycles and mopeds. Of these, 1,274 electric-drive vehicles are registered in São Paulo city, of which, 387 are passenger cars.[142]

Eco Vagas: parking spaces reserved for low emissions vehicles in Brasília.

In May 2010 the government put on hold a new policy to promote the introduction of electric cars, and a decision is still pending. Instead, plug-in electric cars and hybrid electric vehicles are subject to high taxes. As of February 2013 these included a 35% import tax, plus a 55% tax on industrialized products (IPI) imported outside Mercosur and Mexico, 13% contribution to social security (PIS/COFINS), and between 12 and 18% tax on transit of goods and services (ICMS), depending on the state, adding up to more than 120%. The tax burden results in an average final price of R$200,000 (US$100,000) for an electric car, and up to R$120,000 (US$60,000) for a regular hybrid.[143][144] As of March 2014, the IPI for imported hybrid and electric vehicles varies between 13% to 25%, but the government is considering to exempt electric cars from IPI and reduce the tax to hybrids to 2%, the same levy paid by small cars manufactured in Brazil.[145]

In March 2013, the first two Leafs out of a fleet of 15, were deployed in Rio de Janeiro to operate as taxis. This program is a partnership between the government of Rio de Janeiro City, Nissan do Brasil (NBA) and Petrobras Distribuidora. The first two electric taxis are available at the Santos Dumont airport stand, and charging is provided in two Petrobras service stations at the Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas and in the Barra da Tijuca neighborhood. The program is part of the city's goal to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases by 16% by 2016 compared to emission levels of 2005.[146]

In June 2013, Nissan and the government of the State of Rio de Janeiro signed a memorandum of understanding to study the possibility of manufacturing the Nissan Leaf in the state, and the entire infrastructure necessary for running electric cars. The state government would provide fiscal incentives during the investment phase, and the electric car will be exempted from import taxes.[147][148]

In May 2014 São Paulo city passed a municipal law to exempt plug-in electric, hybrids and fuel cell vehicles from the city's driving restriction scheme (Portuguese: rodízio veicular). Also owners of electric drive cars with a purchase price up to R$150,000 (~ US$65,200) are entitled to a 50% reimbursement of the annual car ownership tax (IPVA) for five years up to a total of R$10,000 (~ US$4,300).[149] The benefits went into effect in September 2015.[142]

In September 2014 the BMW i3 became the first plug-in electric car available in the country for retail customers. Due to the high import taxes, the i3 pricing starts at R$225,900 (US$98,500) for the all-electric model and at R$235,950 (US$102,600) for the model with the range-extender. The i3 is available only in eight cities: São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, Brasilia, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Recife, and Joinville.[149][150] As of June 2016, other plug-ins available for retail sales are the BMW i8 plug-in hybrid, starting at R$799,950 (US$235,280), and the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, starting at R$204,990 (US$60,290).[151]

According to Research and Markets, electric vehicles sales in the country are expected to reach 80,000 units annually in 2020. The research firm forecasts that the Brazilian electric vehicle market will likely be dominated by scooter and motorcycles.[152]

Canada[edit]

Cumulative sales of plug-in electric cars in Canada passed the 20,000 unit mark in May 2016.[153] The Chevrolet Volt, released in 2011, is the all-time top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the country, with cumulative sales of 6,387 units through May 2015, representing over 30% of all plug-in cars sold in the country.[153][154][155] Ranking second is the Tesla Model S with 4,160 units sold through April 2016, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 3,692 units delivered as of May 2016.[153][154][156] The Model S was the top selling plug-in electric car in Canada in 2015 with 2,010 units sold.[154][157]

The Chevrolet Volt is the all-time top selling plug-in electric car in Canada. Shown here is a fleet of Volts at a solar-powered charging station in Toronto.

Quebec is the regional market leader in Canada, with about 11,000 plug-in electric cars registered as of September 2016, of which, 55% are plug-in hybrids. Registrations in the province totaled 3,100 units in 2015, representing a market share of 0.7% of new car sales, and 45% of total Canadian plug-in electric car sales that year.[158]

A total of 1,969 plug-in cars were sold in 2012, up from 521 in 2011. Sales climbed 57.7% in 2013 to 3,106 units, and in 2014 were up 63.0% from 2013 to 5,062 units, reaching cumulative sales of 10,658 plug-in cars through December 2014. The market share of the plug-in electric car segment grew from 0.03% in 2011, to 0.12% in 2012, and reached 0.27% of new car sales in the country in 2014.[60]

British Columbia is the only place in the country where it is legal to drive a low-speed vehicle (LSV) electric car on public roads, although it also requires low speed warning marking and flashing lights. Quebec is allowing LSVs in a three-year pilot project. These cars will not be allowed on the highway, but will be allowed on city streets.

In January 2009, Hydro-Québec and Mitsubishi signed an agreement to test 50 i-MiEV, at the time, the largest pilot test of electric cars in Canada ever. The test's goal was to allow a better understanding of winter usage of the technology. BC-Hydro and Mitsubishi had previously tested a three-vehicle fleet in British Columbia.[159] In October 2010, Transport Canada and Mitsubishi Motor Sales of Canada announced a partnership to test the Mitsubishi i-MiEV. Transport Canada's ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles (eTV) Program tested two i-MiEVs in government facilities and in a variety of real-world conditions. This program aim was to evaluate the i-MiEV road performance and range.[160] Retail sales of the i-MiEV began in December 2011,[161][162]

The Nissan Leaf roll-out in Canada began with fleet customers on July 29, 2011,[163] and deliveries to individuals began in late September 2011.[164][165] As of December 2011, the Leaf was sold only through 27 Leaf-certified dealers for the entire country, and sales are limited to customers who live within a 65 km (40 mi) radius of one of those dealers.[166] Cumulative sales through December 2014 reached 1,965 units, and, as of December 2014, the Leaf ranked as the top selling all-electric car in the country.[60][156]

The Tesla Model S is the all-time top selling pure electric car in Canada. Shown charging in Parksville, British Columbia.

Retail sales of the Tesla Model S began in 2012, with 95 cars delivered that year. A total of 638 units were sold in 2013, and cumulative sales reached 1,580 units through December 2014, allowing the Model S to rank as the second best selling all-electric car in the country.[60][167] During 2014 the BMW i3, Kia Soul EV, BMW i8 and Porsche 918 Spyder were introduced in the Canadian market.[60] The top selling models in 2015 were the Tesla Model S with 2,010 units, followed by the Chevrolet Volt with 1,463, the Nissan Leaf with 1,233, the BMW i3 with 367, and the Kia Soul EV with 318.[154] In 2015, the Model S passed the Nissan Leaf as the all-time best selling all-electric car in Canada.[59][168]

The all-electric Renault Twizy 40 low-speed quadricycle was certified by Transport Canada in March 2016, and is scheduled to be released on the Canadian market by mid-2016.[169]

There were 18,451 highway legal plug-in electric cars registered in Canada as of December 2015, of which, 10,034 (54%) are all-electric cars and 8,417 (46%) are plug-in hybrids. These figures include some used imports from the U.S.[157] Until 2014 Canadian sales were evenly split between all-electric cars (50.8)% and plug-in hybrids (49.2%).[60] The following table presents new car sales by year of all the highway-capable plug-in electric cars available in Canada between 2011 and December 2015.


Highway-capable plug-in electric new car sales by model
in Canada between 2011 and December 2015
Model Total
2011-2015
2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
Chevrolet Volt[155] 5,415 1,463 1,521 931 1,225 275
Tesla Model S[154] 3,590 2,010 847 638 95  
Nissan Leaf[156] 3,198 1,233 1,085 470 240 170
Smart electric drive[154] 1,132 306 561 222 28 15
Mitsubishi i MiEV[170] 617 121 109 168 196 23
Ford C-Max Energi[154] 609 138 272 199    
BMW i3[154] 566 367 199      
Ford Fusion Energi[154] 429 144 169 116    
Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid[154] 394 43 76 212 63  
Kia Soul EV[154] 357 318 39      
Ford Focus Electric[154] 244 42 44 103 55  
BMW i8[154] 228 200 28      
Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid[154] 213 213        
Fisker Karma[154] 100   7 26 67  
Cadillac ELR[154] 73 25 44 4    
Chevrolet Spark EV[154] 66 35 26 5    
Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid[154] 65 20 45      
Tesla Roadster[154] 53         53
Porsche 918 Spyder[154] 28 21 7      
Audi A3 Sportback e-tron[154] 24 24      
McLaren P1[154] 9 6 3      
BMW X5 xDrive40e[154] 5 5        
Toyota RAV4 EV[154] 4 1   3    
Total new plug-in car sales[154] 17,995 6,990 5,322 3,178 1,969 536
PEV market share of new car sales[154] 0.37% 0.29% 0.18% 0.12% 0.03%
Note: New car sales seldom correspond to registrations figures, as some plug-in model registered are used imports from the U.S.
and some model numbers may declined as more cars are being taken off the road than are being sold.
Advocacy and meetings

Canada's National Advanced Transportation Center, an electric vehicle advocacy group, will attempt in April 2014 to break the Guinness World Record for the largest electric-vehicle parade.[171]

Government incentives

Purchase incentives for new plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) were established in Ontario consisting of a rebate between CA$5,000 (4 kWh battery) to CA$8,500 (17 kWh or more) (~US$5,050 to US$8,650), depending on battery size, for purchasing or leasing a new PEV after July 1, 2010. The rebates will be available to the first 10,000 applicants who qualify.[172][173] The province also introduced green-coloured licence plates for exclusive use of plug-in hybrids and battery electric vehicles.[172][174][175] These unique green vehicle plates allow PEV owners to travel in the province's carpool lanes until 2015 regardless of the number of passengers in the vehicle. Also, owners are eligible to use recharging stations at GO Transit and other provincially owned parking lots.[172][175]

Several electric cars charging in downtown Toronto. From farthest to closest, a Nissan Leaf, a Smart ED, and a Mitsubishi i MiEV.

Quebec began offering rebates of up to CA$8,000 (~ US$8,358) beginning on January 1, 2012, for the purchase of new plug-in electric vehicles equipped with a minimum of 4 kWh battery, and new hybrid electric vehicles are eligible for a CA$1,000 rebate. All-electric vehicles with high-capacity battery packs were eligible for the full CA$8,000 rebate, and incentives were reduced for low-range electric cars and plug-in hybrids. Quebec's government earmarked CA$50 million(US$52.3 million) for the program, and the maximum rebate amount was set to be slowly reduced every year until a maximum of CA$3,000 in 2015, but the rebates would continue until the fund runs out. There was also a ceiling for the maximum number of eligible vehicles: 10,000 for all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids, and 5,000 for conventional hybrids.[176][177]

In November 2013, the provincial government announced its decision to earmark in 2014 an additional CA$65 million (~ US$45.5 million) to fund a three-year extension to the electric-vehicle rebate program. The maximum rebate was kept at CA$8,000, but a graded scale was introduced in order to spread the incentive over 10,000 or more vehicles.[178] Quebec's government also set the goal to deploy 12,500 more electric vehicles in the province by 2017, consisting of 10,200 consumer cars, 325 taxis, and 2,000 government-fleet vehicles.[178] Also, incentives were issued for "greening" 525 taxis, aimed to introduce 325 plug-in vehicles (275 plug-in hybrids and 50 all-electrics) and 200 conventional hybrids. The purchase incentives start at CA$20,000 for battery-electric taxis, CA$12,000 for plug-in hybrids, and CA$3,000 for conventional hybrids, with the rebate declining over time. The province planned to also subsidize the deployment of charging stations for taxis.[178]

In October 2016, the National Assembly of Quebec passed a new zero emission vehicle legislation that obliges any carmaker who sells in the Canadian province more than 4,500 new vehicles per year over a three-year average, to offer their customers a minimum number of plug-in hybrid and all-electric models. Under the new law, 3.5% of the total number of autos sold by carmakers in Quebec have to be zero emissions vehicles (ZEV) starting in 2018, rising to 15.5% in 2020. A tradable credit system was created for those carmakers not fulfilling their quotas to avoid financial penalties. The quotas will be determined by Quebec's Ministry of Sustainable Development. Quebec became the first Canadian province to pass such legislation, joining ten U.S. states, including California, that have similar ZEV laws. Quebec aims to have 100,000 zero emission vehicles on the road by 2020.[158][179] Initially, the provincial government set the goal in 2011 to have 300,000 plug-in vehicles on the roads by 2020.[176]

The Government of British Columbia announced the LiveSmart BC program which will start offering rebates of up to CA$5,000 per eligible clean energy vehicle commencing on December 1, 2011. The incentives will be available until March 31, 2013 or until available funding is depleted, whichever comes first. Available funds are enough to provide incentives for approximately 1,370 vehicles. Battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and plug-in hybrids with battery capacity of 15.0 kWh and above are eligible for a CA$5,000 incentive. Also effective December 1, 2011, rebates of up to CA$500 per qualifying electric vehicle charging equipment will be available to B.C. residents who have purchased a clean energy vehicle.[180][181]

China[edit]

Sales of new energy vehicles in China by year between January 2011 and December 2015.[71][72][73][74][75]

The stock of new energy vehicles sold in China since 2011 passed the 500,000 unit milestone in March 2016, making the country the largest plug-in market in the world when all automotive segments are considered.[31] As of September 2016, cumulative sales of domestically produced highway legal new energy passenger cars totaled 521,649 units since 2005.[37][182] As of September 2016, China, together with the United States, have the world's largest country fleet of plug-in electric passenger cars, representing 29.2% of the global light-duty plug-in stock.[1] The Chinese government adopted in 2009 a plan to leapfrog current automotive technology, and seize the growing new energy vehicle (NEV) market to become of the world leaders in manufacturing of all-electric and hybrid vehicles. The government's political support for the adoption of electric vehicles has four goals, to create a world-leading industry that would produce jobs and exports; energy security to reduce its oil dependence which comes from the Middle East; to reduce urban air pollution; and to reduce its carbon emissions.[47][183]

In June 2012 the State Council of the People's Republic of China published a plan to develop the domestic energy-saving and new energy vehicle industry. The plan set a sales target of 500,000 new energy vehicles by 2015 and 5 million by 2020.[184][185] As sales were much lower than initially expected, and most of the deployed NEV stock has been purchased by the government for public fleets, new monetary incentives were issued in 2014, and the national government set a sales target of 160,000 units for 2014.[186][187] Although the goal was not achieved, new energy vehicles sales in 2014 totaled 74,763 units, up 324% from 2013. The surge in demand continued in 2015, with a total of 331,092 NEVs sold in 2015, rising 343% year-on-year.[71][75]

Government incentives

The Chinese government uses the term new energy vehicles (NEVs) to designate plug-in electric vehicles, and only pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are subject to purchase incentives. Initially, conventional hybrids were also included.[188] On June 1, 2010, the Chinese government announced a trial program to provide incentives for new energy vehicles of up to 60,000 yuan (~US$9,281 in June 2011) for private purchase of new battery electric vehicles and 50,000 yuan (~US$7,634 in June 2011) for plug-in hybrids in five cities.[189][190] The government set the goal to raise the country's annual production capacity to 500,000 plug-in hybrid or all-electric cars and buses by the end of 2011, up from 2,100 in 2008.[183] A mid-September 2013 joint announcement by the National Development and Reform Commission and finance, science, and industry ministries confirmed that the central government will provide a maximum of US$9,800 toward the purchase of an all-electric passenger vehicle and up to US$81,600 for an electric bus. The subsidies are part of the government's efforts to address China's problematic air pollution.[191]

In April 2016 the Traffic Management Bureau under the Ministry of Public Security announced the introduction of new green license plates to identify new energy vehicles, as opposed to the country's standard blue plates. The objective of the special plates is to facilite police enforcement of the preferential policies that some local authorities apply to cleaner cars to help cut emissions and ease traffic. For example, central Beijing has in place a road space rationing scheme, a driving restriction regulation that bans conventional vehicles from entering the city for one day a week, but new energy vehicles are exempted from the restriction.[192]

Sales
As of December 2015, China ranked as the world's largest plug-in electric bus market with a stock of almost 173,000 vehicles.[7] Shown a BYD K9 bus in Shenzhen.

New energy vehicle sales in China totaled 733,477 units between January 2011 and September 2016. These figures include heavy-duty commercial vehicles such buses and sanitation trucks, and only accounts for vehicles manufactured in the country because imports are not subject to government subsidies.[1] As of September 2016, the Chinese stock of plug-in electric vehicles consisted of about 540,000 all-electric vehicles (73.7%) and almost 193,000 plug-in hybrids (26.3%) sold since 2011.[31][46][193][194][195][196][197] The country achieved record sales of 207,380 new energy passenger cars in 2015, allowing China to rank as the world's top selling plug-in passenger car country market in 2015, ahead of the United States, the leading market in 2014.[4][7] A particular feature of the Chinese passenger plug-in market is the dominance of small entry level vehicles. In 2015, all-electric car sales in the mini and small segments (A-segment) represented 87% of total pure electric car sales, while 96% of total plug-in hybrid car sales were in the compact segment (C-segment).[198] Sales of plug-in passenger cars achieved the 500,000 unit milestone in September 2016. Imported plug-in cars, such as Tesla Model S or BMW i3s are not included.[37]

Over 160,000 heavy-duty new energy vehicles were sold between 2011 and 2015, of which, 123,710 (77.2%) were sold in 2015.[30][75] Sales of commercial new energy vehicles in 2015 consisted of 100,763 all-electric vehicles (81.5%) and 22,947 plug-in hybrid vehicles (18.5%).[75] The share of all-electric bus sales in the Chinese bus market climbed from 2% in 2010 to 9.9% in 2012, and was expected to be closed to 20% for 2013.[199] As of December 2014, China had about 36,500 all-electric buses.[30] The global stock of plug-in electric buses was estimated to be about 173,000 units as of December 2015, almost entirely deployed in China, the world's largest electric bus market. Of these, almost 150,000 were all-electric buses. The Chinese electric bus stock grew nearly sixfold between 2014 and 2015.[7]

BYD e6 all-electric taxi in Shenzhen, China.

