Humat ad-Diyar

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حماة الديار
English: Guardians of the Homeland
Ḥumāt ad-Diyār

National anthem of  Syria
Lyrics Khalil Mardam Bey, 1936
Music Mohammed Flayfel, 1936
Adopted 1938
Audio sample
حُمَاةَ الدِّيَار (instrumental)

"Ḥumāt ad-Diyār" (Arabic: حماة الديار‎, translated "Guardians of the Homeland") is the national anthem of Syria, with lyrics written by Khalil Mardam Bey and the music by Mohammed Flayfel, who also composed the national anthem of the Palestinian state (now used as the national anthem of Iraq), as well as many other Arab folk songs.

Composition[edit]

It was adopted in 1938 after a national competition was held by Hashim al-Atassi's nationalist government to choose an anthem for the new republic two years after the Franco–Syrian Treaty of Independence was signed which gave Syria limited autonomy and future independence. The anthem was initially set to lose the competition, but it later won the competition after the anthem gained rapid popularity amongst the Syrian populace which put pressure on the competition's committee to reconsider its decisions, and eventually the anthem won and was adopted by the government as Syria's national anthem.

The anthem temporarily fell from use when Syria joined the United Arab Republic with Egypt in 1958. It was decided that the national anthem of the UAR would be a combination of the then-Egyptian national anthem and "Ħumāt ad-Diyār". When Syria seceded from the union in 1961, "Humat ad-Diyar" was completely restored and has been used ever since.

Structure[edit]

Damascus-born Khalil Mardam Bey was the writer of the Syrian national anthem's lyrics.[1]

The Syrian national anthem is divided into four quatrain stanzas, each containing four lines. The rhyme scheme used is an Arabic form called "Ruba'i", where each stanza has the same final rhyme in its component lines, giving the following rhyme scheme in the anthem: AAAA, BBBB, CCCC, DDDD. All of the lines in the anthem consist each of 11 syllables, all of which have the same system of scansion, which is as follows: \ / ˘ \ / ˘ \ / ˘ \ / where \ is an intermediate stress, / is a strong stress, and ˘ is unstressed. Although for simplicity an alternative stress scheme is offered which does not recognize intermediate stresses, and that scheme is: / / ˘ / / ˘ / / ˘ / /. In either case you should note the aforementioned 11 syllables per line, and the ruba'i rhyme scheme.

Lyrics[edit]

The Syrian national anthem is divided into four stanzas, each pertaining to a different and unique aspect of Syria from the remaining stanzas. Although the name of the anthem is "Guardians of the Homeland", which is a metaphor for the Syrian military, only the first stanza in fact talks about said army. The stanza breakdown is as follows: The first stanza is about Syria's army, and its role in defending the nation and in defending the citizens' integrity and Arabness. The second stanza is about Syria's scenery and terrain, where it talks about Syria's plains, mountains, and sunlit skies. The third stanza is about Syria's people, their hopes, martyrs, and flag. The fourth stanza talks about Syria's history, from its past and present to its future.

Text[edit]

Arabic lyrics (with vowels) Transliteration IPA transcription Literal English translation Artistic translation by Muhaned Elhindi

حُـماةَ الـدِّيارِ عليكمْ سـلامْ
ّأبَتْ أنْ تـذِلَّ النفـوسُ الكرامّ
عـرينُ العروبةِ بيتٌ حَـرام
وعرشُ الشّموسِ حِمَىً لا يُضَامْ

ربوعُ الشّـآمِ بـروجُ العَـلا
تُحاكي السّـماءَ بعـالي السَّـنا
فأرضٌ زهتْ بالشّموسِ الوِضَا
سَـماءٌ لَعَمـرُكَ أو كالسَّـما

رفيـفُ الأماني وخَفـقُ الفؤادْ
عـلى عَـلَمٍ ضَمَّ شَـمْلَ البلادْ
أما فيهِ منْ كُـلِّ عـينٍ سَـوادْ
ومِـن دمِ كـلِّ شَـهيدٍ مِـدادْ؟

