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Punjabi Sarsoon Ka Saag.JPG
Sarson da saag with makki di roti and butter topping
Alternative namesSaaga or Tuna(Odisha)
, Shaag, Shaak, Saagwala
Region or stateIndian subcontinent
Main ingredientsVarious kind of edible plants
Mutton (sheep) saag with naan bread
Saag paneer: spinach and cheese

Saag (pronounced [saːg]) (Punjabi: ਸਾਗ) (Nepali: साग) (Odia: ଶାଗ) or saga is a leaf-based (spinach, mustard leaf, collard greens, basella, etc.) dish eaten in the Indian subcontinent with bread such as roti or naan,[1] or rice (in Nepal, Odisha, Kashmir and West Bengal). Saag can be made from spinach, mustard leaves, finely chopped broccoli, or other greens, along with added spices and sometimes other ingredients such as paneer.

It is common in the state of Odisha, where it is eaten with Pakhala, and West Bengal and other regions of North India, where the most common dish is sarson da saag (mustard plant leaves), which may be eaten with makki di roti.[2] It is also eaten in Nepal and in Haryana. This roti is made of maize flour and is yellow in colour, though it can also be eaten with other breads. Saag/saj however can be a catch-all term for various green-leaved dishes. It is one of the important dish of Mahaprasad (Jagannath Temple), where it has been served to the Lords for centuries. Saag aloo (spinach potato) and saag gosht (spinach and goat) is a common dish in Punjabi cuisine as served in restaurants and take-aways in the Western world (where the goat is commonly replaced with lamb). However, as many people are vegetarian, saag is eaten as it is plain, with the yellow roti or naan. It consists of leafy greens such as spinach, broccoli, kale, and others.[3]



In Odia cuisine, sāga is one of the most important vegetables. It is popular all over the state. A large varieties of plants are used as sāga in Odisha. A list of the plants that are used as sāga is as below.

    • Kalama sāga (କଳମ ଶାଗ) Ipomoea aquatica (Water Spinach)
    • Kosalā/Khadā sāga (କୋସଳା ଶାଗ/ଖଡା ଶାଗ): prepared from amaranth leaves.
    • Bajji sāga (ବଜ୍ଜୀ ଶାଗ): Prepared from Amaranthus dubius leaves.
    • Leutiā sāga (ଲେଉଟିଆ ଶାଗ)Amaranthus viridis leaves and tender stems.
    • Pālanga sāga (ପାଳଙ୍ଗ ଶାଗ) spinach
    • Poi sāga (ପୋଈ ଶାଗ): prepared from basella leaves and tender stems.
    • Bāramāsi/Sajanā sāga (ବାରମାସି/ ସଜନା ଶାଗ): prepared from leaves of the drumstick tree. Cooked with lentils or alone with fried onions.
    • Sunusuniā sāga (ସୁନୁସୁନିଆ ଶାଗ) Marsilea polycarpa leaves.
    • Pitāgama sāga (ପିତାଗମା ଶାଗ)
    • Pidanga sāga (ପିଡଙ୍ଗ ଶାଗ)
    • Kakhāru sāga (କଖାରୁ ଶାଗ): Prepared from leaves of the pumpkin plant.
    • Madarangā sāga (ମଦରଙ୍ଗା ଶାଗ): prepared from leaves of Alternanthera sessilis.
    • Sorisa sāga (ଶୋରିସ ଶାଗ) : Mustard greens
    • Methi sāga (ମେଥୀ ଶାଗ): prepared from methi or Fenugreek leaves and besara (mustard paste) cooked with vegetable.[4]
    • Matara sāga (ମଟର ଶାଗ): The inner coating of peas is removed and then chopped to make the saga.
    • Bahal sāg
    • Kular sāg
    • Bhader sāg
    • Jhirel dal sāg


In Bengali cuisine, sāg is one of the most important vegetables. It is popular all over the state. Most of the Bengalis use at least one sāg everyday during lunch. They eat sāg fried or little gravy (jhol) with rice. A list of the plants that are used as sāg is as below.


  • Saag paneer or palak paneer is a dish that contains paneer cheese and mustard leaves.
  • Saag gosht is a version of the dish prepared with gosht (meat), often lamb. This version of the dish is more common in Pakistan since meat is a salient part of the country's cuisine. The meat is usually cooked in a tandoor before being marinated in the other ingredients.
  • Aloo Saag, Aalu Saag is cooked (either boiled or fried) aloo (potatoes) in a curry made with reduced mustard leaves. It is usually made with mustard leaves in Punjab, although spinach is more common in the rest of the world as it is a cheaper more convenient substitute. Saag aloo is commonly served hot, usually with naan, chapati, and makki di roti, and topped with ghee (clarified butter).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Saag (Indian spiced spinach)". 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012. Saag makes a tasty and nourishing meal when paired with chapati or naan.
  2. ^ "served with makki ki roti". Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  3. ^ "Menu" (PDF). September 2014.
  4. ^ Lokesh Dash. "Recipes Methi Saga Recipes". Archived from the original on 2012-09-15.
  5. ^