List of political parties in China
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|Politics of China|
China, officially the People's Republic of China, is formally a multi-party state under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in a United Front similar to the popular fronts of former Communist-era Eastern European countries such as the National Front of Democratic Germany.
Under the one country, two systems scheme, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, which were previously colonies of European powers, operate under a different political system to the rest of China. Currently, both Hong Kong and Macau possess multi-party systems.
Relationships with the Communist Party
In practice, only one political party holds effective power at the national level, namely the CPC. Its dominance is such that China is effectively a one-party state. Eight minor parties are part of the United Front and also take part in the political system, but they have limited power on a national level and are almost completely subservient to the CPC as they must accept the "leading role" of the CPC as a condition of their continued existence. The Chinese political system allows for the participation of some non-CPC members and minor parties in the National People's Congress (NPC), but they are vetted by the CPC. The Constitution of China states in the preamble: "The system of the multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the Communist Party of China will exist and develop for a long time to come".
Although opposition parties are not formally banned in China, the CPC maintains control over the political system in several ways.
First, only the people's congresses/assemblies up to the county level (or district under a municipality) are subject to direct popular vote. Even such a lower-level direct election can be highly controlled or managed by the CPC and higher level governmental bodies. Above the county level, one people's congress appoints the members of the next higher congress. This means that although independent members can theoretically and occasionally in practice get elected to county-level people's congresses, it is impossible for them to organize to the point where they can elect members above the county level without the approval of the CPC or to exercise oversight over executive positions at the lowest level in the hierarchy. This lack of effective power also discourages outsiders from contesting the people's congress elections even at the lowest level.
Second, although Chinese law has no formal provision for banning a non-religious organization, it also has no provision which would give non-CPC political parties any corporate status. This means that a hypothetical opposition party would have no legal means to collect funds or own property in the name of the party. More importantly, Chinese law also has a wide range of offenses which can and have been used against the leaders of efforts to form an opposition party such as the Democracy Party of China and against members of organizations that the CPC sees as threatening its power. These include the crimes of subversion, sedition and revealing state secrets. Moreover, the control that the CPC has over the legislative and judicial processes means that the party can author legislation that targets a particular group.
Third, Article 1 of the Constitution defines China as a "people's democratic dictatorship" with "the socialist system" as its "basic system". It explicitly forbids "sabotage of the socialist system by any individual or organization".
|Date founded||Existed||Location founded||Members||Current leader||Official website|
|Communist Party of China (CPC) – ruling party||中国共产党 (中共)||1 July 1921||97 years, 162 days||Shanghai, China||89,450,000||General Secretary
|Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang (RCCK)||中国国民党革命委员会 (民革)||1 January 1948||70 years, 343 days||British Hong Kong||127,930||Chairman
|China Democratic League (CDL)||中国民主同盟 (民盟)||19 March 1941||77 years, 266 days||Chongqing, China||282,000||Chairman
|China Democratic National Construction Association (CDNCA)||中国民主建国会 (民建)||16 December 1945||72 years, 359 days||Chongqing, China||170,000||Chairman
|China Association for Promoting Democracy (CAPD)||中国民主促进会 (民进)||30 December 1945||72 years, 345 days||Shanghai, China||156,808||Chairman
|Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party (CPWDP)||中国农工民主党 (农工党)||9 August 1930||88 years, 123 days||Shanghai, China||145,000||Chairman
|China Zhi Gong Party (CZGP)||中国致公党 (致公党)||10 October 1925||93 years, 61 days||Los Angeles, California, United States||48,000||Chairman
|Jiusan Society (JS)||九三学社||3 September 1945||73 years, 98 days||Chongqing, China||167,218||Chairman
|Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (TDSGL)||台湾民主自治同盟 (台盟)||12 November 1947||71 years, 28 days||British Hong Kong||3,000||Chairman
The following parties have been and are currently suppressed in China. Due to censorship and suppression, they most likely have their headquarters outside the Chinese mainland.