نفـوسٌ أبـاةٌ ومـاضٍ مجيـدْ
وروحُ الأضاحي رقيبٌ عَـتيدْ
فمِـنّا الوليـدُ و مِـنّا الرّشـيدْ
فلـمْ لا نَسُـودُ ولِمْ لا نشيد؟

Ḩumâta ad-diyâri ʿal-aykum salâm
‘Abat ‘an tažilla n-nufûsu l-kirâm
’Arînul ’ûrubati baytûn ḩarâm
waʿarşu ş-şumûsi ḩiman lâ yuďâm

Rubû’u şa‘âmi burûğull ‘ala
Tuhâkî s-samâ‘a bi’âli s-sana
Fa‘arďun zahat bi ş-şumûsi l-wiďa
Samâ‘un la-’amruka ‘aw ka s-sama

Rafîful ‘amâni wa-xafqul fu‘âd
’Alâ ’alamin ďamma şamlal bilâd
‘Amâ fî-hi min kulli ’aynin sawâd
Wa min dami kulli şahîdin midâd?

Nufûsun ‘ubâtun wa mâďin maxîd
Wa-rûḩul ‘aďâḩi râqîbun ’atîd
Fa-min-na l-Walîdu wa-min-nâ r-Raşîd
Fa-lim lâ nasûdu wa-lim lâ naşîd?

ħumaːta d-dijaːri ʕalajkum salaːm
ʔabat ʔan taðilːa n-nufuːsu l-kiraːm
ʕariːnu l-ʕuruːbati bajtun ħaraːm
wa ʕarʃu ʃ-ʃumuːsi ħiman laː judˤaːm

rubuːʕu ʃ-ʃaʔaːmi buruːʤu l-ʕalaː
tuħaːkiː s-samaːʔa bi-ʕaːliː s-sanaː
fa-ʔardˤun zahat bi-ʃ-ʃumuːsi l-widˤa
samaːʔun la-ʕamruka ʔaw ka-s-samaː

rafiːfu l-ʔamaːni wa χafqu l-fuʔaːd
ʕalaː ʕalamin dˤamːa ʃamla l-bilaːd
ʔamaː fiː-hi min kulli ʕajnin sawaːd
wa min dami kulːi ʃahiːdin midaːd

nufuːsun ʔubaːtun wa maːdˤin maʤiːd
wa ruːhu l-ʔadˤaːħi raqiːbun ʕatiːd
fa-minːaː l-waliːdu wa minːaː r-raʃiːd
fa-lim laː nasuːdu wa lim laː naʃiːd

Guardians of the homeland, upon you be peace,
[our] proud spirits refuse to be humiliated.
The den of Arabism is a sacred sanctuary,
and the throne of the suns is a preserve that will not be subjugated.

The quarters of Levant are towers in height,
which are in dialogue with the zenith of the skies.
A land resplendent with brilliant suns,
becoming another sky or almost a sky.

The flutter of hopes and the beat of the heart,
are on a flag that united the entire country.
Is there not blackness from every eye,
and ink from every martyr's blood?

[Our] spirits are defiant and [our] history is glorious,
and our martyrs' souls are formidable guardians.
From us is al-Walīd, and from us is al-Rashīd.
So why then shall we not lead, why then shall we not rise?

Guardians of homeland, upon you be peace,
our ever-proud souls refuse to be seized.
The den of Arabism is our sacred home,
and the throne of our suns will never go down.

The mountains of Syria are towers in height,
which talk with the zenith of the highest skies.
A land that is splendid with brilliant sun,
turning to a sky or almost a sky.

The flutter of our hopes and the beats of our hearts,
depicted on the flag that united our land.
Did we not derive the black from every man's eye,
and from ink of martyrs' blood wrote to the tall sky?

Spirits defiant and past so glorious,
and the martyrs' souls are our guardians.
From us, a nation of souls and bravery,
Thy glory comes from us, my homeland!

References[edit]

  1. ^ Al Azmenah. "خليل مردم بك". Retrieved 3 January 2007. ولد خليل بن أحمد مختار مردم بك في دمشق عام 1895، من أصل تركي. 

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