Jaime Sin

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His Eminence
Jaime Sin
DD PLH OS OL
Cardinal Archbishop of Manila
Cardinal Jaime Sin in 1988.jpg
Province Manila
See Manila
Installed 19 March 1974
Term ended 15 September 2003
Predecessor Rufino Jiao Santos
Successor Gaudencio Rosales
Other posts Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria ai Monti
Orders
Ordination 3 April 1954
by Antonio Frondosa
Consecration 18 March 1967
by Antonio Frondosa
Created Cardinal 24 May 1976
by Pope Paul VI
Rank Cardinal-Priest
Personal details
Birth name Jaime Lachica Sin
Born (1928-08-31)31 August 1928
New Washington, Aklan, Philippines
Died 21 June 2005(2005-06-21) (aged 76)
San Juan, Metro Manila, Philippines
Buried Crypt at the Manila Cathedral
Nationality Filipino
Denomination Roman Catholic
Parents Juan Sin (father)
Máxima Lachica (mother)
Previous post Archbishop of Jaro and Titular Bishop of Massa Lubrense (1972–1974)
Auxiliary Bishop of Jaro and Titular Bishop of Obba (1967–1972)
Alma mater St. Vincent Ferrer Seminary
Motto SERVIAM
Signature {{{signature_alt}}}
Coat of arms {{{coat_of_arms_alt}}}
Styles of
Jaime Sin
Coat of arms of Jaime Lachica Sin.svg
Reference style His Eminence
Spoken style Your Eminence
Informal style Cardinal
See Manila

Jaime Lachica Sin DD, PLH, OS, OL (Chinese: 辛海梅; 辛海棉 Xīn Hǎiméi; Xīn Hǎimián; 31 August 1928 – 21 June 2005) was the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila and de facto Primate of the Philippines. Of Chinese Filipino descent, Sin was known for his instrumental role in the People Power Revolution, which toppled the regime of Ferdinand Marcos and installed Corazon Aquino as President of the Philippines. He was again considered a charismatic leader of the Filipino people in the 2001 EDSA Revolution that replaced Joseph Estrada with Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo as President. He died at the age of 76, due to renal complications resulting from diabetes.

Legacy[edit]

Sin was the third native Filipino Archbishop of Manila, following centuries of Spanish, American and Irish episcopacy. He led the Archdiocese of Manila as its archbishop and was created a cardinal by Pope Paul VI. As Archbishop of Manila, he was widely considered to be the Primate of the Philippines, though no formal dignity has ever been attached to the archdiocese. He retired as the Archbishop of Manila on 15 September 2003, having reached the age of retirement for bishops under canon law, and was succeeded by Gaudencio Rosales.

His title and surname as Cardinal Sin (another term for a deadly sin) were a point of humour in the Philippines and for Philippine Catholics. Examples included "The greatest sin of all: Cardinal Sin", and even his own pun of "Welcome to the house of Sin" that he used to greet guests at Villa San Miguel, the Archbishop's official residence in Mandaluyong.

Priesthood and episcopacy[edit]

Sin was born in New Washington, Aklan, Philippines to Juan Sin (of Chinese ancestry) and Aklanon Máxima Lachica. He was the seventh of sixteen children. He eventually left his childhood home and his family to study in St. Vincent Ferrer Seminary, and was ordained a priest of the Archdiocese of Jaro on 3 April 1954. He was the first rector of St. Pius X Seminary in Lawaan Hills, Roxas City, Capiz, serving from 1957 to 1967. On 29 February 1960, he was named Domestic Prelate (present-day, honorary prelate with the title of Monsignor. He was appointed auxiliary bishop of Jaro on 10 February 1967, and was ordained as bishop of the titular see of Obba on 18 March of that year. On 15 March 1972, Sin was appointed Coadjutor Archbishop of Jaro, taking on administrative roles in the archdiocese, while holding the titular see of Massa Lubrense. On 8 October 1972, Sin was appointed Archbishop of Jaro, taking full supervision of the archdiocese.

Sin's service as Archbishop of Jaro ended with his appointment on 21 January 1974 to the larger archdiocese seated in the nation's capital of Manila. Sin was officially installed as Archbishop of Manila at the Manila Cathedral on 19 March 1974. On 24 May 1976, Pope Paul VI made him a member of the College of Cardinals, creating him Cardinal Priest of the titular church of Santa Maria ai Monti. He participated as a cardinal-elector in both the August and October papal conclaves which elected Popes John Paul I and John Paul II respectively. He remained the youngest member of the College until 1983.

