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Fiumans or Fiuman people are the citizens of the city of Rijeka and the former city-state of Fiume - a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural micro-region of today's Republic of Croatia with ethnic Croats, Italians, Hungarians, Slovenes and Austrians making up the vast majority of the city's population through the centuries, hailing from various regions of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire and today's Alpe-Adria region, like: Hungary, Veneto, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Slovenia, Istria, Carinthia, Croatia, Bohemia, etc. In 1719 the Austrian Emperor granted Rijeka a Free Port status (alongside the neighbouring Trieste) and thus the city became increasingly home to the most diverse people from the Whole Empire and the nearby Adriatic and Mediterranean regions, not last because the city was the main departure port of the Danubian basin for emigrants to the Americas.
The ethnic make up of the city heavily changed after World War II and the expulsion of 80% of its inhabitants. Nonetheless, the autochthonous population still nowadays identifies itself simply as Fiumans (Fiuman/Fiumani in the local Fiuman dialect) and this local identity is going through a very strong period of growth since the 1990s and the end of the communist regime in Yugoslavia.
- The Use of Standard Croatian, Standard Italian and the Fiuman Dialect: A Case Study, Luana Ivošević (2015)
- Leo Weiczen Valiani and his Multilayered Identities: An Introduction, Vanni D'Alessio (2016)
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