A total of 8,159 new energy vehicles were sold in China during 2011, including passenger cars (61%) and buses (28%). Of these, 5,579 units were all-electric vehicles and 2,580 plug-in hybrids.[72] Electric vehicle sales represented 0.04% of total new car sales in 2011.[200] Sales of new energy vehicles in 2012 reached 12,791 units, which includes 11,375 all-electric vehicles and 1,416 plug-in hybrids.[73] New energy vehicle sales in 2012 represented 0.07% of the country's total new car sales.[201] During 2013 new energy vehicle sales totaled 17,642 units, up 37.9% from 2012 and representing 0.08% of the nearly 22 million new car sold in the country in 2013. Deliveries included 14,604 pure electric vehicles and 3,038 plug-in hybrids.[74][202] The top selling new energy car in China between 2011 and 2013 was the Chery QQ3 EV city car, with 2,167 units sold in 2011, 3,129 in 2012, and 5,727 in 2013.[47]

The BYD Qin, released in December 2013, became the all-time top selling passenger new energy vehicle in China in 2014.[203] As of September 2016, cumulative sales totaled 65,178 units sold.[1]

New energy vehicle sales in China during 2014 totaled 74,763 units, consisting of 45,048 all-electric vehicles, and 29,715 plug-in hybrids. Of these, 71% were passenger cars, 27% buses, and 1% trucks.[204] Pure electric vehicle sales increased 210% from 2013 while plug-in hybrid sales grew 880% from the previous year. The plug-in electric segment market share reached 0.32% of the 23.5 million new car sales sold in 2014.[71] The BYD Qin ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in China in 2014, with 14,747 units sold during the year,[204] and became the country's top selling plug-in passenger car ever.[203] The Qin was followed by the all-electrics Kandi EV with 14,398, Zotye Zhidou E20, with 7,341 units, and BAIC E150 EV with 5,234.[204][205]

Domestically produced new energy vehicle sales in 2015 totaled a record 331,092 units, consisting of 247,482 all-electric vehicles and 83,610 plug-in hybrid vehicles, up 449% and 191% from 2014, respectively.[75] Sales of plug-in passenger cars, excluding imports, totaled 176,627 units in 2015, allowing China to rank as the world's best-selling plug-in electric car country market in 2015.[4] The plug-in electric passenger car segment market share rose to 0.84% in 2015, up from 0.25% in 2014.[50] The top selling passenger models in 2015 were the BYD Qin plug-in hybrid with 31,898 units sold,[206] followed by the BYD Tang (18,375),[207] and the all-electrics Kandi EV (16,736), BAIC E150/160/200 EV (16,488), and the Zotye Z100 EV (15,467).[208]

As of December 2015, with 31,898 units sold in 2015, the BYD Qin continued to rank as the all-time top selling plug-in passenger car in the country, with cumulative sales of 46,787 units since its introduction.[74][203][204][206] The BYD Qin was the world's second best selling plug-in hybrid car in 2015 after the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, and also ranked fifth among the world's top selling plug-in electric cars in 2015.[209] BYD Auto ended 2015 as the world's best selling manufacturer of highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles, with around 60,000 units sold, followed by Tesla Motors, with 50,580 units sold in 2015.[209][210]

The BYD Tang, released in June 2015, ranked as the best-selling plug-in electric car in China during the first nine months of 2016 with 26,788 units sold.[1]

A total of about 289,000 new energy vehicles were sold during the first nine months of 2016, up 100.6% year-on-year, consisting of 216,000 pure electric vehicles, up 128.4% year-on-year, and 73,000 plug-in hybrid vehicles, up 47.2% from the same period the previous year.[46][211] A total of 209,359 new energy passenger cars were sold in the first three quarters of 2016, up 122% year-on-year, consisting of about 145,000 all-electric cars, up 170% year-on-year, and about 65,000 plug-in hybrids, up 60% year-on-year.[182] The plug-in segment market share totaled 1.08% of new car sales during the period.[46][182]

The BYD Tang ranked as the top selling new energy passenger car in China during the first three quarters of 2016 with 26,788 units sold.[1][212] Ranking next was the BYD Qin plug-in hybrid with 18,391 units, followed by the BAIC E-Series EV (15,457), SAIC Roewe e550 (13,073), and BYD e6 (12,890).[212] As of September 2016, the BYD Qin, with 65,178 units sold since its inception, remains the all-time top selling plug-in electric car in the country.[1] BYD Auto continued to rank as the world's top selling plug-in car manufacturer during the first three quarters of 2016, with over 74,000 units delivered in China.[213] The following table presents annual sales of the top selling new energy passenger cars by model with cumulative sales of about or over 3,000 units between 2011 and December 2015.


Sales of top selling new energy cars in China by model
between 2011 and December 2015
Model Total sales
2011-2015
NEV segment
market
share(1)
Sales
2015[206][207][208][214]
Sales
2014[204][205][215]
Sales
2013[47][202]
Sales
2012[47][216]
Sales
2011[47][217][218]
BYD Qin 46,787 10.5% 31,898 14,747 142 N/A N/A
Kandi EV 31,134 7.0% 16,736 14,398 N/A N/A N/A
BAIC E150/160/200 EV 23,832 5.4% 16,488 5,234 1,466 644
BYD Tang 18,375 4.1% 18,375 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Chery QQ3 EV 16,247(2) 3.7% 3,208(2) 2,016(3) 5,727 3,129 2,167
Zotye Cloud/Z100 EV 15,467 3.5% 15,467 N/A N/A N/A N/A
JAC J3/iEV 15,279 3.5% ~9,000 ~1,000 1,309 2,485 1,585(4)
BYD e6 14,257(5) 3.2% 7,029 3,560 1,544 1,690 401
Zotye Zhidou E20 13,726 3.1% 6,385 7,341 N/A N/A N/A
SAIC Roewe 550 PHEV 11,711 2.6% 10,711 ~1,000 N/A N/A N/A
Chery eQ 7,804 1.8% 7,262 542 N/A N/A N/A
Tesla Model S[219][220][221] 5,524(6) 1.2% 3,025(6) 2,499 N/A N/A N/A
Geely-Kandi Panda EV 4,939 1.1% 3,654 1,285 N/A N/A N/A
Zhidou D2 3,777 0.8% 3,777 N/A N/A N/A N/A
BYD F3DM 3,284(5) 0.7% N/A N/A 1,005 1,201 613
Denza EV 3,020 0.7% 2,888 132 N/A N/A N/A
Total new energy
vehicles sales[71][72][73][74][75]
444,447(7) - 331,092 74,763 17,642 12,791 8,159
Notes:

(1) Model market share as percentage of the 444,447 new electric vehicles sold between 2011 and December 2015.
(2) Only sales between January and June 2015.[222]
(3) Only includes sales between January and March 2014.
(4) Combined sales for 2010 and 2011.[218]
(5) BYD e6 total includes 33 units sold in 2010. F3DM total includes 417 units sold in 2010 and 48 in 2009.[223][224]
(6) Tesla Model S sales through September 2015.
(7) Total annual NEV sales figures include heavy-duty vehicles, such all-electric buses and santitation trucks, but do not include Tesla Model S sales nor any other imports.

Chile[edit]

Mitsubishi i-MiEV in Chile

The Mitsubishi i-MiEV was launched in May 2011 at a price of CLP28,9 million (US$60,000). Initial availability was limited to 25 units.[225][226] The first public quick charging station in the country was opened in April 2011 in preparation for the arrival of the first i-MiEV electric cars.[227] As of August 2012, only 10 units have been sold.[228]

In August 2014 Mitsubishi withdrew the i-Miev from the market due to its low sales volume and introduced the Outlander PHEV at a lower price of US$54,000.[citation needed] Later that year BMW introduced their "i" range with the i3 (US$55,000) and i8 (US$225,000) plug-in cars;[citation needed] while Renault launched their whole Zero Emission (Z.E.) lineup, including the Fluence Z.E. sedan, the Kangoo utility van and Zoe city car. The French brand sold 22 electric vehicles in their first month in the Chilean market.[citation needed]

Colombia[edit]

In 2013 the government established incentives to promote the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles. These include the exemption from the driving restriction scheme (Spanish: Pico y placa) in place in several Colombian cities such as Bogotá and Medellín. Also the government exempted all-electric and plug-in hybrid cars from import duties for three years, but limited to an annual quota of 750 plug-in cars of each type. All-electric vehicles are exempted 100% if the vehicle's "Free On Board" (FOB) value is less than US$52,000, while plug-ins with an internal combustion engine of less than 3 liters, the import duty was reduced to 5%.[229]

The all-electric Renault Twizy quadracycle is the top selling electric vehicle in Colombia.

The first South American all-electric taxi fleet made up of BYD e6 was launched at the beginning of 2013 in Bogotá, the capital city of Colombia after receiving operation approval by the Colombia Ministry of Transportation. These taxis are exempted from the driving restriction scheme. The program is an effort to improve the local air quality and set an example to other cities in the country.[230][231][232] In September 2013 a total of 45 e6 taxis of this pilot program were delivered. The e6 fleet are part of Colombia's "BIOTAXIS Project."[233] Another three BYD e6s were sent to Colceincias, Bogota's Tech, Science and Innovation Administration.[232]

The BMW i3 was introduced in Colombia in late 2014 with pricing starting at COP$154.9 million (~US$49,000). As of June 2015, i3 sales totaled 25 units.[229] The all-electric Renault Twizy quadracycle was introduced in the Colombian market in June 2015, at a price starting at COP$40 million (~US$12,650).[234] Sales of the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV were scheduled to begin in September 2015.[229]

Retail sales during 2014 totaled 52 pure electric cars and four plug-in hybrids. Lower sales than expected are the result of lack of charging infrastructure and the relatively high price of plug-in vehicles despite the reduced import duties. In addition to the charging stations used for the electric taxi fleet, there is only one public charging point in Bogotá.[229] As of June 2015, a totalof 126 plug-in electric vehicles have been sold in the country, mostly to corporate customers, and consisting of 43 BYD e6s (taxis), 35 Mitsubishi i-MiEVs, 25 BMW i3s, 19 Renault Twizys, and four Nissan Leafs.[229] A total of 203 Twizys had been sold as of October 2015, of which, 114 were sold in October,[235] capturing a 0.1% market share of new car sales, and placing Colombia at the forefront of electric vehicle market in Latin America, along with Costa Rica.[236]

Costa Rica[edit]

As of January 2015, the Costa Rican stock of electric drive vehicles consisted of 477 hybrid electric vehicles and 2,229 plug-in electric vehicles, including passenger cars, buses, motorcycles, quadricycles and electric bicycles. With a registered fleet of 1,399,082 units at the end of 2014, electric vehicles represent a 0.16% share of the Costa Rican stock of motor vehicles.[237][238] Costa Rica is considered the leading country in electric vehicle adoption in Latin America.[236]

Mitsubishi i-MiEV purchased by the U.S. embassy in Costa Rica.

The first electric car to go on sale in the country was the REVAi, introduced in March 2009. The REVAi, powered by lead–acid batteries, sold 10 units during its first month in the market, 5 by corporate clients and 5 by individual customers.[239] The Mitsubishi i MiEV was launched in February 2011, with initial availability limited to 25 to 50 units.[240][241][242] According to Mitsubishi, Costa Rica was selected at the first market launch in the Americas due to its environmental record, despite the lack of government incentives for purchasing electric cars.[242][243]

As of February 2012, only a total of 61 all-electric cars had been registered in the country, with 31 purchased by individual customers, and 30 sold to embassies, universities, and corporate clients. Lack of charging infrastructure, there are no public charging stations in the country, and the need to introduce government incentives to reduce purchase taxes, were cited as the main causes for the low volume sales.[244] Nissan signed an agreement with the Costa Rican government in February 2012 to implement a pilot program as part of the introduction of the Nissan Leaf in the country. A task force was created through the agreement to assess the infrastructure requirements for the deployment of electric cars and the definition necessary government incentives for consumers to purchase electric cars.[245] Nissan planned to start Leaf sales by late 2013.[246]

Retail sales of the BMW i3 94 A·h began in Costa Rica in September 2016.

In January 2013 BYD Auto signed an agreement with the Costa Rican Ministry of Environment and Energy to deploy 200 BYD e6 electric cars for use as "green taxis." The electric cars will be exempt from import duties and the government has agreed to deploy charging stations in strategic locations in the city of San José.[247] Retail sales of the BYD Qin plug-in hybrid began in Costa Rica in November.[248][249] Retail sales of the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV began in March 2015.[250] The BMW i3 was released in the Costa Rican market in September 2016.[251] Pricing of the i3 94 A·h starts at US$67,500, since the bill to eliminate import duties and other taxes is still pending approval in Congress.[252]

Government incentives

Initially, the only existing fiscal incentive for the purchase of electric vehicles was the exemption from the consumption tax implemented in 2006, while conventional vehicles pay a 30% rate. A bill introduced in 2010 to reduce purchase and import duty taxes did not move forward in the Legislative Assembly.[244] Since October 2012, electric cars are exempted from the driving restriction implemented by plate number to restrict access to downtown San José, the country's capital.[246]

In October 2015 a new bill was introduced into the Legislative Assembly, called, "Incentives and Promotion of the Electric Transport", which would eliminate all taxation on all-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles including import duties, consumption tax, and sales tax, which would result in a 44% reduction of the current retail price. The bill also proposes free parking at parking meters for electric vehicles, free designated parking at private and public facilities, and a five-year exemption from the annual road tax. The bill set a cap of 100,000 units to benefit from the law and the benefits would be in place for five-years, whichever comes first. Vehicles eligible for the tax exemptions includes passenger cars, passenger vans, motorcycles, buses and trains.[238][253]

The bill also promotes the development of charging infrastructure with goal to provide charging points every 80 km (50 mi) on national highways and every 120 km (75 mi) on the municipal road network. The proposed law also mandates all government agencies to replace 10% of their auto fleets with plug-in electric vehicles; and public transportation and taxi services are mandated to slowly replace their fleets with electric vehicles, with a minimum of 10% of plug-in electric cars for new taxi cab medallions ("ecotaxis"). In addition, the law would provide income tax incentives for corporations that replace with plug-ins at least 10% of their fleets, with a minimum of three company cars.[238][254]

Croatia[edit]

As of November 2015, there were 440 electric cars registered in Croatia.[255] There are 82 charging stations available in 32 cities and towns as of February 2016.[256] In 2014, the Croatian government subsidized the purchase of electric cars with HRK 70,000 (c. €9300) for a fully electric vehicle, HRK 50,000 (c. €6600) for a plug-in hybrid, and HRK 30,000 (c. €4000) for other hybrid vehicles.[257]

A small city car called XD assembled by Croatian company DOK-ING.[258] The name XD comes from oddly shaped rear lights ("X" shaped) and "D" beginning letter of the company's name. The XD can travel over 250 km on a single charge with Lithium-ion batteries. Car's base-cost will be only €10,000. Serial production is predicted to start mid-2012.

Denmark[edit]

As of December 2015, there were around 4,000 electric cars in Denmark.[259] Denmark is the second largest European market for light-duty plug-in electric commercial vehicles or utility vans, with over 2,600 plug-in electric vans sold in 2015, representing an 8.5% market share of all vans sold in the country. Most of the van sold in the Danish market are plug-in hybrids, accounting for almost all of the plug-in hybrid van sales across the European Union.[44] As of 2014, the country generated about a third of its electric power from wind energy,[260] but some of it is exported to hydropower storage in Norway and elsewhere because there is currently no way for utilities to store the excess power inside Denmark.

Better Place partnered with Denmark's leading energy company, Dong Energy, in a €103 million (770 million Danish Kroner) investment to introduce electric cars and infrastructure to Denmark. With the Better Place model, Dong hoped to leverage the existing electric grid and electric vehicle batteries to harness and store the abundance of wind-generated power and distribute appropriately for transportation consumption.[261][262] The network commercial launch was scheduled for late 2011.[101]

The first battery switch station in Denmark, out of 20 planned to be deployed across the country until March 2012 as part of the network of charging infrastructure, was unveiled in June 2011 at Gladsaxe, near Copenhagen.[263] Sales of the Renault Fluence Z.E., the electric car selected for the network, began in late 2011, and 234 units were sold in Denmark between 2012 and April 2013.[264] As of December 2012 there were 17 battery swapping stations fully operational in the country enabling Danish customers to drive anywhere across the country in an electric car.[265] On 26 May 2013, and following the decision of the Board of Directors of Better Place's global company, Better Place Danmark A/S decided to begin bankruptcy proceedings.[266][267] Some of these stations were converted to hydrogen-producing fuel stations for hydrogen cars such as the Toyota Mirai.[268]

A taxi demonstration project in Copenhagen, including three Fluences and a Nissan Leaf, began in May 2013 scheduled to run through the second quarter of 2015. The demonstration was supported with a 12.5 million kroner government grant.[269]

Estonia[edit]

Two Mitsubishi i-MiEVs in Estonia. The majority of electric cars in Estonia are i-MiEVs.

As of February 2015, a total of 1,188 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Estonia.[citation needed] As of December 2013, there were 757 all-electric cars registered in Estonia, up from 619 pure electric cars registered through 2012.[18][270] With a total of 506 pure electric cars during 2012, Estonia ranked second after Norway in terms of EV penetration of the total auto fleet, with 1 electric car for every 1,000 registered cars.[18] However, the market share of the all-electric car segment dropped from 2.39% in 2012 to 0.69% in 2013, as registrations decreased to 138 units in 2013.[270] The top selling electric car in 2013 was the Nissan Leaf with 95 units sold.[270] In the year 2015, the number of electric cars sold in Estonia was 34. The figure is low compared to other advanced economies in the EU, and low sales are atrributed to lack of government subsidies after the carbon credit scheme was depleted.[271]

Estonia is the first country that completed the deployment of an EV charging network with nationwide coverage, with fast chargers available along highways at a minimum distance between 40 to 60 km (25 to 37 mi).[19][20] As of December 2012, the nationwide network consisted of 165 fast chargers fully financed by the Estonian government, with a separation on highways of no more than 60 km (37 mi) with a higher density on urban areas. These public fast chargers are dual units, with a 50 kW CHAdeMO port and a 22 kW AC plug.[272][273][274]

Carbon credits exchange

On March 3, 2011, the government of Estonia confirmed the sale to Mitsubishi Corporation of 10 million carbon dioxide credits in exchange for 507 i-MiEV electric cars. The deal also included funding to build 250 fast charging stations in larger towns and main highways by 2013, and subsidies for the first 500 private buyers of any electric car approved by the European Union.[275][276] The first 50 i-MiEVs were delivered in October 2011 and this official fleet was assigned for use by municipal social workers.[277][278] During the first round of allocations of the electric cars, municipalities requested only 336 of the 507 i-MiEVs available. Several local authorities stated concerns about the electric car performance during harsh winter conditions, maintenance costs and the i-MiEV' reliability on difficult countryside roads.[279][280]

Finland[edit]

As of October 2016, there were about 2,250 plug-in electric cars on Finish roads.[281] Registrations in 2015 totaled 658 plug-in cars, up from 445 in 2014.[39] During the first three quarters of 2016 plug-in electric car registrations totaled 1,017 units, consisting of 163 pure electric cars and 854 plug-in hybrids.[40] Plug-in electric car sales have been slow primarily due to the limited range of pure electric cars and the high purchase prices of plug-in models in general.[281]

In November 2016, the government set the goal to have 250,000 plug-in electric cars and 50,000 biogas cars on the road by 2030. To achieve this goal the government is considering to earmark €100 million in subsidies for electric and biogas cars between 2017 and 2020. The transport ministry is considering two options, a €4,000 purchase subsidy available for the first 25,000 emissions-free cars sold, or to overhaul automotive taxes to encourage people to buy clean cars.[281] These goals are part of the Finish government efforts to meet Finland's climate commitments under the 2015 Paris Agreement.[281]

Electric cars are also present in Finland, with companies such as Valmet Automotive (Fisker Karma and Garia A/S electric golf cart production) and also agreement of Think City car production,[282] Fortum (concept cars and infrastructure), Kabus (hybrid buses; part of Koiviston Auto Oy), BRP Finland (part of Bombardier Recreational Products), Lynx (snowmobile), Patria (military vehicles), European Batteries (Li-ion battery plant in Varkaus), Finnish Electric Vehicles (battery control systems), ABB, Efore, Vacon (electric motor technology production), Ensto (production of charging units), Elcat (electric vehicle production since the 1980s), production of electric car accessories, Suomen Sähköauto Oy (produces small electric cars), Oy AMC Motors Ltd. (produces and designs small electric cars), Raceabout[283] (specialist electric sport car with very few sales), Gemoto skooters from Cabotec, Resonate's Gemini and Janus Scooters, Moto Bella Oy, Axcomotors, Randax, Visedo.

Research related to electric cars is in progress at the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Tekes.