- The Democracy Party of China (Chinese: 中国民主党) was founded by participants of the 1978 Chinese Democracy Wall Movement and the 1989 Democracy Movement. Founded in 1998, it was declared illegal that same year.
- The New Democracy Party of China (Chinese: 中国新民党) was founded by Guo Quan in Nanjing at the end of 2007.
- The Union of Chinese Nationalists (Chinese: 中国泛蓝联盟) aspires to the ideals of the Pan-Blue Coalition on Taiwan. As such, its values include establishing a liberal democracy in accordance with the Three Principles of the People. The group originated from an Internet forum discussion in August 2004 and was declared to be an illegal organization in September 2006.
- The Zhi Xian Party (Chinese: 至宪党), also known as the Chinese Constitutionalist Party in English. Founded by the supporters of Bo Xilai in 2013 and banned in December of that year.
- The Chinese Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) (Chinese: 中国共产党（马列）) is an anti-revisionist communist party founded in 1976 by a Maoist Rebel Faction of Red Guard in Wuhan, Hubei. They believed it was illegal to arrest the Gang of Four and that the new leadership of the CPC is revisionist and unlawful. They were suppressed after the attempts of Armed Revolt also failed in Shanghai, Zhejiang, Canton and Yunnan.
- The Chinese Communist Party (Workers' and Peasants' Liberation Army) (Chinese: 中国共产党（工农解放军）) is an anti-revisionist communist party founded in 1976 by a Maoist Rebel Faction of Red Guard in Fujian. They used the old fortifications from the era of the Socialist Revolution and organized a partisan army named the "Workers' and Peasants' Liberation Army″. They announced that the new leadership of the CPC is revisionist and called for uprising and reestablished the Party Centeral Committee. Their activities lasted until 1978.
- The Maoist Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国毛泽东主义共产党) is an anti-revisionist communist party founded on 2008. The party seeks to initiate a "second socialist revolution" to re-establish the dictatorship of the proletariat. It has been subject to crackdowns by the Chinese government.
- The Chinese Proletarian Revolutionary Central Committee (Chinese: 中国无产阶级革命中央委员会, abbreviated Chinese: 中革中央) is an anti-revisionist communist party founded in the 2010s by Zhou Qun (Chinese: 周群). The party leaders were numbers of rebel faction (Chinese: 造反派) during the Cultural Revolution and the committee core consisted of dozens of laid-off (Chinese: 大下岗) workers in Jiangsu, but it was suppressed after the police found their "provocative" online activities.
Historical Republic of China
The Republic of China (ROC) was founded by the Kuomintang (KMT) leader Dr. Sun Yat-sen in 1912. The Kuomintang's prior revolutionary political group, the Revive China Society, was founded on 24 November 1894. It later merged with various other revolutionary groups to form the Tongmenghui in 1905. In August 1911, the Tongmenghui further merged with various other political parties i]n Beijing to form the KMT. In July 1914, the KMT re-organized itself as the Chinese Revolutionary Party in Tokyo, Japan. In 1919, the party officially renamed itself as Kuomintang of China, which literally translates to Chinese Nationalist Party. It was China's first major political party. In 1921, the Communist Party of China (CPC) was founded by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao in Shanghai as a study society and an informal network. Slowly, the CPC began to grow. These were the two major political parties in China during the time when the ROC ruled mainland China from 1911 to 1949.
During the Chinese Civil War, under the leadership of the CPC the People's Liberation Army defeated the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang in 1949. The Kuomintang had no choice but to leave mainland China and move to the island of Taiwan in 1945 from Japan, then fled there with the aim to retake mainland China and retained the name Republic of China even though the CPC claimed that it had ceased to exist after 1949.
- United Republic party
- Unity Party
- Progressive Party
- Democratic Party
- Republican Party
- China Democratic Socialist Party
- Chinese Youth Party
- People Constitution Party
- Association of Political Friendship
- China Socialism Party
- Citizen Party
- Dazhong Party
- Chongqing Communist Party
- Oriental Communist Party
- Chinese Youth Communist Party
- Productive People's Party
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- List of Democratic Parties – People's Daily
- Profile of Democratic Parties – Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference