Great Hungarian Plain
The Great Hungarian Plain (also known as Alföld or Great Alföld, Hungarian: Alföld or Nagy Alföld) is a plain occupying the majority of Hungary. It is the largest part of the wider Pannonian Plain.
Plain in Hungary
Its territory covers approximately 52,000 km2 (20,000 sq mi) of Hungary, approximately 56% of its total area of 93,030 km2 (35,920 sq mi). The highest point of the plain is Hoportyó (183 m (600 ft)); the lowest point is the Tisza River. The terrain ranges from flat to rolling plains.
Hungarian scientists born on the plain include Zoltán Bay, physicist; János Irinyi, chemist, inventor of the noiseless match; János Kabay, pharmacologist; Gábor Kátai, physician and pharmacist; and Frigyes Korányi, physician and pulmonologist.
The most important river of the plain is Tisza.
Among the cultural festivals and programmes characteristic of the region are the Csángófesztivál (Csángó Festival) in Jászberény, the Cseresznyefesztivál (Sweet Cherry Festival) in Nagykörű, the Gulyásfesztivál (Goulash Festival) in Szolnok, the Hídi Vásár (Bridge Fair) in Hortobágy National Park, the Hunniális at Ópusztaszer, the Szabadtéri Játékok (Open-air Games) in Szeged, the Várjátékok (Castle Games) in Gyula, the Virágkarnevál (Flower Carnival) in Debrecen and the Bajai Halászléfőző Népünnepély (Fisherman's Soup Boiling Festival) in Baja.
The part of the plain located in Hungary comprises the following areas:
Plain in Serbia
The term is being used in Serbia to denote the Hungarian portion of the Pannonian plain.
Plain in Croatia
The term is rarely used in Croatia, and is usually associated with the geography of Hungary.
Plain in Slovakia
Part of the plain located in Slovakia is known as Eastern Slovak Lowland.
Plain in Ukraine
Part of the plain located in Ukraine is known as Transcarpathian Lowland.
Plain in Romania
During the prehistoric era, the Great Hungarian Plain was a place of cultural and technological changes, as well as an important meeting point of cultures of Eastern and Western Europe. It is a region of great archaeological importance to major European cultural transitions.
Agriculture began in the Great Hungarian Plain with the Early Neolithic Körös culture, located in present-day Serbia, 6.000-5.500 B.C.E. followed 5.500 B.C.E. by the Linear Pottery culture(LBK) which later became the dominant agricultural culture of Europe. The LBK was followed by the Lengyel culture in the Late Neolithic 5000-3400 BC.
During the Early Bronze Age (2.800 - 1.800 BC), the growing demand for metal ores in Europe resulted in the new pan-European and intercontinental trade networks. During that period cultures of the Great Hungarian Plain incorporated many elements from the other cultures of Bronze Age Near Eastern, Steppe and Central Europe
During the early Iron Age (first millennium BC), a variant of the Central European Hallstatt culture inhabited Transdanubia, while pre-Scythian and later Scythian cultures were found in the eastern region of the Great Hungarian Plain.
Genomic analysis of prehistoric populations
In 2014, a major study of DNA from burials in the Great Hungarian Plain was published. The 5,000-year record indicated significant genomic shifts at the beginning of the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, with periods of stability in between. The earliest Neolithic genome was similar to other European hunter-gatherers and surprisingly there was no evidence of lactase persistence at that period. The most recent samples, from the Iron Age, showed an eastern genomic influence contemporary with introduced Steppe burial rites. There was also a transition towards lighter pigmentation.
- Gábor Gercsák (2002). "Hungarian geographical names in English language publications" (PDF). Studia Cartologica. Eötvös Loránd University. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- Gábor Gercsák (2005). "Magyar tájnevek angol fordítása" (PDF). Fasciculi Linguistici / Series Lexicographica (in Hungarian). Eötvös Loránd University. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- Heršak, Emil; Nikšić, Boris (September 2007). "Hrvatska etnogeneza: pregled komponentnih etapa i interpretacija (s naglaskom na euroazijske/nomadske sadržaje)" [Croatian Ethnogenesis: A Review of Component Stages and Interpretations (with Emphasis on Eurasian/Nomadic Elements)]. Migration and Ethnic Themes (in Croatian). Zagreb: Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies. 23 (3): 255. ISSN 1848-9184.
U velikoj mađarskoj nizini Alföld zapadno od Karpata tradicionalno su se smještale euroazijske nomadske skupine, a dio panonske Hrvatske može se smatrati ekstenzijom tog područja, osobito istočna Slavonija i s njome povezani dijelovi Srijema.
- Milisauskas, S. (2011). European Prehistory: a Survey. Springer.
- Whittle, A. (1996). Europe in the Neolithic: the Creation of New Worlds. Cambridge University Press.
- Kalicz, N.; Makkay, J. (1977). Die Linienbandkeramik in der Großen Ungarischen. Akadémiai Kiadó.
- Sherratt, A. (1997). Economy and Society in Prehistoric Europe. Changing Perspectives. Edinburgh University Press.
- Oross, K.; Bánffy, E. (2009). "Three successive waves of Neolithisation: LBK development in Transdanubia". Doc. Praehist. 36: 175–189.
- McIntosh, J. (2009). Handbook to Life in Prehistoric Europe. Oxford University Press.
- Gamba, Cristina; Jones, Eppie R.; Teasdale, Matthew D.; McLaughlin, Russell L.; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Domboróczki, László; Kővári, Ivett; Pap, Ildikó; Anders, Alexandra; Whittle, Alasdair; Dani, János; Raczky, Pál; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Hofreiter, Michael; Bradley, Daniel G.; Pinhasi, Ron (2014). "Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory". Nature Communications. 5: 5257. doi:10.1038/ncomms6257. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 4218962.
Media related to Great Hungarian Plain at Wikimedia Commons
- Great Hungarian Plain travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Körös Regional Archaeological Project: Neolithic and Copper Age archaeology in the Great Hungarian Plain