Electric Motor Show

Sharing knowledge is also in progress: in Helsinki the Electric Motor Show was held from 10 to 12 September 2010.[284] The show will feature only cars, motorcycles, scooters, mopeds and microcars and components for them. Year 2010 is second year for Helsinki Electric motor show. The plan is to hold the show annually.[citation needed]

Infrastructure

Basic charging infrastructure is already available all over Finland, used for engine pre-warming in the cold winters. Because of its climate – cold winters and warm summers – Finland is considered a convenient "test laboratory" for electric cars and many companies have made field tests in Finland. It has been said in Autobild 08/09 magazine that Fortum is developing the high-speed charging system. With a new kind of three-phase charging method electric cars can be charged in four minutes. A commercial product should be ready by 2011.

There are also mines and metal refineries for lithium alloy in Finland. At the moment there are several mining projects under way such as the Keliber project.[285]

Support organizations

There are several electric car organisations in Finland, such as the Electric Vehicle Association of Finland and Electric Vehicles Finland.

Electric Cars - Now!

There is also a non-commercial electric car conversion organisation called Electric Cars - Now![286] that converts standard Toyota Corollas into Li-ion battery-powered electric cars. As of August 2009, more than 1,700 pre-orders for conversion Toyotas have been placed. The speciality in the Electric Cars - Now! project is that it is an open source project: anyone can start similar production anywhere they want, the benefits for the customer being open-source spare part coding and so on. The ideas and design are freely available from the Electric Cars - Now! organisation.

France[edit]

Registration of plug-in electric vehicles in France by type of vehicle between 2010 and 2015.[287][288][289][290][291][292][293][294][295]

The stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in France passed the 100,000 unit milestone in October 2016, making the country the second largest plug-in market in Europe after Norway, and the world's fifth.[11][12] As of September 2016, and accounting for registrations since 2010, the plug-in electric stock consisted of 61,686 all-electric passenger cars, 24,696 all-electric utility vans, and 12,857 plug-in hybrids.[11] As of December 2015, France ranked as the country with the world's largest market for light-duty electric commercial vehicles or utility vans. Nearly half of the vans sold in the European Union are sold in the country as a result of a national purchase incentive scheme, which French companies have embraced.[44] The market share of all-electric utility vans reached a market share of 1.22% of new vans registered in 2014, and 1.30% in 2015.[45]

All-electric car registrations increased from 184 units in 2010 to 2,630 in 2011.[296] Sales in 2012 increased 115% from 2011 to 5,663 electric cars,[297] making France the world's fourth largest all-electric country market in 2012.[298] Registrations reached 8,779 electric cars in 2013, up 55.0% from 2012,[299] and the all-electric market share of total new car sales went up to 0.49% from 0.3% in 2012.[297][300] In addition, 5,175 electric utility vans were registered in 2013, up 42% from 2012,[299] representing a market share of 1.4% of all new light commercial vehicles sold in 2013.[300] Sales of all-electric passenger cars and utility vans totaled 13,954 units in 2013,[299] France was the leading European light-duty all-electric market in 2012 and 2013.[49][299][301]

The Bolloré Bluecar, deployed for the Parisian Autolib' carsharing program, led highway-capable electric car registrations in France in 2012.[302]

All-electric car sales in the French market for 2011 were led by the Citroën C-Zero with 645 units followed by the Peugeot iOns with 639 vehicles.[296] During 2012, all-electric car registrations in France were led by the Bolloré Bluecar with 1,543 units.[302] The Renault Kangoo Z.E. was the top selling utility electric vehicle with 2,869 units registered in 2012, capturing 82% of the segment sales.[301][303] Registrations of pure electric cars in 2013 were led by the Renault Zoe with 5,511 units representing 62.8% of total pure electric car sales.[299] Registrations of all-electric light utility vehicles were led by the Renault Kangoo Z.E. with 4,174 units, representing 80.7% of the segment sales.[299] Registrations of plug-in hybrids in 2012 were led by the Toyota Prius PHV with 413 units.[291] During 2013 the Prius PHEV continuing as the plug-in hybrid segment leader with 393 units registered.[292] When plug-in hybrids sales in 2013 are accounted for, a total of 14,762 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in France in 2013,[292][299] making the country the second largest plug-in market in Europe after the Netherlands.[49]

The Renault Kangoo Z.E. is the country's all-time top selling all-electric utility vehicle with over 15,000 units registered through September 2016.[11]

A total of 15,045 all-electric cars and vans were registered in 2014, up 7.8% from 2013. Registrations of all-electric cars in 2014 passed the 10,000 unit mark for the first time (10,560).[290] This figure does not include BMW i3 with range extender.[76] All-electric utility vans continued to be a significant share of the all-electric segment, with 4,485 units registered in 2014.[290] All-electric cars captured a 0.59% market share, while light-duty electric vehicles reached a 1.22% market share of their segment.[304] The slow down in sales during the first half of 2014, allowed Norway to end 2014 as the top selling European market in the all-electric segment, with France ranking second.[305][306] The Zoe continued leading plug-in electric vehicle registrations in 2014, with 5,970 units registered, followed by the Kangoo Z.E. van with 2,657 registrations.[287][304]

Plug-in hybrid car registrations totaled 1,527 units in 2014, almost doubling registrations from a year earlier.[294] Plug-in hybrid sales were driven by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, with 820 units registered in 2014, representing 54% of the segment registrations in 2014.[307] Between 2012 and 2014, cumulative plug-in hybrid registrations reached 2,985 units, rising cumulative French registrations of plug-in electric vehicles since 2005 to 46,590 units,[291][292][306][308] just ahead of the Netherlands (45,020),[309] and making France the European country where there were more plug-in electric vehicles on the road as of December 2014.[306]

The Renault Zoe has led electric car sales in France since 2013, and is the country's all-time best selling plug-in electric car with more than 30,000 units registered through September 2016.[287]

A total of 27,701 light-duty electric vehicles were registered in France in 2015, consisting of 17,779 all-electric cars, 4,916 electric vans, and 5,006 plug-in hybrid cars.[293][295] All-electric cars captured a 0.9% market share of new passenger car registrations in 2015,[4] and the entire plug-in passenger car market achieved a market share of 1.17%.[287][294][4] All-electric car registrations in 2015 continued to be led by the Renault Zoe (10,406),[287] the electric utility van segment was led by the Kangoo Z.E. (2,836),[295] and the plug-in hybrid segment was led by the Volkswagen Golf GTE (1,687).[294] During the first three quarters of 2016, a total of 24,490 light-duty electric vehicles were registered in France, consisting of 16,091 all-electric cars, 3,991 electric vans, and 4,858 plug-in hybrid cars.[310] The Renault Zoe continued as the top selling plug-in electric car with 8,163 units.[287] The plug-in passenger car market achieved a market share of 1.57% of new car sales during the first nine months of 2016.[287][310] As of September 2016, the Renault Zoe is the all-time best-selling plug-in electric vehicle in the French market with 30,098 units registered since 2012.[287] Ranking second is the Kangoo Z.E. utility van with 15,032 units registered since 2010.[299][310][303][311][45][312] As of September 2016, the all-time top selling plug-in hybrid is the Volkswagen Golf GTE with about 2,500 units, followed by the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV with almost 2,000 registered.[11]

The following table presents registrations of the top selling light-duty highway-capable electric vehicles by type (all electric cars and vans, and plug-in hybrids) with detailed all-electric car registrations by model between 2010 and December 2015.


Registration of highway-capable all-electric vehicles by model
and total registrations by light-duty vehicle type in France
between January 2010 and December 2015[287]
Model Total
2010-2015
Market
share(1)
2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010
Renault Zoe 21,935 48.7% 10,406 5,970 5,511 48    
Nissan Leaf 5,865 13.0% 2,220 1,600 1,438 524 83  
Bolloré Bluecar 4,936 11.0% 1,166 1,170 658 1,543 399  
Peugeot iOn 3,144 7.0% 725 163 178 1,409 639 30
Citroën C-Zero 2,638 5.9% 397 154 80 1,335 645 27
Smart electric drive 1,475 3.3% 336 509 478 66 52 34
Tesla Model S[287][313] 1,071 2.4% 708 328 35      
Mia electric 843 1.9% 0 9 201 384 249  
Renault Fluence Z.E. 727 1.6% 0 5 18 295 396 13
Kia Soul EV 548 1.2% 485 63        
Total registrations electric cars[287][293] 45,595 68.8% 17,779 10,560 8,779 5,663 2,630 184
Renault Kangoo Z.E.[295][299][303][304][311] 13,319 64.3% 2,836 2,657 4,174 2,869 768 15
Nissan e-NV200 cargo van[295] 585 2.8% 343 242        
Total registrations utility vans[288][289][290][295] 20,705 31.2% 4,916 4,485 5,175 3,651 1,682 796
Total registrations
all-electric cars and vans
66,300 100% 22,695 15,045 13,954 9,314 4,312 980
Total registrations plug-in hybrids[291][292][294] 7,999 10.8% 5,006 1,527 800 666    
Total registrations
plug-in electric cars and vans
74,299 100% 27,701 16,572 14,754 9,980 4,312 980
Note: (1) By model, is the market share as percentage of the 45,041 electric cars(2) and 20,705 vans registered between
2010 and 2015, and by type, the share of each type of vehicle (car or van) as percentage of the 66,300 electric
vehicles registered between 2010 and 2015.[287][288][289][290][293][295] (2) BMW i3 figures exclude units with REx option.
Government incentives
Electric cars equipped with a range extender, such as the BMW i3 REx, are entitled to the €6,300 bonus if emitting between 21 and 60 g/km of CO2.

Since 2008 France has a bonus-malus system offering a financial incentive, or bonus, for the purchase of cars with low carbon emissions, and a penalty fee, or malus, for the purchase of high-emission vehicles. The fee schedule is updated each year.[314] From April 1, 2015, the French government introduced a super-bonus, increasing the financial incentive to a cumulative total of €10,000, consisting of the regular bonus of €6,300 for purchasing a pure electric car, plus up to €3,700 for customers scrapping a diesel-powered car in circulation before 1 January 2001. In the case of plug-in hybrids with CO2 emission levels between 21 and 60 g/km, the purchase bonus was €4,000 plus the scrapping premium of €3,700.[315]

Effective January 4, 2016, the €6,300 purchase bonus, limited to 27% of the purchase price, for vehicles emitting up to 20 g/km was maintained. This bonus corresponds to pure electric vehicles and those equipped with a range extender. Vehicles emitting between 21 and 60 g/km are entitled to a €1,000 bonus. This bonus corresponds to the majority of plug-in hybrids. The €10,000 super-bonus for the purchase or lease of a new all-electric car was maintained.[316] The scrappage bonus for the purchase of pure electric cars was maintained at €3,700, while the bonus for plug-in hybrid car emitting between 21 and 60 g/km was set at €2,500.[317] As of September 2016, the scrappage bonus of €3,700 for trading in old diesel-powered cars has been granted to more than 10,000 purchase transactions.[318]

Germany[edit]

Annual registration of plug-in electric vehicles in Germany by type of vehicle between 2010 and 2015.[56][58][319][320][321]

As of September 2016, a total of 66,674 plug-in electric cars have been registered in Germany since 2010.[322] The country is the largest passenger car market in Europe, however ranks as the fifth largest plug-in market in Europe as of September 2016.[35][322] About 80% of the plug-in cars registered in the country through September 2016 were registered since January 2014.[56][58][323] The official German definition of electric vehicles changed at the beginning of 2013, before that, official statistics only registered all-electric vehicles because plug-in hybrids were accounted together with conventional hybrids. As a result, the registrations figures for 2012 and older do not account for total new plug-in electric car registrations.[324] As of November 2014, the country had 4,800 public charging stations.[325]

The fleet of electric car registered in the country increased from 1,558 units in 2009 to 2,307 in 2010. The electric car stock in 2011 increased 96.8% from 2010 to 4,541 units registered, and up 56.7% from 2011 to 7,114 units in 2012, reaching 12,156 registered cars on 1 January 2014.[57] At the beginning of 2014 registrations of plug-in electric vehicles represented a 0.028% market share of all passenger vehicles registered in Germany.[57] The plug-in hybrid segment in the German market in 2014 experienced an explosive growth of 226.9% year-over-year, and the overall plug-in segment increased 75.5% from a year earlier.[56][319] The surge in sales continued in 2015, the plug-in hybrid segment grew 125.1% year-over-year, while the all-electric segment climbed 91.2% from the previous year.[58]

As of December 2013, the Smart electric drive led the plug-in electric car segment in Germany with 2,952 units registered.[57]

During 2011, a total of 2,154 pure electric cars were registered in the country, up from 541 units in 2010.[320] All-electric car sales for 2011 were led by the Mitsubishi i-MiEV family representing 50.6% of all electric car registrations in 2011.[320] Plug-in hybrid registrations totaled 266 units in 2011, led by the Opel Ampera (241), for a total of 2,420 plug-in electric vehicles registered in 2011.[326] A total of 2,956 all-electric vehicles were registered in Germany during 2012, a 37.2% increase over 2011.[321] When 901 registered plug-in hybrids are accounted for, 2012 registrations climb to 3,857 units,[321][327] and sales of plug-in electric car represented a 0.12% market share of new passenger vehicles sold in the country in 2012.[328] Registrations of plug-in electric vehicles were led by the Opel Ampera extended-range electric car with 828 units, followed by the Smart electric drive with 734 units.[327][329] In addition, a total of 2,413 Renault Twizys were sold during 2012, making Germany the top selling European market for the electric quadricycle.[330][331]

The BMW i3 led plug-in car registrations in 2014.[332]

A total of 7,436 new plug-in electric cars were registered in Germany in 2013, consisting of 6,051 all-electric cars and 1,385 plug-in hybrids.[319] Total registrations at the end of 2013 reached 12,156 units.[57] The Smart electric drive led new plug-in car registrations in 2013 with 2,146 units, followed by Renault Zoe with 1,019.[333][334] Registrations of plug-in electric cars totaled 13,049 units in 2014, consisting of 8,522 all-electric cars and 4,527 plug-in hybrids. The plug-in segment achieved a market share of 0.4% of new car sales that year.[56] The BMW i3 ended 2014 as the top selling plug-in electric car with 2,233 units registered.[332]

Plug-in hybrid registrations totaled 11,101 units in 2015, up 145% from 2014, and all-electric cars totaled 12,363 units registered, up 45% from 2014. Combined sales of the two segments totaled 23,464 units. The plug-in segment achieved a market share of 0.7% of new car sales that year, up from 0.4% in 2014.[56][58] The German monthly plug-in market share passed the 1% mark for the first time ever in December 2015, with an all-time record market share of 1.28% of new car registrations that month. Also, with 3,176 plug-in cars registered in December 2015, the German market achieved the highest monthly sales volume ever.[58][335] The top selling models in 2015 were the Kia Soul EV (3,839), followed by the BMW i3 (2,271), and the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (2,128).[336]

During the first three quarters of 2016, sales of plug-in hybrids surpassed sales of all-electric cars for the first time in the country. A total of 17,074 units were registered, consisting of 7,678 all-electric cars and 9,396 plug-in hybrids. The plug-in segment achieved a market share of 0.7% of new car sales.[323] The top selling models during the first eight months of 2016 were the Renault Zoe (1,836), BMW i3 (1,237), Tesla Model S (978), Audi A3 e-tron (908), and Volkswagen Golf GTE (852).[337][338] The introduction of the purchase bonus did not produce immediate effect on plug-in car sales until September 2016, when registrations peaked to 3,061 units, consisting of 1,641 all-electric cars, up 76.6% year-on-year, and 1,420 plug-in hybrids, up 36.8% year-on-year.[322][323] Combined registrations of both type of plug-in accounted for 1.1% of new car registrations, allowing the German plug-in market share to pass the 1% mark for the first time during 2016.[322][339]

The following table presents registrations of the top selling highway-capable plug-in electric cars available for retail customers by year between 2010 and June 2014.


Registration of highway-capable plug-in electric cars by model
in Germany between 2010 and June 2014[320][321][326][327][333][334][340][341][342]
Model Total
2010-2014(1)
2Q
2014
2013 2012 2011 2010
Smart electric drive 3,959 645 2,146 734 328 106
BMW i3 1,937 1,378 559      
Nissan Leaf 1,693 380 855 451 7  
Renault Zoe 1,532 513 1,019      
Opel Ampera 1,450 46 335 828 241  
Volkswagen e-Up! 1,034 884 150      
Citroën C-Zero 950 17 276 454 200 3
Mitsubishi i MiEV 910 56 89 71 683 11
Tesla Model S 637 446 191      
Peugeot iOn 520 0 48 263 208 1
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV 507 507        
Total and registrations by year[57][319][320][321][324] 17,919(2) 5,763 7,436 2,956(2) 2,154(2) 541(2)
Notes: (1) CYTD: current year-to-date sales through June 2014. (2) The official KBA registration numbers only
registered all-electric vehicles before 2013 (plug-in hybrids were accounted together with conventional hybrids).
As a result, these figures do not include plug-in hybrids, and the cumulative total does not reflect actual all new
plug-in electric car registrations before 2013.[324]
Government incentives
Chancellor Angela Merkel announced her goal to bring 1 million electric vehicles on German roads at the 2010 Electromobility Summit in Berlin.

Under its National Plattform for Electric Mobility, Chancellor Angela Merkel set in 2010 the goal to bring one million electric vehicles on German roads by 2020.[343][344] Initially, the government also announced that it would not provide subsidies to the sales of plug-in electric cars but instead it would only fund research in the area of electric mobility.[343] The Bundestag passed the Electric Mobility Act in March 2015 authorizing local government to grant non-monetary incentives, which are not mandatory. The benefits include measures to privilege battery-powered cars, fuel cell vehicles and some plug-in hybrids, just like Norway does, by granting local governments the authority to allow these vehicles into bus lanes, and to offer free parking and reserved parking spaces in locations with charging points.[345][346] The law also provides issuing special license plates for electric vehicles to allow proper identification to avoid abuses of these privileges.[347][348]

According to the fourth progress report of the German National Platform for Electric Mobility, only about 24,000 plug-in electric cars are on German roads by the end of November 2014, well behind the target of 100,000 unit goal set for 2014. As a result, Chancellor Angela Merkel recognized in December 2014 that the government has to provide more incentives to meet the goal of having one million electric cars on the country's roads by 2020.[325][349] At the beginning of 2016, German politicians from the three parties in Mrs. Merkel's ruling coalition and auto executives began talks to introduce a subsidy for green car buyersto boost sales of electric and plug-in hybrid cars.[350]

The Tesla Model S, and other premium car with a purchase price over €60,000 (US$67,800) are not eligible to the purchase bonus.

