List of political parties in China

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China, officially the People's Republic of China, is formally a multi-party state under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) leading eight minor parties, in a United Front similar to the popular fronts of former Communist-era Eastern European countries such as the National Front of Czechoslovakia or National Front of German Democratic Republic.

Under the one country, two systems system, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, which were previously colonies of European powers, operate under a different political system to the rest of China. Currently, both Hong Kong and Macau possess multi-party systems that were introduced just before the handover of the territories to China.[1]

Relationships with the Chinese Communist Party[edit]

In practice, only one political party holds effective power at the national level, namely the CCP. Its dominance is such that China is effectively a one-party state. The eight minor parties are part of the United Front and also take part in the political system, but they have limited power at national level.[2][3] The minor parties must accept the "leading role" of the CCP as a condition of their continued existence.[4] The Chinese political system allows for the participation of some non-CCP members (independents) and members of minor parties in the National People's Congress (NPC), but they are vetted by the CCP. The Constitution of China states in the preamble: "The system of the multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the Communist Party of China will exist and develop for a long time to come."[5]


Institutional parties[edit]

Date founded Existed Location founded Members Current leader Official
Communist Party of China (CPC)
1 July 1921 99 years, 247 days Shanghai French Concession 89,450,000 General Secretary
Xi Jinping
China Zhi Gong Party (CZGP)
10 October 1925 95 years, 146 days Los Angeles, United States 48,000 Chairman
Prof. Wan Gang
Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party (CPWDP)
9 August 1930 90 years, 208 days Shanghai, China 145,000 Chairman
Prof. Chen Zhu
China Democratic League (CDL)
19 March 1941 79 years, 351 days Chongqing, China 282,000 Chairman
Prof. Ding Zhongli
Jiusan Society (JS)
3 September 1945 75 years, 183 days Chongqing, China 167,218 Chairman
Prof. Wu Weihua
China National Democratic Construction Association (CNDCA)
16 December 1945 75 years, 79 days Chongqing, China 170,000 Chairman
Prof. Hao Mingjin
China Association for Promoting Democracy (CAPD)
30 December 1945 75 years, 65 days Shanghai, China 156,808 Chairman
Prof. Cai Dafeng
Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (TDSGL)
12 November 1947 73 years, 113 days British Hong Kong 3,000 Chairwoman
Su Hui
Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang (RCCK)
1 January 1948 73 years, 63 days British Hong Kong 127,930 Chairman
Prof. Wan Exiang

Suppressed parties[edit]

The following parties formed in China are (or have previously been) banned by the government:

Historical parties[edit]

Sun Yat-sen together with the members of the Singapore branch of the Tongmenghui

The Republic of China (ROC) was founded by the Kuomintang (KMT) leader Dr. Sun Yat-sen in 1912. The Kuomintang's prior revolutionary political group, the Revive China Society, was founded on 24 November 1894. It later merged with various other revolutionary groups to form the Tongmenghui in 1905. In August 1911, the Tongmenghui further merged with various other political parties in Beijing to form the KMT. In July 1914, the KMT re-organized itself as the Chinese Revolutionary Party in Tokyo, Japan. In 1919, the party officially renamed itself as Kuomintang of China, which literally translates to Chinese Nationalist Party.[25] It was China's first major political party. In 1921, the Communist Party of China (CPC) was founded by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao in Shanghai as a study society and an informal network. Slowly, the CPC began to grow. These were the two major political parties in China during the time when the ROC ruled mainland China from 1911 to 1949.

During the Chinese Civil War, under the leadership of the CPC the People's Liberation Army defeated the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang in 1949. The Kuomintang had no choice but to leave mainland China and relocate to the island of Taiwan in 1945 from Japan, then fled there with the aim to retake mainland China and retained the name Republic of China even though the CPC claimed that it had ceased to exist after 1949.


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External links[edit]

See also[edit]