An incentive scheme to promote plug-in electric vehicle adoption was approved in April 2016 with a budget of €1 billion (US$1.13 billion). A total of €600 million (US$678 million) is reserved for the purchase subsidies, which are expected to run until all the money is disbursed, estimated to last until 2019 at the latest. Another €300 million (US$339 million) are budgeted to finance the deployment of charging stations in cities and on autobahn highway stops. And another €100 million (US$113 million) would go toward purchasing electric cars for federal government fleets. The program is aimed to promote the sale of 400,000 electric vehicles. The cost of the purchase incentive is shared equally between the government and automakers. Electric car buyers get a €4,000 (US$4,520) discount while buyers of plug-in hybrid vehicles get a discount of €3,000 (US$3,390). Premium cars, such as the Tesla Model S and BMW i8, are not eligible to the incentive because there is a cap of €60,000 (US$67,800) for the purchase price.[351][352][353] Only electric vehicles purchased after 18 May 2016 are eligible for the bonus and the owner must keep the new electric car at least nine months. The same rule applies for leasing.[354]

As of September 2016, BMW, Citroën, Daimler, Ford, Hyundai, Kia, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Peugeot, Renault, Toyota, Volkswagen, and Volvo had signed up to participate in the scheme.[354][355] The online application system to claim the bonus went into effect on 2 July 2016.[356] As of September 2016, a total of 26 plug-in electric cars and vans are eligible for the purchase bonus.[355] According to the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA), a total of 4,451 applications have been made for the government subsidy for the purchase of a plug-in electric model as of 30 September 2016, consisting of 2,650 all-electrics and 1,801 plug-in hybrids.[355]

Hong Kong[edit]

Tesla Roadster charging at Central Star Ferry carpark in Hong Kong.

As of September 2016, there were 6,298 plug-in electric vehicles on the roads in Hong Kong,[357] up from 3,253 in October 2015, and from less than 100 units in 2010.[358] As of September 2016, plug-in cars represented 1.1% of Hong Kong's total car registered stock of 579,104 units. The plug-in segment market share achieved 4.8% of new car sales in Hong Kong in 2015.[357]

As of October 2015, there have been deployed more than 1,200 electric vehicle charging points available for public use.[358] By the end of June 2015 there were about two electric cars per public charging stall.[359] As of October 2015, the Transport Department (TD) had approved 49 EV models, including 34 all-electric cars and motorcycles, and 15 models for public transport and commercial vehicles. Popular passenger and light-duty van models available for retail sales include the BMW i3, BYD e6, Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV, Nissan Leaf, Nissan e-NV200, Renault Fluence Z.E., Renault Kangoo Z.E., Renault Zoe, Smart ED, Tesla Model S, Tesla Roadster, and Volkswagen e-Golf.[358] During the first quarter of 2015 Hong Kong had world's third largest EV market share, with 2.3% of new vehicle registrations during this quarter. Only Norway and the Netherlands had a larger EV share.[359]

The Tesla Model S was the all-time top selling all-electric car in Hong Kong by the end of 2015, representing 70% of the registered stock of EVs in the territory.[359]

The Government of Hong Kong has been promoting the use of electric vehicles through several measures. First Registration Tax for EVs is waived until the end of March 2017. In addition, enterprises which procure EVs are allowed 100% profits tax deduction for the capital expenditure on EVs in the first year of procurement. A HK$300 million Pilot Green Transport Fund was put in place since March 2011 for application by transport operators and non-profit-making organizations providing services to their clients and goods vehicle owners, encouraging them to try out innovative green and low carbon transport technologies (including EVs). The ultimate policy objective of the Government is to have zero emission buses running across the territory. To this end, the Government allocated HK$180 million for franchised bus companies to purchase 36 single-deck electric buses for trial runs to assess their operational efficiency and performance under the local conditions. The trial is expected to commence progressively by end of 2015.[358]

Sales of electric cars took off in Hong Kong after the introduction of the Tesla Model S in July 2014,[359][360] and one year later, the Model S is the top selling all-electric car in the territory with about 70% of the registered stock of EVs (about 1,720 units). Model S sales gained traction thanks to the tax waiver, which makes the Model S price very competitive in the luxury car segment, about half the price of other high-end models.[359] According to Tesla, as of September 2016, Hong Kong has the world's highest density of Tesla superchargers, with twelve stations comprising a total of 52 supercharger stalls. This infrastructure allows most Model S owners to have a supercharger within 20 minutes’ drive.[361]

Iceland[edit]

The group 2012 - New beginning in Iceland was planning to convert all vehicles in the country to electric by 2012, the first to do so.[284][362] As of 2012 this has not happened.

During 2013 a total of 72 plug-in electric cars were sold in Iceland representing a 0.94% market share of new car sales during the year. The Nissan Leaf led sales with 29 units sold in 2013, followed by the Mitsubishi i-MiEV and Prius PHEV with 13 registrations each, Tesla Model S with 8, Chevrolet Volt 4, Citroen C-Zero 3 and Opel Ampera 2 units.[363]

India[edit]

The stock of the plug-in electric cars in the country climbed from 530 units in 2009 to over 3,100 in 2013, and as of December 2015, there were over 6,000 plug-in electric cars registered in India, consisting of 4,350 all-electric cars and 1,660 plug-in hybrids.[7]

The Mahindra Reva e2o electric car was introduced in India in March 2013. It operates on lithium ion battery with 100 km range for 4 hours of charging. In addition to this, there are several other companies involved in making electric bikes like Hero and Ampere.

The Indian government admitted that it has not implemented schemes/policy initiatives to encourage the adoption of electric vehicles. This information was given on December 2, 2014 by Minister of State in the Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises G. M. Siddeshwara in a written reply to Lok Sabha question. But the Minister also admitted that the scheme is only on paper and no policy initiative has been undertaken to encourage the adoption of electric vehicles in India. The Minister said in his reply that a Scheme for Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles in India, under the National Electric Mobility Mission 2020 has been proposed. The scheme envisages to encourage progressive induction of reliable, affordable and efficient electric and hybrid vehicles (xEV) in the country that meet consumer performance and price expectations, through Government-Industry collaboration for promotion and development of indigenous manufacturing capabilities, required infrastructure, consumer awareness and technology; thereby helping India to emerge as a leader in the xEV Two Wheeler and Four Wheeler market in the world by 2020. The Mission aims at providing a clean transportation system to the people that is not dependent on gasoline based fossil fuel, he said.[364]

In 2016, a new car, the Mahindra e-Verito, was launched by Mahindra introducing the sedan class electric vehicle at a cost of 9 to 10 lakh Indian rupees ex showroom.[citation needed]

Israel[edit]

Parade of Renault Fluence Z.E. electric cars enabled with battery swapping technology to commemorate the first deliveries to Better Place employees in Israel in January 2012.[365][366]

Israel was the first nation in the world that partnered with Better Place to have an electric car infrastructure.Shai Agassi, former CEO of Better Place claimed that in Israel by 2016, plus or minus a year, more than 50% of cars sold will be electric.[367] Better place reached agreements with Renault-Nissan and the Israeli government to begin the first phases of the company's efforts to deploy the world's first integrated electric car network. Israel was considered a viable site for this innovative endeavor due to the country's relatively small size and the fact that approximately 90% of the nation's car owners drive less than 40 mi (60 km) a day.[368] Israel enacted policies to create a tax differential between zero-emission vehicles and traditional cars, to accelerate the transition to electric cars.[369]

Better Place's battery switching station in Israel

Better Place designed an infrastructure consisting of 500,000 charging stations and almost 200 battery-exchange stations. In December 2008, Better Place revealed its first plug-in parking lot in Tel Aviv. Additionally, in May 2009, the company unveiled its patented battery swap system, which is designed for drivers taking longer road trips who lack the time needed to recharge their own battery.[370] The first battery-swapping station in Israel, in Kiryat Ekron, near Rehovot, was deployed in March 2011. The station was the first of approximately 40 planned stations to begin operating in the near term. The battery exchange process took five minutes.[371] The company also erected over 1,000 functional charging spots for the cars.[371] Orders for the Renault Fluence ZE, the car selected for the Better Place network, began in July 2011.[372]

The first deliveries of the Renault Fluence Z.E. took place on the 22nd of January 2012 and around 100 electric cars were allocated among Better Place employees.[365][366] Retail customer deliveries began in the second quarter of 2012.[373] As of mid September 2012, there were 21 operational battery-swap stations open to the public in Israel.[374] In October 2012, Better Place signed a deal with Elco to supply 125 Renault Fluence ZEs through 2012 and 2013.[375] As of December 2012, a total of 518 cars had been sold in the country,[376] and during the first four months of 2013, 422 units were sold, bringing the total to 940.[377]

Better Place filed for bankruptcy in Israel in May 2013. The company's financial difficulties were caused by the high investment required to develop the charging and swapping infrastructure, about US$850 million in private capital, and a market penetration significantly lower than originally predicted by Shai Agassi.[378][379] Under Better Place's business model, the company owns the Fluence Z.E. batteries, so the court liquidator will have to decide what to do with customers who do not have ownership of the battery and risk being left with a useless car.[380]

Ireland[edit]

In November 2008, the Department of Transport announced the Electric Transport Plan which calls for 10% of all vehicles to be electric by 2020. Government officials reached agreements with French car maker Renault and its Japanese partner Nissan to boost the use of electric cars. Eamon Ryan Ireland's former Minister for Communications, Energy and Natural Resources repeatedly emphasised the importance of the electric car within the Irish context. The Electricity Supply Board has actively supported this call and sees electric vehicles as a key part of its strategy with regard to wind power in the Republic of Ireland. Sustainable Energy Ireland (SEI) is currently looking at a number of pilot projects. More information on incentives was expected to come to light in the 2010 Irish Budget.[citation needed]

The Irish government has committed to getting enough electric passenger vehicles on the road by 2020 to account for 10% of all vehicles (a projected 230,000 electric vehicles).[381] As of September 2014, plug-in electric car purchasers are eligible for a government credit worth up to €5,000 (about US$6,500). Vehicle Registration Tax (VRT), up to €5,000 is also waived for electric cars. Also, all-electric car owners pay the lowest rate of annual road tax, which is based on emissions. In addition, the first 2,000 electric cars registered in Ireland are eligible for installation of a free home-charging points worth about €1,000 (about US$1,300).[382] Sales of all-electric cars in Ireland increased more than four times in 2014, with 222 units sold, up from 51 sold in 2013.[383] The number of electric cars owned by individuals totaled about 500 by mid-2014.[382]

Italy[edit]

BMW i3 patrol car of the Italian police at Vatican City.

The stock of the plug-in electric cars in the country climbed from 530 all-electric cars in 2005 to 640 in 2010, to about 2,470 plug-in electric cars in 2013, and as of December 2015, there were over 6,100 plug-in electric cars registered in Italy, consisting of 4,580 all-electric cars and 1,550 plug-in hybrids. The first 150 plug-in hybrids were registered in the country in 2012.[7]

Despite being a G8 country, in 2015 sales of electric vehicles in Italy still amounted to a modest 0.1% of the total car sales in the country. This is mainly due to a lack of commitment by the government (incentives have been discontinued in 2014), a meager public charging infrastructure and timid reception by the public, which still considers BEVs too expensive and unsuitable. Further, many Italian houses are still equipped with electric contracts allowing only 3 KW of peak consumption, making home charging of electric cars unsuitable.[citation needed]

The top five selling electric vehicles in 2015 were the Nissan Leaf (390 units sold), Renaul Zoe (326), Citroen C-Zero (164), Tesla Model S (134) and Smart Fortwo (115).[384]

Japan[edit]

As of September 2016, the stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in Japan is the world's third largest after the United States and China, with about 145,000 highway legal plug-in electric vehicles sold in the country since 2009.[10] Plug-in segment sales climbed from 1,080 units in 2009 to 12,630 in 2011, and reached 24,440 in 2012.[7] Global sales of pure electric cars in 2012 were led by Japan with a 28% market share of the segment sales. Japan ranked second after the U.S. in terms of its share of plug-in hybrid sales in 2012, with 12% of global sales.[298]

As of August 2016, the Nissan Leaf is the top selling plug-in electric car in Japan, with 68,819 units sold since December 2010.[385][386] Shown a Leaf taxi at the Kumamoto Prefecture.

A total of 30,587 highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles were sold in Japan in 2013.[48] In 2014 the segment sales remained flat with 30,390 units sold, and a market share of 1.06% of total new car sales in the country (kei cars not included).[48] Sales totaled 24,660 units in 2015, consisting of 10,420 all-electrics and 14,190 plug-in hybrids.[7] The rate of growth of the Japanese plug-in segment slowed down from 2013, with annual sales falling behind Europe, the U.S. and China during 2014 and 2015.[4][387] The decline in plug-in car sales reflects the Japanese government and the major domestic carmakers decision to adopt and promote hydrogen fuel cell vehicles instead of plug-in electric vehicles.[388][389]

The Japanese electric vehicle charging infrastructure climbed from only 60 public charging stations in early 2010,[390] to 1,381 public quick-charge stations as of December 2012, representing the largest deployment of fast chargers in the world. The number of non-domestic slow charger points increased to around 300 units.[298] Japan also is the country with the highest ratio of quick charging points to electric vehicles (EVSE/EV), with a ratio of 0.030 as of December 2012. The Japanese government has set up a target to deploy 2 million slow chargers and 5,000 fast charging points by 2020.[298]

Introduction and sales

The first electric car available in the Japanese market was the Mitsubishi i MiEV, launched for fleet customers in Japan in late July 2009.[390][391] Retail sales to the public began in April 2010.[392][393][394] Sales of the Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV electric van began in December 2011.[395] A truck version of the Minicab MiEV was launched in January 2013.[396] Mitsubishi also launched in January 2013 a plug-in hybrid version of the Outlander, called the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, becoming the first SUV plug-in hybrid in the world's market.[397] As of December 2014, Mitsubishi had sold 36,386 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in Japan since July 2009.[395][398]

Deliveries of the Tesla Model S in Japan began in Japan in September 2014.[399]

Sales of the Nissan Leaf began on December 22, 2010, when the first 10 Leaf were delivered at the Kanagawa Prefecture.[400][401] Sales of the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid began in January 2012, and a total of 19,100 units have been sold through September 2014.[402] The Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid is available in Japan, and as of December 2013, ranked as the third best selling plug-in hybrid in the domestic market.[403] Retail deliveries of the Tesla Model S began in Japan in September 2014.[399]

The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV was the top selling plug-in electric car in Japan in 2015.[404]

Sales of the plug-in electric drive segment in 2013 were led by the Nissan Leaf with 13,021 units sold, up from 11,115 in 2012.[405] The Leaf continued as the market leader in 2014 for the fourth year running with 14,177 units sold, followed by the Outlander P-HEV with 10,064 units, together representing about 80% of the plug-in segment sales in Japan in 2014.[395][406][407] In 2015 the Outlander plug-in hybrid was the top selling plug-in electric car in the country with 10,996 units sold, followed by the Leaf with 9,057 units.[404] Japan is the Outlander P-HEV largest country market with 30,668 units sold through December 2015.[408] Cumulative sales of plug-in electric cars since 2009 totaled 126,420 units at the end of 2015.[7]

During the first eight months of 2016 the Nissan Leaf led sales with 11,120 units delivered.[386] Since December 2010, Nissan has sold 68,819 units through August 2016, making the Leaf the all-time best-selling plug-in car in the country.[385][386] Between January and August 2016, a total of 4,162 Outlander P-HEVs were sold in Japan.[409] Sales of the Outlander plug-in hybrid fell sharply from April 2016 as a result of Mitsubishi's fuel mileage scandal.[410] Since its inception, sales of the plug-in hybrid totaled 34,830 units through August 2016.[409]

The following table presents sales for the top selling highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles since July 2009 through April 2016.[3]

Top selling highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles
available in the Japanese market between 2009 and April 2016
Model Type
of PEV
Market
launch
Sales Comments
Nissan Leaf Electric car December 2010 64,978 Sales through April 2016.[385][411]
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV Plug-in hybrid SUV January 2013 33,991 Sales through April 2016.[412]
Toyota Prius PHV Plug-in hybrid January 2012 22,100 Sales through April 2016.[413]
Mitsubishi i-MiEV Electric car July 2009 11,144 Sales through April 2016.[398][412]
Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV All-electric van December 2011 6,172 Sales through April 2016.[412]
Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV truck All-electric truck January 2013 927 Sales through April 2016.[412]
BMW i3 Electric car 2014 + 400 Sales between April and August 2014.[414]
Note: The Nissan e-NV200, Tesla Model S, BMW i8 and Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid are also available in Japan, but sales figures are not available.
Government incentives

In May 2009 the Japanese Diet passed the "Green Vehicle Purchasing Promotion Measure" that went into effect on June 19, 2009, but retroactive to April 10, 2009.[415] The program established tax deductions and exemptions for environmentally friendly and fuel efficient vehicles, according to a set of stipulated environmental performance criteria, and the requirements are applied equally to both foreign and domestically produced vehicles. The program provided purchasing subsidies for two type of cases, consumers purchasing a new passenger car without trade-in (non-replacement program), and for those consumers buying a new car trading a used car registered 13 years ago or earlier (scrappage program).[415][416]

Subsidies for purchases of new environmentally friendly vehicles without scrapping a used car are 100,000 yen (~US$1,100) for the purchase of a standard or small car, and 50,000 yen (~US$550) for the purchase of a mini or kei vehicle. Subsidies for purchasing trucks and buses meeting the stipulated fuel efficiency and emission criteria vary between 200,000 yen (~US$2,100) to 900,000 yen (~US$9,600).[415][417][418]

Subsidies for purchases of new environmentally friendly vehicles in the case of owners scrapping a vehicle at least 13 years old are 250,000 yen (~US$2,700) for the purchase of a standard or small car, and 125,000 yen (~US$1,300) for the purchase of a mini or kei vehicle. Subsidies for purchasing trucks and buses meeting the stipulated fuel efficiency and emission criteria vary between 400,000 yen (~US$4,300) to 1,800,000 yen (~US$19,000).[415][417][418]

All incentives for new purchases with or without trading were applicable in Japan's fiscal year 2009, from April 1, 2009 through March 31, 2010.[417][418]

Mexico[edit]

In October 2009 Nissan reached an agreement with the local government of Mexico City, by which 500 Leafs would be delivered by 2011 for use of government and corporate fleets. In exchange, recharging infrastructure was to be deployed by the city government, and an exemption from the ownership tax is being pursued.[419][420] The city government of Mexico D.F. also reached an agreement with Nissan in November 2010 in order for the first 100 Leafs to be introduced in the country to operate as part of the capital's taxi fleet.[421][422] The first Leafs destined for the taxi fleet were delivered by late September 2011,[423][424] allowing the country to become the first Latin American market where the Leaf is available.[425]

As of February 2013, there were in the country about 70 Leafs deployed as taxis, 50 in Aguascalientes and 20 in Mexico City.[426] The Aguascalientes program began in May 2012, and its implementation included the deployment of a garage with 58 charging points, the largest of its kind in the world.[427] Carrot Mexico, a carsharing company operating in Mexico City, acquired 3 Leafs which are available to their 1,600 customers.[428] As of October 2012, there were no government fiscal incentives available to lower the purchase price of electric cars, neither preferential electricity rates for electric car owners. However, electric cars are exempted from the driving restriction scheme implemented by plate number to restrict access to Mexico City to improve its air quality.[427]

Retail sales of the Nissan Leaf began in June 2014, with availability initially limited to Mexico City.[429] Deliveries to retail customers began in August 2014.[430] The BMW i3 and i8 are also available in the country. Retail deliveries of the i3 began in Mexico City in late September 2014.[431][432]

The second generation Volt was released for retail customers in December 2015. Pricing starts at 638,000 pesos (~US$36,880), and it is available in Mexico City, Monterrey, Guadalajara, Querétaro, and Puebla.[433] Also in December 2015, retail sales of the Tesla Model S began in Mexico City. Initially, no Supercharger stations are available in the country.[434]

Netherlands[edit]

Registration of highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles in the Netherlands between 2010 and 2015. Plug-in hybrids have an 85.5% market share of the Dutch plug-in passenger car segment, the largest market share of any country in the world.[435][436]

The stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in the Netherlands passed the 100,000 unit milestone in November 2016, making the country the third largest plug-in market in Europe after Norway and France.[38] At the end of October 2016, a total of 86,162 range-extended and plug-in hybrids were registered in the country, plus 12,196 pure electric cars, and 1,587 all-electric light utility vans. When buses, trucks, motorcycles, quadricycles and tricycles are accounted for, the Dutch plug-in electric-drive fleet climbs to 101,444 units.[38] The Netherlands listed as the world's third best-selling country market for light-duty plug-in vehicles in 2015, with 43,971 units registered.[4] Until December 2015, the Netherlands had Europe's largest fleet light-duty plug-in vehicles.[4] Sales in the Dutch plug-in market fell sharply during 2016 after changes in the tax rules that went into force at the beginning of 2016.[38] Sales during the first half of 2016 were down 64% from the same period in 2015.[437] As a result, both Norway and France surpassed the Netherlands during 2016,[11][34][38] and by October 2016, the Netherlands fell from fourth to sixth place in the global ranking of countries according to their light-duty plug-in stock.[35] A distinct feature of the Dutch plug-in market is dominance of plug-in hybrids, which represented 86.2% (86,162) of the country's stock of 99,945 passenger plug-in electric cars and vans registered at the end of October 2016.[38]

The Netherlands is among the countries with the highest plug-in market penetration in the world. Registrations of plug-in electric car represented a 0.57% share of total new car registrations in 2011 and 2012.[438] Registrations in 2013 totaled 22,415 passenger cars, climbing 338% from 2012, the highest rate of growth of any country in the world in 2013.[49][435] The segment's market share in 2013 surged almost ten times from 2012 to 5.34% new car sales,[439] the world's second highest in 2013 after Norway (5.6%).[49] The rapid growth of segment during 2013, allowed the Netherlands to reach a market concentration of 1.71 registered plug-in electric vehicles per 1,000 people, second only to Norway (4.04).[49] As of July 2016, the market concentration had increased to 5.6 registered plug-in cars per 1,000 people, almost as high as California's (5.8), and exceeding the U.S. by 3.7 times.[83][84] After falling to 3.9% in 2014, with 43,769 plug-in passenger cars registered in 2015, the segment's market share rose to a record 9.7% of new car sales, the second highest after Norway (22.4%).[4][440]

In November 2013, a total of 2,736 Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEVs were sold, making the plug-in hybrid the top selling new car in the country that month, representing a market share of 6.8% of all the new cars sold.[441][442] Again in December 2013, the Outlander P-HEV ranked as the top selling new car in the country with 4,976 units, representing a 12.6% market share of new car sales, contributing to a world record plug-in vehicle market share of 23.8% of new car sales.[443][444] The Netherlands is the second country, after Norway, where plug-in electric cars have topped the monthly ranking of new car sales.[441][442][444] The strong increase of plug-in car sales during the last months of 2013 was due to the end of the total exemption of the registration fee for corporate cars, which was valid for 5 years. From January 1, 2014, all-electric vehicles pay a 4% registration fee and plug-in hybrids a 7% fee.[445] After the change in the registration fee incentive, sales in 2014 fell significantly.[446] A total of 15,646 plug-in electric cars were sold in 2014, down from 22,542 in 2013, with sales led by the Outlander P-HEV with 7,712 units. The top selling all-electric car in 2014 was the Tesla Model S with 1,533 units.[447][448]

As of October 2016 the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the all-time top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the Netherlands, with 24,825 units registered.[38]

A total of 42,367 plug-in electric cars were sold in 2015. The top 5 best-selling plug-in electric cars in 2015 were all plug-in hybrids, led again by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (8,757). The Tesla Model S continued as the top selling all-electric car with 1,842 units.[449] Plug-in car sales achieved its best monthly volume on record ever in December 2015, with about 15,900 units sold, and allowing the segment to reach a record market share of about 23%. The surge in plug-in car sales was due to reduction of the registration fees for plug-in hybrids. From January 1, 2016, all-electric vehicles continue to pay a 4% registration fee, but for a plug-in hybrid the fee rises from 7% to 15% if its CO2 emissions do not exceed 50 g/km. The rate for a conventional internal combustion car is 25% of its book value.[450][451]

A total of 9,185 plug-in passenger cars were registered in the first three quarters of 2016, consisting of 6,567 plug-in hybrids and 2,618 all-electric cars. The market share of the plug-in car segment captured 3.2% of new car sales during the period.[13] As of September 2016, the Outlander P-HEV remained as the all-time top-selling plug-in car in the country with 24,765 units. Ranking second is the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid (14,917), followed by the Volkswagen Golf GTE (9,530), Tesla Model S (5,622), and Audi A3 e-tron (5,098).[13] The following table presents registrations by year for the top 10 selling plug-in electric cars since 2009 through December 2015.


Registration of Top 10 plug-in electric cars by model in the Netherlands
between 2009 and December 2015[452][453]
Model Total
registrations
2009-2015(1)
Market
share
2009-2015(1)
2015[449] 2014[447] 2013[448] 2012[454] 2011[455] 2010 2009
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV 24,508 27.5% 8,757 7,712 8,039        
Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid 13,144 14.8% 3,851 3,126 6,144 23      
Volkswagen Golf GTE 8,584 9.6 % 8,183 401          
Opel Ampera 5,031 5.7% 80[456] 41[457] 2,207 2,695 8    
Tesla Model S 4,569 5.1% 1,842 1,533 1,194        
Audi A3 e-tron 4,434 5.0% 4,354 80[458]          
Toyota Prius PHV 4,052 4.6% 81[459] 87[458] 2,699 1,184 1    
Volkswagen Passat GTE 2,879 3.2% 2,879            
Nissan Leaf 2,658 3.0% 571 1,022 497 269 299    
BMW i3 1,369 1.5% 574 544 251        
Total annual registrations of plug-in passenger cars(2) 42,367 15,646 22,542 5,116 819 81 28
 
Total registered PEVs at the end of the year
(plug-in passenger cars and utility vans)
88,991[436] 45,020[436] 29,342[435] 6,258[435] 1,141[435] 395[460] 68[461]
Notes:
(1) Market share as percentage of the 88,991 plug-in electric car registered in the Netherlands at the end of December 2015,
consisting of all-electric cars, plug-in hybrids, and all-electric utility vans.[436]
(2) all-electric vans not included
Government incentives
The Tesla Model S, released in the Dutch market in September 2013, is the country's top selling all-electric car ever.[38]

Considering the potential of plug-in electric vehicles in the country, the Dutch government set s target of 15,000 electric vehicles on the roads in 2015, 200,000 vehicles in 2020 and 1 million vehicles in 2025.[435][462] Instead of direct purchase subsidies for electric vehicles in the Netherlands, the government established total exemption of the registration fee and road taxes, which translated in savings of approximately €5,324 for private car owners over four years,[463][464] and €19,000 for corporate owners over five years.[465] Other vehicles including hybrid electric vehicles were also exempt from these taxes if they emit less than 95 g/km for diesel-powered vehicles, or less than 110 g/km for gasoline-powered vehicles.[463] The exemption from the registration tax ended, and from January 1, 2014, all-electric vehicles pay a 4% registration fee and plug-in hybrids a 7% fee.[445]

Buyers also have access to parking spaces in Amsterdam reserved for battery electric vehicles, so they avoid the current wait for a parking place in Amsterdam, which can reach up to 10 years in some parts of the city.[466] Free charging is also offered in public parking spaces.[467] Other factors contributing to the rapid adoption of plug-in electric vehicles are the relative small size of the country, which reduces range anxiety (the Netherlands stretches about 100 mi (160 km) east to west); a long tradition of environmental activism; high gasoline prices (US$8.50 per gallon as of January 2013), which make the cost of running a car on electricity five times cheaper; and also some EV leasing programs provide free or discounted gasoline-powered vehicles for those who want to take a vacation driving long distances. With all of these incentives and tax breaks, plug-in electric cars have similar driving costs than conventional cars.[467] Initially, sales of plug-in electric car were lower than expected, and during 2012 the segment captured a market share of less than 1% of new car sales in the country.[467] As a result of the end of the total exemption of the registration fee, the segment sales peak at the end of 2013,[468] and plug-in electric car sales reached a market share of 5.34% of new car sales in 2013.[439]

New Zealand[edit]

A Fast Charge station for electric vehicles in Wellington, New Zealand

As of October 2016, there were about 2,000 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in the country.[469] Over half of the country's stock were purchased in the preceding 12 months. The fleet includes a significant number of used imports from Japan and the UK. Approximately 45 were manufactured prior to 2005 and some of these are conventional vehicles converted to electric.[470] The number of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles in the fleet started increasing from 2009 as models such as the Mitsubishi i-MiEV were released to the market, and accelerated from 2015 as imported second-hand Japanese Nissan Leafs provided a cheaper purchase method. The majority of Nissan Leafs in New Zealand have been imported used or as a parallel-import from Japan and the UK, fewer than 100 Nissan Leafs have been imported new. [470]

The New Zealand Government launched an Electric Vehicle Programme in May 2016, in order to encourage uptake of electric vehicles. Notable initiatives include a target of year-on-year doubling to 64,000 electric vehicles by 2021, a nationwide electric vehicle information and promotion campaign over five years (at $1 million per year), a contestable fund of up to $6 million per year to encourage and support innovative low emission vehicle projects, and an exemption from road user charges for both light and heavy vehicles.[471]

Registrations of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
in New Zealand[472]
Model/carmaker Total in fleet
as of Sep 2016
CYTD to
Sep 2016
2015
2014 2013 2012 2011
Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV 144 143 197 1 - -
Nissan Leaf 417 217 101 24 11 1
BMW 89 54 9 - - -
Audi 20 30 - - - -
Tesla 19 26 2 - - -
Others 254 33 17 12 19 16
Total 1901 943 503 326 37 30 17
Note: CYTD sales through September 2016. Data for years 2012 and prior is based on data provided directly by the New Zealand Ministry of Transport (not available in a public document). All data includes vehicles registered in New Zealand that have been imported as "new" and as "used" vehicles (the majority of used imports originates in Japan). "Others" includes Renault Kangoo Z.E, Volvo XC-90, Loyds Paxster, Nissan E-NV 200, Toyota Prius PHEV, Porsche Cayenne, Holden Volt (especially pre-2013) and Mitsubishi I-MiEV (especially pre-2013), and various other models in small numbers.

Norway[edit]

Registration of plug-in electric vehicles in Norway by year between 2004 and 2015. Includes plug-in hybrids and all-electric cars and vans. Used import are included.[52][88]

As of September 2016, a total of 121,330 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in Norway, making the country the largest European plug-in market and the fourth largest in the world.[10][43] Norway's fleet of electric cars is one of the cleanest in the world because 98% of the electricity generated in the country comes from hydropower.[473][474] Norway, with 5.2 million people, is the country with the largest electric vehicle (EV) ownership per capita in the world, with Oslo recognized as the EV capital of the world.[15][475][476][477] As of July 2016, the market concentration was 21.5 registered plug-in cars per 1,000 people, 14.2 times higher than the U.S., the world's largest country market.[83][84] In March 2014, Norway became the first country where over one in every 100 registered passenger cars is plug-in electric.[14] The segment's market penetration reached 2% in March 2015,[16] and it passed 3% in December 2015.[17][87] With about 90,000 pure electric vehicles registered by mid-September 2016, the all-electric segment achieved a market penetration of 3.5% of all passenger cars on Norwegians roads.[478]

The Norwegian plug-in electric vehicle market share of new car sales is the highest in the world, rising from 1.6% in 2011, to 3.1% in 2012,[479] and reached 5.6% of new car sales in 2013.[88] Combined sales of new and used plug-in electric vehicles captured a 13.8% market share of total passenger car registrations in 2014,[48] and a record market share of 23.4% in 2015, almost one in four new cars registered in the country in 2015.[4] The highest-ever monthly market share for plug-in electric passenger segment was achieved in March 2016 with 33.5% of new car sales.[32][480] Also, Norway was the first country in the world to have all-electric cars topping the new car sales monthly ranking. The Tesla Model S has been the top selling new car four times, and the Nissan Leaf twice.[10] In March 2014 the Tesla Model S also broke the 28-year-old record for monthly sales of a single model regardless of its power source, with 1,493 units sold, surpassing the Ford Sierra, which sold 1,454 units in May 1986.[481][482] In July 2016, when new car registrations are break down by type of powertrain, for the first time a plug-in hybrid, the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, listed as the top selling new car.[483] In September 2016, the Tesla Model X ranked as the top selling new car model in Norway when registrations are broken down by type of powetrain.[10][484][485] The BMW i3 was the top selling new passenger car in November 2016.[486]

Government incentives

The Parliament of Norway set the goal to reach 50,000 zero emission vehicles by 2018. Among the existing incentives, all-electric cars are exempt in Norway from all non-recurring vehicle fees, including purchase taxes, which are extremely high for ordinary cars, and 25% VAT on purchase, together making electric car purchase price competitive with conventional cars.[487] Pure electric vehicles are also exempt from the annual road tax, all public parking fees, and toll payments (including domestic ferries), as well as being able to use bus lanes. These incentives were set to be in effect until the end of 2017 or until the goal of 50,000 all-electric cars registered in the country was achieved.[476] Sales of plug-in hybrids have had a much smaller market penetration than pure electric car sales because they are not eligible for the same tax exemptions and other government incentives enacted for electric cars.[487][488][489] However, in June 2013 the government approved a tax reduction for plug-in hybrids effective since July 2013, that improved PHEV sales.[489][490]

The goal of 50,000 electric cars on Norwegian roads was reached on 20 April 2015. The plate "EL 60000" was granted to the 50,000th electric car registered. The special electric vehicle EL series began with "EL 10000."[491]

The target of 50,000 electric cars on Norwegian roads was reached on 20 April 2015, more than two years earlier than expected.[491][492] The two purchase tax exemptions applicable to electric vehicles had cost the government about 3 billion krone (around US$480 million) in lost revenue just in 2014, and up to 4 billion krone (around US$640 million) if all the other benefits are accounted for.[493] In July 2016, as the stock of prefix "EL" plates was almost depleted, the first electric vehicles were registered with the special prefix "EK" (elektrisk kjøretøy - Norwegian for electric vehicle) series, reserved for the next 90,000 EVs.[494][495]

In May 2015 the Government decided to keep the existing incentives through 2017, and the political parties in Parliament agreed to reduced and phase out some of the incentives. Beginning in January 2018, electric car owners will be required to pay half of the yearly road license fee and the full rate as of 2020. The value-added tax (VAT) exemption for electric cars will end in 2018, but replaced by a new scheme, which may be subjected to a ceiling that could be reduced as technology develops. The agreement also gives local authorities the right to decide whether electric cars can park for free and use public transport lanes.[496][497]

In February 2016, the government opened for public discussion until 1 July 2016 the proposed National Transport Plan 2018-2029 (NTP). Among others, the NTP sets the goal that all new cars, buses and light commercial vehicles in 2025 should be zero emission vehicles, this is, all-electric and hydrogen vehicles. By 2030, heavy-duty vans, 75% of new long-distance buses, and 50% of new trucks must be zero emission vehicles.[498][499][500]

Sales
Registration of new and used imports by type of plug-in electric vehicle between 2013 and 2015.[52][501]

As of September 2016, a total of 121,330 new plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in Norway, consisting of 92,813 all-electric passenger cars, 26,225 plug-in hybrids, and 2,292 all-electric vans. Sales of used imports in Norway are significant, and as of September 2016,The total stock includes more than 14,300 used imported electric vehicles from neighboring countries, mostly pure electric cars.[10] As of 30 September 2013, the total plug-in electric registered stock included 1,456 heavy quadricycles, such as the Kewet/Buddy, Th!nk City, and the REVAi. These city cars are entitled to the special "EL" (now "EK") licensed plates reserved for Norwegian electric vehicles.[502] Registrations of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in the country passed the 100,000 unit milestone in April 2016.[34][503]

Plug-in electric vehicle registrations totaled 10,769 units in 2013, representing 6.9% of total car registrations in 2013.[88] During 2013, the Leaf continued as the top selling plug-in electric car, with 4,604 new units sold, followed by the Tesla Model S with 1,986 units (25.2%), and the Volkswagen e-Up! with 580 units (7.4%).[504][505] During its first full month in the market, the Model S was the top selling car in Norway during September 2013 with 616 units delivered, representing a market share of 5.1% of all the new cars sold in the country, and becoming the first all-electric car to top the new car sales ranking in any country ever.[506][507][508] In October 2013, and for a second month in a row, an electric car, the Nissan Leaf, was the best selling car in the country. The Leaf sold 716 units, representing a 5.6% of new car sales that month.[509][510] In December 2013 the Model S, with 553 units sold and a 4.9% market share, was the top selling new car in the country for the second time in the year.[511]

The first European deliveries of the Tesla Model S took place at Tesla's store in Oslo in August 2013.

In January 2014, the Leaf topped for a second time the ranking of top selling new cars in Norway, with 650 units sold, representing a 5.7% of new car sales that month.[512] The Model S topped the monthly sales ranking for a third time in March 2014, with 1,493 units sold, capturing a 10.8% market share of new car sales that month, and contributing to a record market share for the all-electric car segment of 20.3% of total new car sales.[85][481][513] A total of 23,390 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2014.[501] Combined sales of new and used plug-in electric vehicles captured a 13.84% market share of total passenger car registrations in 2014.[48] Sales of the new all-electric car segment reached a market share of 12.5%.[514] New all-electric passenger car registrations were up 129.5% from 2013, and the plug-in hybrid segment grew 411.6% from a year earlier.[501] Norway ended 2014 as the top selling European country in the light-duty all-electric market segment, with 18,649 passenger cars and utility vans registered, surpassing France (15,046).[515] Norway accounted for a third of all European all-electric car sales in 2014.[516] Plug-in electric car sales in 2014 were led by the Nissan Leaf with 4,781 new registrations, followed by Tesla Model S with 4,040 units[501]

Electric cars have access to bus lanes in Norway. Shown a Nissan Leaf, the all-time top selling plug-in electric car. As of September 2016, there were more than 25,000 Leafs on Norwegian roads.[10][517]

Record sales and the highest monthly market share registered at the time were achieved in March 2015, with registration of new plug-in electric cars reaching a market share of 26.4% of new car sales.[518][519] A total of 39,632 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2015, up from 23,408 in 2014 (69.3%). New plug-in sales totaled 34,455 units. A total of 5,177 used imports were registered, of which, 5,122 were pure electric cars.[52] The combined sales of new plug-in cars reached a market share of 23.4% of all new passenger cars sold in 2015, with the all-electric car segment reaching 17.1%, up from 12.5% in 2014, while the plug-in hybrid segment reached 5.2%, up from 1% in 2014.[4][520] The VW e-Golf, with 8,943 units sold, was the best-selling plug-in electric car in Norway in 2015, followed by the Tesla Model S (4,039).[520] The e-Golf variant represented 54.6% of total new VW Golf nameplate sales in the country in 2015.[521] The top selling plug-in hybrid in 2015 was the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 2,875 units, followed by the Volkswagen Golf GTE with 2,000.[520] As of December 2015, the Nissan Leaf continued to rank as the all-time best selling plug-in electric car in the country with a total of 15,245 new Leafs registered since 2011.[501][504][505][521]

Historical evolution of the Norwegian plug-in electric car segment market share of new car sales and monthly records through September 2016. (Source: Norwegian Road Federation (OFV).

New plug-in electric car registrations in February 2016 reached 28.5% market share of new car sales.[522] The highest-ever monthly market share for plug-in electric passenger segment was achieved in March 2016 with 33.5% of new car sales; the all-electric car segment had an 18.7% market share among new passenger cars, while the plug-in hybrid segment had a 14.8%.[32][480] Combined registrations of new plug-in cars reached a market share of 28.4% of all new passenger cars sold during the first six months of 2016, with the all-electric car segment reaching 15.1%, down from 18.4% in the same period in 2015, while the plug-in hybrid segment reached a record 13.3%, up from 4.5% in 2015.[523]

During the first three quarters of 2016, registrations of new light-duty plug-in vehicles totaled 33,817 units, consisting of 17,498 all-electric cars, 15,888 plug-in hybrids, and 431 all-electric vans.[43][524] In addition, 3,932 used imported pure electric cars and 76 used electric vans were registered during the period, totaling 4,008 used imports.[524] Combined registrations of new and used imports totaled 37,825 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in Norway between January and September 2016.[43][524] The combined sales of new plug-in cars reached a market share of 28.8% of all new passenger cars sold during the first nine months of 2016, with the all-electric car segment reaching 15.1%, and the plug-in hybrid segment 13.7%.[524]

In September 2016, the more general category of hybrid electric cars, which in Norway includes plug-in hybrids, had a market share of 28.8% of new car sales, up from 12.6% in September 2015. Accounting together the market shares of all-electric cars (19.0%), plug-in hybrids (13.9%), and conventional hybrids (14.9%), the Norwegian electric-drive segment achieved a record 47.8% market share. These gains occurred at the expense of diesel-powered cars sales, as the diesel segment market share declined to 26.4% from 39.2% in September 2015, and to a lesser extend, of gasoline-powered cars, which had a 25.8% market share, down from 31.0% in September 2015.[10][484]

The prefix "EL" or "EK" is added to the license plates of electric cars in Norway to control the privileges electric vehicles are entitled to. Shown a BMW i3.

During the first seven months of 2016, the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV was the top selling plug-in car with 3,347 units registered, followed by the Volkswagen e-Golf with 3,138 units, the Nissan Leaf with 2,829, and the Volkswagen Golf GTE with 2,507.[525] Breaking down new car registrations by type of powertrain in July 2016, show that the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV was for the first time as the top selling new car in the country with 504 units registered.[483][526] The Tesla Model X ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in Norway in September 2016 with 601 units registered.[43][484] However, when registrations are broken down by each variant's powetrain, the Model X also ranked as the top selling new car model in September 2016.[10][484][485] Again in November 2016, an electric car topped new cars sales in the country. The BMW i3 listed as the top selling new passenger car with 1,014 units registered.[486][527]

As of September 2016, the Nissan Leaf continued to rank as the all-time best selling plug-in electric car in the country with a total of 18,591 new Leafs registered since 2011. When used imported Leafs from neighboring countries are accounted for, there were more than 25,000 Leafs on Norwegian roads by September 2016, representing about 10% of Leaf global sales.[10][517] The following table presents registrations of the top 15 selling plug-in electric cars and utility vans by model per year since 2008 through December 2015. Figures between 2008 and 2013 correspond to the combined number of first registrations by year accounting for both, new and used imports. Figures for 2014 and 2015 correspond only to new car registrations. The breakdown between new and used import for the Nissan Leaf and the Kia Soul EV is shown because these are the two PEV models with the largest share of used import registrations.


Registration of top selling plug-in electric vehicles by model in Norway
between 2008 and December 2015
Model Total
registrations(1)
Market
share(2)
2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008
New only[520][528][529] Includes new and used imports[88][479][504][530][531]
Nissan Leaf Combined 21,231 25.2% 5,277 7,013 6,073 2,487 381[477]      
Only new 15,245 3,189[521] 4,781[521] 4,604[504] 2,298[505] 373[505]      
Used imports 5,986 2,088[528] 2,232[532] 1,469[532] 189[479] 8      
Volkswagen e-Golf 10,961 13.0% 8,943 2,018            
Tesla Model S 10,064 11.9% 4,039 4,040 1,985          
Volkswagen e-Up! 5,056 6.0% 1,507 2,971 578          
BMW i3 4,494 5.3% 2,403[533] 2,040 51          
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV 4,363 5.2% 2,875 1,485[534] 3          
Kia Soul EV Combined 3,355 4.0% 2,064 445            
Only new 1,311 866[520] 445[520]            
Used imports 2,044 2,044[528] NA            
Mitsubishi i-MiEV 3,077 3.6% 490 413 453 671 1,050      
Renault Zoe 2,071 2.5% 1,634 433 4          
Volkswagen Golf GTE 2,000 2.4% 2,000              
Peugeot iOn 1,815 2.2% 570 309 277 442 217      
Citroën C-Zero 1,796 2.1% 437 371 221 557 210      
Audi A3 e-tron 1,701 2.0% 1,684 17(3)            
Mercedes-Benz B-Class ED 1,352 1.6% 1,352              
Th!nk City(4)(5) 1,120[502] 1.3%     12 22 133 331 93 183
Total registered[52][85][501][530] 84,401 39,632 23,408 10,769 4,700 2,243 733 454 567
Notes:

(1) Total registrations include new car sales and used imports from neighboring countries since 2004.
(2) Market share as percentage of the 84,401 plug-in electric vehicles registered in Norway as of December 2015, including new plug-in electric car and van sales and used imports.
(3) Sales between January and November 2014.
(4) Th!nk City registrations include units registered prior to 2008. In Norway heavy quadricycles are entitled to the special "EL" license plate.
(5) Registrations through September 2013.

Philippines[edit]

The first electric car in the country was launched at Silliman University by Insular Technologies in August 2007.[535][536] In some major urban cities in the Philippines like Makati, E-Jeepneys or Electric Jeepneys are used as well as Electrical Tricycles (Rickshaws). Eagle G-Car a Philippine all-electric car was made available for purchase in the Philippines as low as $3,000-$6,000), the car is made out of fiber glass.[537] While E-Jeepneys are expected to be available in many other cities in the Philippines and hope to be revolutionize and made into an icon of the Philippines, it is a venture of Renewable Independent Power Producer Inc., which sprang from Greenpeace and other groups, and Solarco, which in turn is a part of GRIPP.[538]

Poland[edit]

A Mitsubishi i-MiEV charging at an e+ charging station. e+ is a Polish provider of electric cars and infrastructure.[539]

Poland is developing charging station infrastructure in Gdańsk, Katowice, Kraków, Mielec and Warsaw. Funds for the project come from the European Union. The biggest organization in Poland in the area of electric vehicles is Klaster Green Stream.[540]
The Polish company 3xE - samochody elektryczne (3xE - electric cars) offer electric vehicle conversions of small city cars such as the Smart ForTwo, Citroën C1, Fiat Panda, Peugeot 107, Audi A2. The converted cars have a range of about 100 km (60 mi), using lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO
4
) batteries
and brushless DC electric motors, and the conversion can cost less than €12,000.[541]

Portugal[edit]

The stock of the plug-in electric cars in Portugal climbed from 20 all-electric cars in 2010 to about 530 plug-in electric cars in 2013, and as of December 2015, there were about 2,000 plug-in electric cars registered in the country, consisting of 1,280 all-electric cars and 720 plug-in hybrids. As of December 2014, there were only 180 plug-in hybrids registered in the country.[7]

BMW i3 charging in Coimbra, Portugal

Portugal reached agreements with French car maker Renault and its Japanese partner Nissan to boost the use of electric cars by creating a national recharging network. The aim was to make Portugal one of the first countries to offer drivers nationwide charging stations.[542] As of May 2010, there are only about a dozen recharging stations in the country, but the government expects to deploy 320 before the end of 2010 and 1,300 by the end of 2011.[543] The government established a subsidy of €5,000 for the first 5,000 new electric cars sold in the country. In addition, there was a €1,500 incentive if the consumer turned in a used car at least 10 years old as part of the down payment for the new electric car.[543] Electric cars were also exempt from the registration tax.[139] These incentives were discontinued at the end of 2011 due to the financial crisis of the country.[544]

On December 22, 2010, Nissan delivered in Lisbon the first nine Leafs to its commercial customer the MOBI.E consortium, and another unit to the Portuguese government as a loan for trial purposes. Deliveries for individual customers began in early 2011.[545][546] Since 2010 a total of 283 electric cars and utility vans have been sold in the country through October 2012, with the Nissan Leaf as the best selling EV with 121 units.[547] Sales decreased significantly during 2012, with only 44 units sold between January and July due to the end of fiscal incentives.[548]

Plug-in electric car sales totaled 1,305 units in 2015, up 260% from 2014. The plug-in electric segment market share totaled 0.61% of new car sales, up from the 0.25% in 2014.[549] The top selling models were the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (229), Nissan Leaf (209), BMW i3 (162), Renault Zoe (153), and the Mercedes-Benz C350 e (80).[549]

Russia[edit]

As of 1 July 2016, a total of 722 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Russia. Registrations are led by the Mitsubishi i-MiEV with 249 cars, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 189 units, Tesla Model S with 167, and the Lada Ellada with 93. There were also less than 20 units of the Renault Twizy, BMW i3 and Tesla Model X.[550]

Singapore[edit]

As of October 2016, there were 129 plug-in electric cars registered in Singapore, representing 0.02% of the country's automobiles on the road. BMW is the plug-in segment leader.[357] Despite the existing government incentive that grants a maximum tax rebate of $30,000 for electric cars, adoption of plug-in electric vehicles has been slow in Singapore due to the high purchase prices, lack of public charging infrastructure, and unclear national policies on clean cars. As of October 2016, there were 74 public charging stations across the island managed by Bosch and Greenlots.[357]

The country's existing taxation scheme sometimes make a plug-in car more expensive than a conventional car. Among other factors is the carbon surcharge, applied to account for grid CO2 emissions during the electricity generation and distribution process, which is not applied to the production and distribution of petrol or diesel. There is also the scrap rebate, which is higher for electric vehicles as compared to a petrol model of the same value, resulting in significantly lower resale values for electric cars. The annual road tax also present inconsistencies that might increase the cost of owning a plug-in electric car.[357]

South Africa[edit]

The stock of the plug-in electric cars in the country climbed from 30 all-electric cars in 2013 to about 50 in 2013, and as of December 2015, there were about 290 plug-in electric cars registered, consisting of 170 all-electric cars and 120 plug-in hybrids. All the plug-in hybrids were registered in 2015.[7]

GridCars is a Pretoria based company promoting Commuter Cars, their launch vehicle is based on the TREV from Australia. The concept behind the electric car is to build ultra-light EVs, placing less demand on battery requirements, and making the vehicle more affordable.[551] The Joule, designed by Cape Town-based Optimal Energy,[552] made its debut at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, has a maximum driving range of 300 km (190 mi). The Juoule accommodates two large-cell lithium ion battery packs.[553]

The first series production electric car available for retail sales in the country was the Nissan Leaf, introduced in October 2013. BMW South Africa has plans to introduce the BMW i3 and BMW i8. The country does not have government incentives or subsidies to promote electric cars.[554] Plug-in electric car sales totaled 80 units during the first three months of 2016, consisting of 55 BMW i3s, 15 BMW i8s, and 10 Nissan Leafs.[555]

South Korea[edit]

As of October 2016, about 7,200 plug-in electric cars have been sold in South Korea.[7][556] The stock of the plug-in electric cars in the country climbed from 60 all-electric cars in 2010 to about 1,450 in 2013, and as of December 2015, there were over 4,300 plug-in electric cars registered in South Korea, consisting of over 4,000 all-electric cars and 270 plug-in hybrids. All the plug-in hybrids were registered in 2015.[7] A total of 2,896 plug-in electric vehicles were sold during the first ten months of 2016, up 12% year-on-year.[556]

As of 2014, all the electric cars models on sale in South Korea were domestically manufactured by local brands.[citation needed] Sales during the first eight months of 2015 totaled 1,744 units. The top selling models during this period were the Kia Soul EV (657), Samsung SM3 Z.E. (640) and the BMW i3 (243).[557] The Hyundai Ioniq Electric was released in South Korea in July 2016, and sold more than 1,000 units during its first two months in the market. Hyundai expects to sell at least 4,800 Ioniq Electric in 2016, representing more than 60% of the total electric car sales in the country in 2016 year, estimated at around 8,000 electric vehicles.[558]


Registration of highway-capable plug-in electric cars by model
in South Korea between 2012 and 2013[559]
Model Total
Sales
2012–2013
Sales
2013
Sales
2012
Kia Ray EV 929 398 531
Samsung SM3 Z.E. 294 277 17
Chevrolet Spark EV 40 40
Total registrations 1,263 715 548

The government subsidy has in place a one-time purchase subsidy for electric cars. Effective July 8, 2016, the subsidy was increased to 14 million won (US$12,100) from 12 million won (US$10,400). Also starting in 2016, the purchase tax surcharges of electric cars will be reduced, and all-electric car drivers will benefit from reductions in insurance premiums, expressway tolls and parking fees.[560]

In July 2016, the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy announced a plan to make electric car batteries run longer, build a network of charging stations and make electric car purchases and ownership more affordable. The government expects that the current and future policy programs will help increase the electric car market share in South Korea to 0.5% in 2017, up from 0.2% in 2015, and to achieve 5.3% in 2020. The government plan calls for the deployment of fast charging stations in 2020 to be available at an average of one within a two-kilometer radius in the capital city of Seoul. In addition, 30,000 slow charging stations will be strategically located at about 4,000 apartment complexes nationwide by 2020.[560]

The government's plan also includes the development of an electric car battery, beginning in 2016, with energy density high enough to more than double the travel distance on a charge to 400 km (250 mi). The government expects to increase the global market share of South Korean electric cars to match that of South Korean gasoline and diesel cars, which reached 8.5% based on sales by South Korea's two main car exporters, Hyundai Motor Company and Kia Motors.[560]

Spain[edit]

Plug-in electric vehicle registrations in Spain by year between 2010 and 2014.[561][562][563][564]

The stock of the plug-in electric cars in Spain climbed from 70 all-electric cars in 2010 to about 1,200 plug-in electric cars in 2012, and as of December 2015, there were almost 6,000 plug-in electric cars registered in the country, consisting of 4,460 all-electric cars and 1,490 plug-in hybrids. The first 10 plug-in hybrids were registered in the country in 2011.[7]

In May 2011 the Spanish government approved a €72 million (US$103 million) fund for year 2011 to promote electric vehicles. The incentives include direct subsidies for the acquisition of new electric cars for up to 25% of the purchase price, before tax, to a maximum of €6,000 per vehicle (US$8,600), and 25% of the gross purchase price of other electric vehicles such as buses and vans, with a maximum of €15,000 or €30,000, depending on the range and type of vehicle.[565] Several regional government grant incentives for the purchase of alternative fuel vehicles including electric and hybrid vehicles. In Aragón, Asturias, Baleares, Madrid, Navarra, Valencia, Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia, Castile and León electric vehicles are eligible to a €6,000 tax incentive and hybrids to €2,000.[139]

Peugeot iOn electric car in Bilbao.

Retail sales of the Mitsubishi i-MiEV began in December 2010 .[566][567] A total of 233 i-MiEV family electric cars were sold during 2011, representing 58% of all electric vehicles sold in Spain that year.[568] The Nissan Leaf was released in Barcelona in September 2011, followed by Madrid in October 2011.[569][570] A total of 137 Leafs were sold through September 2012.[568][571]

A total of 401 electric cars and utility vehicles were sold in Spain during 2011, led by the Peugeot iOn with 125 units, followed by 85 Citroën C-Zeros and 59 Nissan Leafs.[572] During the first half of 2012 a total of 209 electric cars were sold, representing a market share of 0.05% of new car sales.[573] During 2012 plug-in electric car sales totaled 484 units and 176 electric utility vans were sold, for a total of 660 highway-capable plug-in vehicles registered in 2012. In addition, 943 Renault Twizy quadricycles were sold in the country, making the Twizy the top selling plug-in electric vehicle, followed by the Renault Kangoo Z.E. with 176 units, and the Nissan Leaf with 154 units.[574]

Plug-in electric car sales in Spain totaled 1,958 units in 2014, up 53% from 2013.[575] The market penetration of highway-capable plug-in electric cars climbed in 2014 to 0.16% of total new car sales in the country, up from 0.05% in 2011.[576][577] Sales in 2014 were led by the Nissan Leaf with 465 units, followed by the Renault Zoe with 289.[575] Plug-in electric car sales totaled 3,015 units in 2015, up 54% from 2014.[578] The top selling models in 2015 were the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (389), Smart electric drive (388), Nissan Leaf (344), Renault Zoe (312), Renault Kangoo Z.E. (257), and the BMW i3 (251).[578]

A total of 3,129 plug-in electric vehicles were sold in Spain during the first three quarters of 2016. Sales continued to growth at an accelerated pace, up 79% from the same period in 2015. The segment achieved a market share of 0.36% of new car registrations[579] The Outlander P-HEV continued as the top selling plug-in with 495 units, followed by the Leaf with 435, the BMW i3 with 267, and the Zoe with 257 units.[579]

Sri Lanka[edit]

Sales of the Nissan Leaf in Sri Lanka began in 2013.[580] There are no government incentives or subsidies to promote electric cars in Sri Lanka. Electric vehicle tax increased from 5% to 50% through the new Government's Interim Budget.[citation needed]

As of September 2015, a total of 2,072 electric cars have been registered in the country, with the Nissan Leaf ranking as the most popular model. Electric car sales experienced a record month in September 2015 with 471 units registered, up from only 15 in September 2014. Four Tesla Model S cars were registered the record month.[581]

Sweden[edit]

Plug-in electric vehicle registrations in Sweden by year between 2011 and 2015.[61][62][63][582][583]

As of September 2016, a total of 26,463 plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in Sweden since 2011, consisting of 18,077 plug-in hybrids, 7,102 all-electric cars and 1,284 all-electric utility vans.[61][62][63][582][583][584] The Swedish plug-in electric market is dominated by plug-in hybrids, representing 68.3% of the Swedish light-duty plug-in electric vehicle registrations through September 2016.[61][63][583][584] Sweden ranked among the world's top ten best-selling plug-in markets in 2015, listed as the ninth largest country market. The Swedish market was the sixth largest European plug-in market in 2015.[4] The market share of plug-in electric vehicles climbed from 0.57% in 2013 to 1.53% of new car sales in the country in 2014.[63][582] The country achieved a record market share of 2.49% of new car sales in 2015,[61] and during the first three quarters of 2016 reached 3.4%.[584]

Government incentives

In September 2011 the Swedish government approved a 200 million kr program, effective starting in January 2012, to provide a subsidy of 40,000 kr per car for the purchase of 5,000 electric cars and other "super green cars" with ultra-low carbon emissions, defined as those with emissions below 50 grams of carbon dioxide (CO2) per km.[585] There is also an exemption from the annual circulation tax for the first five years from the date of their first registration that benefits owners of electric vehicles with an energy consumption of 37 kWh per 100 km or less, and hybrid vehicles with CO2 emissions of 120 g/km or less. In addition, for both electric and hybrid vehicles, the taxable value of the car for the purposes of calculating the benefit in kind of a company car under personal income tax is reduced by 40% compared with the corresponding or comparable gasoline or diesel-powered car. The reduction of the taxable value has a cap of 16,000 kr per year.[463]

By July 2014 the program run out of funds as a total of 5,028 new "super clean cars" had been registered in the country since January 2012.[586][587] BIL Sweden, the national association for the automobile industry, requested the government an additional 100 million kr to cover the subsidy for another 2,500 registrations of new super clean cars between August and December 2014.[587][588] In December 2014 the Riksdagen, the Swedish parliament, approved an appropriation of 215 million kr to finance the super clean car subsidies in 2015. The appropriation for 2015, according to the parliamentary decision and subsequent government decision, was to also be used for the retroactive payment of the super green cars registered in 2014 that did not receive the subsidy.[62]

The Government raised the appropriation for the super green car rebate by 132 million kr for 2015 and by 94 million kr for 2016. Beginning in 2016, only zero emissions cars are entitled to receive the full 40,000 kr premium, while other super green cars, plug-in hybrids, receive half premium. The exemption for the first five years of ownership from the annual circulation tax is still in place.[589][590] In 2016, in order to promote the introduction of electricity-powered buses in the market, the Government planned to allocate 50 million kr for 2016 and 100 million kr per year between 2017 and 2019 to introduce an electric bus premium.[590]

Two alternative proposals are being considered by the Swedish government regarding the introduction of a bonus-malus system. Both proposals entail changes to vehicle and car benefit taxation and the premium system for purchases of new cars. An official inquiry report was due by 29 April 2016. The goal is for the system to enter into force on 1 January 2017.[590]

Registrations

A total of 178 all-electric cars were registered in Sweden in 2011, and registrations of plug-in electric vehicles climbed to 928 units in 2012, led by the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid with 499 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 129 units, and the third place was shared by the Volvo C30 Electric and the Opel Ampera with 88 units each.[583] Electric-drive cars reached a market share of 0.33% in 2012. In addition, 265 Renault Kangoo Z.E. utility vans were sold in 2012.[583] During 2013 a total of 1,545 plug-in electric cars were registered in the country out of 269,363 new passenger cars sold, representing a market share of 0.57%.[582] With 1,113 units registered in 2013, plug-in hybrids represented 72.0% of total plug-in electric car registrations. This number includes 10 BMW i3s sold with the range extender option, which in Sweden are classified as plug-in hybrids.[582] The top selling plug-in cars during 2013 were the Volvo V60 PHEV with 601 units, the Prius PHV with 376 and the Nissan Leaf with 317.[582]

The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV was the top selling plug-in electric car in 2014 and 2015, and, as of September 2016, is the all-time best-selling plug-in car in Sweden.[61][63][584]

Plug-in electric car sales during 2014 grew significantly. Registrations of super clean cars increased five-fold in July 2014 driven by the end of the quota of 5,000 new cars eligible for the super clean car subsidy.[586][587] A total of 4,656 plug-in super clean passenger cars were registered in 2014, representing a 1.53% market share of new passenger cars registered in the country in 2014. Registrations of super clean cars were up 201% from 2013, while registrations of new passenger cars increased 12.7%.[62][63] Super clean cars represented 8.8% of alternative fuel cars sold during 2014.[63] The top selling plug-in electric cars in 2014 were the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 2,289 units, Volvo V60 PHEV with 745, and the Nissan Leaf with 438 units. The top selling all-electric utility van was the Kangoo Z.E. with 242 units out of a total of 282 electric vans registered.[63]

The Volkswagen Passat GTE listed as the top-selling plug-in electric car in Sweden during the first nine months of 2016, and also ranks as the all-time second best-selling plug-in in the country.[61][584]

A total of 8,908 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in 2015, up 80% from 2014. The registered stock consisted of 5,625 plug-in hybrids, 2,962 all-electric cars and 321 all-electric utility vans.[61] The plug-in segment had a market share of 2.49% of new car sales in 2015.[61] The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV was the top selling plug-in car for a second year running with 3,302 units registered in 2015, followed by the Tesla Model S with 996 units. The top selling all-electric utility van was the Nissan e-NV200 with 168 units.[61] As of December 2015, a total of 16,996 plug-in electric vehicles had registered in Sweden since 2011, up from 7,342 at the end of 2014 (131.5%).[61][63][582][583]

Registrations during the first three quarters of 2016 totaled 9,467 units, consisting of 7,228 plug-in hybrids, up 155.3% year-on-year, 2,041 all-electric cars, down 9.9% year-on-year, and 198 all-electric vans, down 24.1% year-on-year. Super clean car registrations totaled 9,106 units, up 78.8% from the same period in 2015.[584] During the first three quarters of 2016 registrations of plug-in electric cars achieved a market share of 3.4% of all new cars registered, the world's second largest after Norway.[584] Stockholm county registered the highest proportion of super green car registrations during the first nine months of 2016, with 5.6% of the country's total. The proportion during September 2016 was 8.5%.[591] During the first three quarters of 2016 the Volkswagen Passat GTE listed as the top selling plug-in car with 2,885 units, followed by the Outlander P-HEV (1,094), Volvo V60 PHEV (907), Volvo XC90 T8 (692), Nissan Leaf (624), and Tesla Model S (620). The top selling all-electric utility van was the Renault Kangoo Z.E. with 120.[584]

As of September 2016, the all-time top selling plug-in electric cars are the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 6,781 units registered, followed by the Volkswagen Passat GTE (3,156), Volvo V60 PHEV (2,907), Nissan Leaf (2,394) and Tesla Model S (1,882). The Renault Kangoo Z.E. continued as the all-time the leader in the plug-in commercial utility segment with 973 units.[61][63][583][584] The following table presents registrations of highway-capable plug-in electric passenger cars by model between January 2011 and September 2016.


Registration of highway-capable plug-in electric passenger cars by model
in Sweden between 2011 and September 2016[61][63][582][583][584]
Model Total
Registered
Market
share(1)
CYTD 3Q
2016
2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV 6,781 26.9% 1,094 3,302 2,289 96    
Volkswagen Passat GTE 3,156 12.5% 2,885 271        
Volvo V60 PHEV 2,907 11.5% 907 612 745 601 42  
Nissan Leaf 2,349 9.3% 624 841 438 317 129  
Tesla Model S 1,882 7.5% 620 996 266      
Toyota Prius PHV 1,262 5.0% 45 132 210 376 499  
BMW i3 Total 951 3.8% 351 379 210 11    
REx 678 2.7% 261 275 132 10    
BEV 273 1.1% 90 104 78 1    
Renault Zoe 874 3.5% 292 378 204      
Volvo XC90 T8 857 3.4% 692 165        
Volkswagen Golf GTE 725 2.9% 324 401        
Volkswagen e-Up! 491 1.9% 95 157 199 40    
Audi A3 e-tron 478 1.9% 115 349 14      
BMW 330e iPerformance 440 1.7% 440          
Volkswagen e-Golf 395 1.6% 100 278 17      
Volvo C30 Electric 198 0.8% 0 0 16 46 88 48
BMW X5 xDrive40e 169 0.7% 169          
Nissan e-NV200 (passenger van) 167 0.7% 36 131        
Mercedes-Benz C 350 e 157 0.6% 86 71        
BMW 225xe Active Tourer 152 0.6% 152          
Tesla Model X 139 0.6% 139          
Opel Ampera 147 0.6% 0 16 22 21 88  
Mitsubishi i MiEV 101 0.4% 3 0 6 12 9 71
Kia Soul EV 78 0.3% 26 50 2      
Citroën C-Zero 71 0.3% 0 0 4 7 29 31
BMW i8 51 0.2% 20 25 6      
Chevrolet Volt 40 0.2% 0 0 0 7 33  
Peugeot iOn 39 0.2% 0 0 2 0 9 28
Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive 38 0.15% 14 24        
Audi Q7 e-tron 32 0.13% 32          
Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid 22 0.09% 4 6 10 2    
Fisker Karma 21 0.08% 0 0 0 2 19  
Ford Focus Electric 9 0.04% 0 3 2 4    
Porsche 918 Spyder 6 0.02% 1 1 4      
Saab 9-3 ePower 6 0.02% 2 0 4      
BMW 740e iPerformance 6 0.02% 6          
Volkswagen XL1 2 0.01% 2          
Smart electric drive 2 0.01% 0 0 0 0 2  
Total plug-in passenger car registrations 25,207(2) 100% 9,276(2) 8,588(2) 4,671(2) 1,547(2) 947 178
Notes: (1) Market share as percentage of the 25,207 plug-in electric passenger cars registered in Sweden between 2011 and September 2016.
The number of super clean cars during the same period is 24,983 units, excluding fuel cell vehicle registrations.
(2) According to the official Swedish definition of super clean cars (CO2 emissions of up to 50 g/km), the Fisker Karma, the two Porsche plug-in models, the Panamera S E-Hybrid and the 918 Spyder, and two BMW models, the X5 xDrive40e and 740e iPerformance, are not classified as super clean cars,
instead they are accounted for as conventional hybrids.

Switzerland[edit]

As of April 2016, over 12,000 plug-in electric cars have been registered in Switzerland since 2012.[35] During the first quarter of 2016, a total of 1,479 plug-in electric car were registered in the country, consisting of 773 all-electric cars (up 37.5% from 1Q 2015), and 706 plug-in hybrids (up 44.1% from 1Q 2015).[592] Registrations of plug-in cars totaled 6,288 units in 2015, up 133.9% from 2,668 in 2014.[39] The plug-in segment registrations totaled 1,717 units in 2013.[593]

Deliveries of the Mitsubishi i MiEV began in 2011, and a total of 430 units have been registered in Switzerland through September 2012, including 219 i MiEVs, 110 C-Zeros, and 101 iOns.[594] The Nissan Leaf was launched in November 2011,[595][596] and a total of 86 Leafs have been sold through September 2012.[594]

As of December 2015, new passenger all-electric car registrations totaled 6,499 units since 2006, while range extender electric cars totaled 1,333 units since their introduction in the country in 2011. No detail is available for parallel plug-in hybrid registrations as these cars were accounted together with conventional hybrid electric vehicles.[597] A total of 2,389 all-electric passenger cars were sold in 2015, representing a market share of 1% of total new car registrations.[597] During the first nine months of 2015, registrations in the all-electric segment were led by the Tesla Model S with 1,146 units, followed by the Renault Zoe with 318, and the all-electric variant of the BMW i3 with 201. The plug-in hybrid segment was led by the Volkswagen Golf GTE with 497 units, followed by the BMW i3 REx with 387 units, and the Audi A3 e-tron with 343. With 588 new units registered through September 2015, the BMW i3 was the second best selling model after the Model S.[597]

The Swiss government does not have any subsidies or incentives for purchasing plug-in electric vehicles.[598] Cantons can propose special discounts on annual taxes depending on the car's efficiency label and range from 100% rabate (e.g. Solothurn) to 0%.[599]

Ukraine[edit]

Nissan Leaf in Kharkiv - EcoTaxi, 2016

As of 1 July 2016, a total of 850 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Ukraine. Registrations are led by the Nissan Leaf with 647 cars, followed by the Tesla Model S with 72, and the BMW i3 with 19.[550]

About 90% of electric car registrations in Ukraine are used imports, particularly from the United States with cars that are two- to three-years old, and mileage between 30,000 to 40,000 km (19,000 to 25,000 mi). Used imports are attractive in the Ukrainian market because the purchase price is two times lower than a new electric vehicle in Europe. During the first eight months of 2016, Ukrainians imported twice as much used electric cars than the whole 2015.[600] Imports of used electric cars in Ukraine grew from 95 in 2014, to 731 in 2015, and totaled 1,550 units during the first eight months of 2016.[601]

Nevertheless, at the beginning of August 2016, Ukrainian officials started to refuse the registration of American electric vehicles, citing the need for certification by European rules. To comply with the certification requirements, the cars have to be converted from U.S. to European standards, which includes the replacement of a windshield, headlights and other parts of the electric vehicle, at a cost of more than US$1,000.[600]

United Kingdom[edit]

Registration of plug-in electric vehicles in the UK between January 2011 and December 2015.[55][602][603][604][605]

Since 2010 about 90,000 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in the UK up until September 2016, including about 75,000 plug-in hybrids and all-electric cars, and about 4,000 plug-in commercial vans. This figure includes a significant number of registered plug-in electric cars and vans which were not eligible for the grant schemes.[606] As of September 2016, a total of 75,647 eligible cars have been registered since the launch of the Plug-in Car Grant in 2011,[607] and, as of June 2016, the number of claims made through the Plug-in Van Grant scheme totaled 2,395 units since the launch of the programme in 2012.[608] As of 7 October 2016, the UK had 11,903 public charging points at 4,215 locations, of which 2,140 were rapid charging points at 696 locations.[609]

Before the introduction of series production plug-in vehicles, a total of 1,096 all-electric vehicles were registered in the UK between 2006 and December 2010.[610] Electric car sales grew from 138 units in 2010 to 1,082 units during 2011.[603][611] Before 2011, the G-Wiz, a heavy quadricycle, listed as the top-selling EV for several years.[612] During 2012, a total of 2,254 plug-in electric cars were registered in the UK, of which, 1,262 were pure electrics, and sales were led by the Nissan Leaf with 699 units, followed by the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid and the Vauxhall Ampera, with 470 and 455 units sold, respectively, in 2012.[605][613][614] Vehicles eligible for the Plug-in Car Grant accounted for 0.1% of total new car sales in 2012.[615]

The REVAi/G-Wiz i electric car charging at an on-street station in London.

During 2013, a total of 3,586 plug-in electric cars were registered, up 59.0% from 2012.[55][616] Of these, 2,512 were pure electric cars, up 99.0% from 2012, and 1,074 plug-in hybrids, up 8.1% from 2012.[55] Plug-in car sales represented a 0.16% market share of total new cars sales in the UK in 2013.[616] The top selling plug-in electric car during 2013 was the Nissan Leaf, with 1,812 units sold,[617] and the Prius PHV ended 2013 as the top selling plug-in hybrid with 509 units sold, up 8.5% from 2012.[616]

The British market experienced a surge of plug-in car sales during 2014, driven by the introduction of several new models.[618][619][620] Plug-in electric car registrations in the UK quadruple from 3,586 in 2013 to 14,518 units in 2014.[55] Registrations during 2014 consisted of 6,697 pure electrics and 7,821 plug-in hybrids. Total registrations in 2014 were up 305% from 2013, with all-electric cars growing 167% while plug-in hybrid registrations were up 628% from a year earlier.[55] The plug-in electric car segment captured a 0.59% market share of new car sales in 2014, up from 0.16% in 2013.[55][617] In November 2014, with 646 all-electric cars and 1,225 plug-in hybrids registered, the segment's market share passed 1% of monthly new car sales for the first time in the UK.[621][622]

The Nissan Leaf, with 25,000 units sold by September 2015, has been the best-selling pure electric car in the UK since 2011.[623][624]

Nissan Leaf sales in September 2014 achieved a record of 851 units, up from 332 units the same month in 2013, representing not only the best monthly sales ever in the UK, but also the largest volume of Nissan Leafs ever sold in one month in a European country. The previous European record was achieved by Norway in March 2013 with 703 Leafs sold in that month.[620][625] The Outlander P-HEV was among the new models with a significant effect in the market, released in April 2014, it captured a 35.8% market share of total plug-in sales during the first half of 2014.[626] The Mitsubishi plug-in hybrid became the top selling plug-in electric vehicle in July 2014 and captured 43% of all applications to the Plug-in Car Grants scheme that month.[627] The Outlander P-HEV ended 2014 as the top selling plug-in electric car in the UK that year with 5,370 units sold.[534][628] The Nissan Leaf sales also experienced a significant growth in 2014, with 4,051 units sold, up 124% from the 1,812 units sold in 2013.[618] As of December 2014, the Leaf continued ranking as the top selling plug-in electric car ever in the UK with cumulative sales of 7,197 units since its introduction in March 2011.[617][618][629] Over 24,500 light-duty plug-in electric cars were registered in the country at the end of December 2014.[54]

The surge in demand for plug-in cars continued during 2015, to the extent that 2014's ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) sales figure was passed in June 2015.[630] Plug-in electric car registrations in the UK totaled 28,188 units in 2015, consisting of 9,934 pure electric cars and 18,254 plug-in hybrids. Total registrations in 2015 were up 94.0% from 2014, with all-electric cars growing 48.3% year-on-year, while plug-in hybrid registrations were up 133.0% year-on-year.[602] The plug-in electric car segment raised its market share of new car sales in 2015 to almost 1.1%, up from 0.59% in 2014.[55][631] With almost 3,100 plug-in cars sold during December 2015, the plug-in segment reached a record of 1.7% of new car sales in the UK, the highest ever.[631]

The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the all-time top selling plug-in electric car in the UK, with 25,000 units sold by mid-October 2016.[632][633]

Sales of the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV in the British market reached the 10,000 unit milestone in March 2015, allowing the plug-in hybrid to overtake the Leaf as the all-time top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the UK.[633][634] Sales of the Nissan Leaf sales passed the 10,000 unit milestone in June 2015.[635] The top selling models in 2015 were the Outlander P-HEV with 11,681 units registered, up 118% from 2014, followed by the Leaf with 5,236 units (up 29%), and the BMW i3 with 2,213 units (up 59%).[636] Plug-in car sales in March 2016 achieved the best monthly plug-in registration volume on record ever, and the plug-in segment market share reached 1.37% of total UK new car registrations that month.[637]

Registrations during the first six months of 2016 recorded the highest-volume half-year ever for plug-in electric car registrations.[638] During the first three quarters of 2016 a total of 29,185 plug-in electric vehicles were registered, of which, 28,035 cars were eligible for the Plug-in Car Grant. Registrations consisted of 8,107 all-electric cars, up 16.6% year-on-year, and 21,078 plug-in hybrids, up 46.3% year-on-year.[607] During this period, sales of plug-in hybrids oversold pure electric cars, with the latter more than doubling sales of battery electric models.[639] During the first nine months of 2016 the plug-in car segment's market share reached 1.36% of new car sales. While overall new car registrations year-to-date increased 2.6% from the same period in 2015, total plug-in car registrations during the first nine months of 2016 increased 36.6% from a year earlier.[607] The Outlander P-HEV continued to lead sales of the plug-in electric segment during the first three quarters of 2016 with 7,770 units delivered. The Leaf continued as the top selling all-electric car with 3,728 units registered.[640]

The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the all-time top selling plug-in car in the UK with 25,000 units registered by mid-October 2016, accounting for about 50% of all plug-in hybrid sold in the British market since 2010.[632] The Nissan Leaf ranks second and it is also the all-time top selling all-electric car with 15,000 units sold by September 2016.[623] Ranking third is the BMW i3 with 4,457 units, followed by the Renault Zoe with 4,339 units, both, registered at the end of June 2016.[641] The following table presents registrations of the top 20 selling highway-capable plug-in electric cars by model by the end of 2014, by the end of 2015, and by the end of June 2016.


Top 20 selling light-duty highway-capable plug-in electric cars by registrations
in the UK between December 2014 and June 2016
Model Total registered at
the end of
Model Total registered at
the end of
2Q
2016[641]
2015[641][642] 2014[643] 1Q
2016[641]
2015[641][642] 2014[643]
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV 21,708 16,100 5,273 BMW 330e iPerformance 1,479    
Nissan Leaf 12,837 11,219 6,838 BMW i8 1,307 1,022 279
BMW i3 4,457 3,574 1,534 Vauxhall Ampera 1,267 1,272 1,169
Renault Zoe 4,339 3,327 1,356 Volvo XC90 T8 813 38  
Mercedes-Benz C350 e 3,337 628   Renault Kangoo Z.E. 785 740 663
Tesla Model S 3,312 2,087 698 Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid 475 395 241
Volkswagen Golf GTE 2,657 1,359   Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid 410 337 232
Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid 1,655 1,580 1,324 Peugeot iOn 405 374 368
Audi A3 e-tron 1,634 1,218 66 Mercedes-Benz B-Class ED 303 162 0
Nissan e-NV200 1,487 1,047 399 Mitsubishi i MiEV 252 251 266
Note: Registrations figures seldom correspond to cumulative sales figures. Some model numbers have actually declined which indicates
more cars are being taken off the road than are being sold. In addition, a significant number of plug-in electric cars in Europe are imported from
neighborhood countries as used cars, mainly to Norway.
Government incentives

The Plug-in Car Grant program started on 1 January 2011 and is available across the U.K. The programme reduces the up-front cost of eligible cars by providing a 25% grant towards the cost of new plug-in cars capped at GB£5,000 (~US$7,450).[644][645][646] From 1 April 2015, the purchase price cap was raised to cover up to 35% discount of the vehicle's recommended retail price, up to the already existing GB£5,000 limit. This change means electric cars priced under GB£20,000 can take advantage of most or all of the GB£5,000 discount.[647] Both private and business fleet buyers are eligible for this grant, which is received at the point of purchase and the subsidy is claimed back by the manufacturer afterwards.[644][645]

The Plug-In Car Grant was extended to include vans since February 2012. Van buyers can receive 20% - up to GB£8,000 (~US$12,000)- off the cost of a plug-in van. To be eligible for the scheme, vans have to meet performance criteria to ensure safety, range, and ultra-low tailpipe emissions. Consumers, both business and private can receive the discount at the point of purchase.[648] The Plug-In Van Grant scheme was extended in October 2016 to make electric trucks above 3.5 tonnes eligible for grants of up to GB£20,000, when businesses switch their large trucks to an electric vehicle. The government also announced their commitment for an additional GB£4 million to the scheme so that all vans and trucks meeting the eligibility requirements can benefit from the grant scheme.[649]

In April 2014, the government announced that funding for the full grant of up to GB£5,000 will remain in place until either 50,000 grants have been issued or 2017, whichever is first.[647][650] As forecasts estimated that the scheme would reached its 50,000 limit around November 2015, the government announced in August 2015 that the Plug-in Car Grant will continue until at least February 2016 for all plug-in cars with CO2 emissions of 75 g/km of under.[630] The Government also announced that a minimum of GB£200 million (~US$300 million) has been made available to continue the Plug-in Car Grant.[651]

Plug-in hybrid models with a purchase price of over GB£60,000, such as the BMW i8, are not eligible for the Plug-in Car Grant from March 2016.[652]

In December 2015, the Department for Transport (DfT) announced that Plug-in car grant was extended until March 2018 to encourage more than 100,000 UK motorists to buy cleaner vehicles. A total funding of GB£400 million (~US$600 million) will be available for the extension. To reflect the rapidly developing technology, and the growing range of ULEVs on the British market, the criteria for the Plug-in Car Grant was updated and the maximum grant drops from GB£5,000 (~US$7,450) to GB£4,500 (~US$6,700). For the extension, the amount of the grant is linked in directly with the Office for Low Emission Vehicles three vehicle categories issued in April 2015. The eligible ultra-low emission vehicles (ULEVs) must meet criteria in one of three categories depending on emission levels (CO2 emissions bands between 50 and 75g/km) and zero-emission-capable mileage (minimum of 10 mi (16 km)), with a technology neutral approach, which means that hydrogen fuel cell cars are eligible for the grant.[647][653][654] The updated scheme will go into effect on 1 March 2016.[654]

A price cap will be in place, with all Category 1 plug-in vehicles eligible for the full grant no matter what their purchase price, while Category 2 and 3 models with a list price of more than GB£60,000 (~US$90,000) will not be eligible for the grant.[653][654] Under the extended scheme, some plug-in hybrid sports car will no longer be eligible for the grant, such as the BMW i8 because of its GB£100,000 (~US$150,000) purchase price tag.[652] Vehicles with a zero-emission range of at least 70 miles (110 km) (category 1), including hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, will get a full GB£4,500 (~US$6,700), but plug-in hybrids (categories 2 and 3) costing under GB£60,000 (~US$90,000) will receive GB£2,500 (~US$3,725).[653][654] The grant scheme will come under review when a cumulative total of 40,000 Category 1 claims, and 45,000 Category 2 and 3 combined sales have been made. Both these totals will include cars sold before March 2016.[654]

In addition to the extension of the Plug-in Grant, the government also announced it will continue the "Electric Vehicle Homecharge Scheme." Starting in March 2016 owners of ultra-low emission vehicles who install a dedicated charge point at their home, covering roughly half the average cost, will get GB£500 (~US$750) towards the cost of installing the charging point, rather than the previous GB£700 (~US$1,050) maximum.[653][654]

Exemption from the London congestion charge

All-electric vehicles (BEVs) and eligible plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) qualify for a 100% discount from the London congestion charge. A plug-in electric drive vehicle qualifies if the vehicle is registered with the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) and has a fuel type of 'electric', or alternatively, if the vehicle is a 'plug-in hybrid' and is on the Government's list of PHEVs eligible for the OLEV grant.[655] As of February 2016, approved PHEVs include all extended-range cars such as the BMW i3 REx, and plug-in hybrids that emit 75g/km or less of CO2 and that meet the Euro 5 standard for air quality, such as the Audi A3 Sportback e-tron, BMW i8, Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (passenger and van variants), Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid, and Volkswagen Golf GTE.[656]

United States[edit]

The Nissan Leaf electric car (left) and the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid (right) were the first two series production plug-in electric vehicles introduced by major automakers in the U.S.

As of September 2016, cumulative sales in the United States totaled 521,403 highway legal plug-in electric cars since the market launch of the Tesla Roadster in 2008.[9][657] As of September 2016, the United States, together with China, had the largest country fleet of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in the world, representing 29.2% of the global light-duty plug-in stock.[1] As of August 2016, the distribution of cumulative sales since 2010 between the two plug-in technologies was 52.8% all-electrics and 47.2% plug-in hybrids.[36] Sales of series production PEVs in the U.S. market during its first two years were lower than the initial expectations.[658][659][660][661][662] According to Pike Research, cumulative sales will reach the one million goal set by the Obama Administration only in 2018 instead of 2015.[663] Cumulative plug-in electric car sales since 2008 reached the 250,000 unit milestone in August 2014,[664] and the 500,000 unit milestone in August 2016.[36]

Nationwide plug-in car sales climbed from 17,800 units in 2011 to 53,200 during 2012, and reached 97,100 units delivered in 2013, up 83% from the previous year.[665] During 2014 plug-in electric car sales totaled 123,347 units, up 27.0% from 2013, and fell to 114,248 units in 2015, down 7.4% from 2014.[666] A total of 108,397 plug-in cars were sold during the first nine months of 2016, up 40% year-on-year.[9][667] The market share of plug-in electric passenger cars increased from 0.14% of new car sales in 2011 to 0.37% in 2012, 0.62% in 2013, and reached 0.75% of new car sales during 2014.[666][668][669] As plug-in car sales slowed down during the 2015, the segment's market share fell to 0.66% of new car sales.[666] The market share increased to 0.83% during the first nine months of 2016.[667] The highest-ever monthly market share for plug-in electric vehicles was achieved in September 2016 with 1.12% of new car sales, marking the first time plug-in cars sold more than 1% of the new light-duty market in the U.S.[657] The segment's market share passed the 1% mark (1.03%) again in November 2016.[670] September 2016 is also the best monthly plug-in sales volume on record ever, with 16,069 units delivered.[657]

U.S. plug-in electric vehicle cumulative sales since 2008 passed the 500,000 unit milestone in August 2016.[36] The graph shows cumulative sales by month by type of powertrain from December 2010 up to September 2016.[671][672]

As of September 2016, there were 27 highway-capable plug-in cars available in the American market for retail sales from over a dozen car manufacturers,[667] plus several models of electric motorcycles, utility vans and neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs). As of September 2016, total sales are led by the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid with 105,076 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf all-electric car with 98,829 units delivered. Both plug-in cars were released in December 2010.[36][667] Launched in the U.S. market in June 2012, the Tesla Model S ranks as the third top selling plug-in electric car with an estimated 84,017 units sold through September 2016, followed by the Prius PHV, launched in February 2012, with 42,345 units.[9][36][667] Ranking fifth is the Ford Fusion Energi with 39,039 units, followed by the Ford C-Max Energi with 30,928 units delivered through September 2016.[36][667]

During 2013 sales were led by the Chevrolet Volt with 23,094 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 22,610 cars, and the Tesla Model S with around 18,000 units.[673][674] In 2014 the Leaf took the lead, with 30,200 units sold, with the Volt ranking second with 18,805, followed by the Model S with 16,689 units.[666] The Tesla Model S, with 25,202 units delivered, was the top selling plug-in car in the U.S. in 2015, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 17,269 units, the Volt with 15,393, and the BMW i3 with 11,024.[666] During the first nine months of 2016 the Model S continued as the top selling plug-in car with about 21,400 units, followed by the Volt with 16,326, Model X with about 12,900, and Ford Fusion Energi with 11,650.[667]

Comparison of annual sales of plug-in electric vehicles in the United States versus California between 2010 and 2015.[69][70][672]

California, the largest American car market, is also the leading plug-in regional market in the country with about 250,000 plug-in electric vehicles sold by November 2016, representing 46% of all plug-in cars sold in the American market since 2010.[77] Plug-in electric cars represented about 0.5% of the passenger fleet on the Californian roads by September 2015.[82] Registrations of plug-in electric cars in the state in 2015 represented 54.5% of total plug-in car sales in the country.[69][666] During 2014 California's PEV market share reached 3.2% of total new car sales in the state, up from 2.5% in 2013.[70][78] In 2015 the state's plug-in market share fell to 3.1%,[69] and again slightly declined to 3.0% in the first half of 2016.[83] Until December 2014 California had more plug-in electric vehicles than any other country,[79] and its plug-in sales volume in 2014 was higher than any other country.[80] As of November 2016, only China has more plug-in electric cars on the road than California.[77] In 2015, California's plug-in market share was surpassed only by two countries, Norway (22.4%) and the Netherlands (9.7%).[83]

As of 31 January 2016, the United States had 12,203 charging stations across the country, up from 5,678 in March 2013.[675][676] California led with 2,976 stations, followed by Texas with 686, and Florida with 626. In terms of public charging points, there were 30,669 public outlets available across the country by the end of January 2016, led by California with 9,086 charging points (29.6%), followed by Texas with 1,679 (13.8%), and Florida and Washington state with 1,435 each (11.8%).[675] There were 592 CHAdeMO quick charging stations across the country by April 2014.[677]

The following table presents cumulative sales for the top-10 best selling highway-capable plug-in electric cars and available for retail sales between 1996 and September 2016.

Top selling highway-capable plug-in electric cars
available for retail sales or leasing in the U.S. between 2010 and September 2016
Model Type
of PEV
Market
launch
Sales/leases Comments
Chevrolet Volt Plug-in hybrid December 2010 105,076 The Volt is the top selling plug-in electric car in the United States.[678]
Sales through September 2016, of both first and second generation models.[679]
Production of the first generation Volt ended in mid-May 2015.[680]
Deliveries of the second generation Volt began in October 2015.[681]
Nissan Leaf Electric car December 2010 98,829 The Leaf is the top selling all-electric car in the United States.[678]
Sales through September 2016.[36][667]
Tesla Model S Electric car June 2012 84,017 Sales through September 2016.[9][36][667]
The Model S was the top selling plug-in car in the U.S. in 2015,[666] and continued
ranking as top selling plug-in car during the first three quarters of 2016.[667]
Toyota Prius PHV Plug-in hybrid February 2012 42,345 First generation sales through September 2015.[36][667]
Production of the first generation Prius Plug-in ended in June 2015.[682]
Dealerships run out of stock in October 2016.[683]
Deliveries of the second generation Prius Prime began in November 2016.[684]
Ford Fusion Energi Plug-in hybrid February 2013 39,039 Sales through September 2016.[36][667]
Ford C-Max Energi Plug-in hybrid October 2012 30,928 Sales through September 2016.[36][667]
BMW i3 Electric car May 2014 22,879 Sales through September 2016[36][667]
Includes REx variant.
Fiat 500e Electric car July 2013 17,081 Sales through September 2016.[685][686]
Tesla Model X Electric SUV September
2015
12,536 Sales through September 2016.[9][36][667]
Volkswagen e-Golf Electric car October 2014 7,371 Sales through September 2016.[666][667][687]
Selected out-of-production highway-capable plug-in electric cars
available for retail sales or leasing in the U.S. between 1996 and 2015
Toyota RAV4 EV
(2nd gen)
Electric car September 2012 2,490 Sales through October 2015.[668][669][687][688]
Production ended in September 2014.[689]
Tesla Roadster Electric car March 2008 About
1,800
Sales through December 2011.[690]
Production ended in January 2012 and it was not available for sale in the U.S.
since December 2011.[691]
Fisker Karma Plug-in hybrid November 2011 About
1,600
Sales through December 2013.[690]
Fisker Automotive filed for bankruptcy in November 2013.[692]
Toyota RAV4 EV
(1st gen)
Electric car 1997 1,484 Units leased from 1997 to 2003.
As of mid-2012, there were almost 500 units still in use.[693]
General Motors EV1 Electric car 1996 1,117 Units leased from 1996 to 2003. All cars were repossessed and most were crushed.[694]
About 40 units were delivered to museums and educational institutes with their electric
powertrains deactivated. The only intact EV1 was donated to the Smithsonian Institution.[695]
Government incentives

The Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008, and later the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACES) granted tax credits for new qualified plug-in electric vehicles.[696] The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) also authorized federal tax credits for converted plug-ins, though the credit is lower than for new PEVs.[697]

President Barack Obama behind the wheel of a new Chevrolet Volt during his tour of the General Motors Auto Plant in Hamtramck, Michigan

The federal tax credit for new plug-in electric vehicles is worth $2,500 plus $417 for each kilowatt-hour of battery capacity over 5 kWh, and the portion of the credit determined by battery capacity cannot exceed $5,000. Therefore, the total amount of the credit allowed for a new PEV is $7,500.[696] Several states have established incentives and tax exemptions for BEVs and PHEV, and other non-monetary incentives.

Two separate initiatives are being pursued in 2011 to transform the tax credit into a cash rebate worth up to $7,500. The initiatives by Senator Debbie Stabenow and the Obama Administration seek to make new qualifying plug-in electric cars more accessible to buyers by making the incentive more effective. The rebate will be available at the point of sale allowing consumers to avoid a wait of up to a year to apply the tax credit against income tax returns.[698][699][700] Another change to the rules governing the tax credit was introduced by Senator Carl Levin and Representative Sander Levin who are proposing to raise the existing cap on the number of plug-in vehicles eligible for the tax credit. The proposal raises that limit from the existing 200,000 PEVs per manufacturer to 500,000 units.[698]

The U.S. government also has pledged US$2.4 billion in federal grants to support the development of next-generation electric cars and batteries, and US$115 million for the installation of electric vehicle charging infrastructure in 16 different metropolitan areas around the country. President Barack Obama also set the goal of bringing 1 million plug-in electric vehicles on the road by 2015.[701][702] However, considering the actual slow rate of PEV sales, as of mid-2012 several industry observers have concluded that this goal is unattainable.[660][703][704]

CARB ZEV mandate
The General Motors EV1 was one of the first PEVs introduced in 1996 as a result of CARB's zero-emissions vehicle mandate.

Since the late 1980s, electric vehicles have been promoted in the US through the use of tax credits. Electric cars are the most common form of what is defined by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as zero emission vehicle (ZEV) passenger automobiles, because they produce no emissions while being driven. The CARB had set progressive quotas for sales of ZEVs, but most were withdrawn after lobbying and a lawsuit by auto manufacturers complaining that EVs were economically infeasible due to an obvious lack of consumer demand. Many of the factors that hindered the widespread production of electric cars during the late 1990s and 2000s are discussed in the documentary film Who Killed the Electric Car?.[705]

The California program was designed by CARB to reduce air pollution and not specifically to promote electric vehicles. Under pressure from various manufactures, CARB replaced the zero emissions requirement with a combined requirement of a very small number of ZEVs to promote research and development, and a much larger number of partial zero-emissions vehicles (PZEVs), an administrative designation for a super ultra low emissions vehicle (SULEV), which emits about 10% of the pollution of ordinary low emissions vehicles and are also certified for zero evaporative emissions. While effective in reaching the air pollution goals projected for the zero emissions requirement, the market effect was to permit the major manufacturers to quickly terminate their electric car programs and crush the vehicles.[705]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-09-01). "Americans Buy Their Half-Millionth Plug-in Car: Top-selling light-duty plug-in electrified vehicle global markets". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-09-30.  See graph: Top-selling light-duty plug-in electrified vehicle global markets (Cumulative sales through July 2016 by country/region)
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  40. ^ a b European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) (2016-10-28). "New Passenger Car Registrations by Alternative Fuel Type in the European Union – Quarter 3 2016" (PDF). ACEA. Retrieved 2016-11-02.  A total of 143,315 new passenger plug-in electric vehicles were registered in the European Union and two EFTA countries during the first nine months of 2016, consisting of 65,270 all-electric cars and 76,037 plug-in hybrids (See tables pp. 2 and 3). Light-duty utility vans are not included.
  41. ^ Ida Warner (2016-02-15). "Over 100.000 ladbare biler i Norden" [Over 100,000 plug-in cars in the Nordic countries]. Insero.com (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2016-02-15.  Out of over 100,000 plug-in passenger cars registered in the Nordic countries at the end of 2015, a total of 74,883 were registered in Norway, 16,187 in Sweden, 7,926 in Denmark, and 1,479 in Finland (see graph).
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  250. ^ Cristina Fallas (2015-03-06). "Expomóvil abre una vitrina para exhibir lo nuevo del mercado" [Expomóvil auto show opens a showcase to display what is new in the market]. La Nación (San José) (in Spanish). Retrieved 2015-03-09. 
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  292. ^ a b c d e Michaël Torregrossa (2014-01-19). "Hybride rechargeable – Le marché français stagne en 2013" [Rechargeable hybrids - The French market stagnated in 2013] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-01-19. 
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  302. ^ a b Michaël Torregrossa (2013-01-09). "Voitures électriques – Le bilan des immatriculations 2012 en France" [Electric Cars - The balance of registrations in France 2012] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2013-02-16. 
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  307. ^ Philippe Schwoerer (2015-01-16). "Mitsubishi mise et gagne sur l'hybride rechargeable" [Mitsubishi bets and wins with its plug-in hybrid] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2015-02-02. 
  308. ^ AVERE-France (2015-01-08). "Hybride : un marché en recul en 2014, l'hybride essence tient le coup" [Hybrid: a declining market in 2014, the gasoline-electric hybrid holds up] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France. Retrieved 2015-02-02.  A total of 1,519 plug-in hybrids were registered in France in 2014.
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  311. ^ a b Justin Aschard (2012-11-30). "Inmatriculations VP et VUL France à fin Oct. 2012 (2010-2012)" [Registrations of passenger cars and utility vehicles in France through October 2012 (2010-2012)] (PDF) (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 20, 2013. Retrieved 2012-12-13.  14 Kangoo ZEs were registered in 2010 and 768 in 2011.
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