People Power movement[edit]

Events in the Philippines under President Ferdinand Marcos forced Sin, the spiritual leader of all Filipino Catholics, to become involved in the politics of the region. He became witness to corruption, fraud and even murder at the hands of the regime — events that pushed Filipinos to the brink of civil unrest and even war. Sin appealed to Filipinos of all religions to follow the teachings of Jesus in the Gospels and use peaceful means to change the political situation in the Philippines.

In February 1986 president Marcos ordered his generals to deploy against the marchers. However, at a key moment, Sin called on his flock to surround the police and military headquarters in Manila. More than 1 million people took to the streets praying the rosary and singing hymns in an outpouring that shielded anti-government rebels from attack. Some soldiers decided to join the marchers.

In what later became known as the People Power Revolution, Marcos, his family, and close advisors were forced to flee the Philippines and took up residence in Honolulu, Hawaii upon the invitation of President of the United States Ronald Reagan. Cardinal Sin, along with presidents Corazon Aquino and Fidel Ramos, became known to Filipinos as the architects of the People Power Movement.

Sin decided to intervene again, in 2001, to become the spiritual leader of another People Power Movement. Some Filipinos alleged that president Joseph Estrada was guilty of widespread corruption and graft because of the controversial "second envelope". Poor people marching in the streets, with the support of Sin, the elite and military generals, succeeded in toppling Estrada from power and elevating Gloria Macapagal Arroyo as acting president in what was perceived by the international community as a triumphant democracy. The "second envelope" was opened after the coup and turned out to be Estrada's bank account.

Two and a half years after Sin's death, it was reported that at the height of EDSA II, Sin received a directive from the Vatican ordering him and the Philippine clergy to adopt a non-partisan stance towards the political crisis.[1] Sin, who by then had committed support for the EDSA II revolt, was said to have threatened to resign as archbishop if compelled to withdraw his support.[1] The standoff was reportedly resolved with the mediation of the then Supreme Court Associate Justice Artemio Panganiban (later, Chief Justice of the Philippines), a member of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, a department of the Roman Curia.[1] As a result, the Vatican did not insist upon its earlier demand. The reports were attributed to persons reputed to have first-hand knowledge of the events,[1] but there has been no official confirmation of them from the Vatican or from the Archdiocese of Manila.

HIV and AIDS views[edit]

The Philippines is a heavily Catholic country and its views have historically been linked with Catholic teaching. Condom usage has historically been a controversial topic.[2] Sin was the Manila archbishop at the time of the Philippine government's 1996 first implementation of a program involving the distribution of condoms to prevent the spread of HIV within the country and he called the program "intrinsically evil."[3] Church leaders in his area protested against both the government and the HIV prevention program by publicly burning boxes of condoms.[3]

Sin denounced the secretary of the Department of Health, Juan Flavier, as an "agent of Satan" for his condom promotion program.[4]

Retirement and death[edit]

Intramuros monument


He retired as the Archbishop of Manila on 15 September 2003 and was succeeded by Gaudencio Borbon Rosales. He was too ill to travel to the 2005 conclave that elected Pope Benedict XVI. Afflicted for years with a kidney ailment brought on by diabetes, he was taken on 19 June 2005 to the Cardinal Rufino Santos Medical Center in San Juan, Metro Manila because of a slight but lingering fever. He died of renal failure on 21 June 2005 at the age of 76. The Philippine government accorded him the honor of a state funeral and a period of national mourning through Presidential Proclamation No. 863, s. 2005 signed by president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. He is buried in the crypt of the Manila Cathedral along with his three immediate predecessors. Thousands of Filipinos attended his funeral.[5]

List of auxiliary bishops[edit]

Below are the names of bishops who assisted Sin during his tenure as Archbishop of Manila:

  • Most Rev. Hernando Antiporda (1974–1975) (murdered in Quiapo Church)
  • Most Rev. Teodoro Bacani (1984–2002)
  • Most Rev. Teodoro Buhain (1983–2003)
  • Most Rev. Nestor Cariño (2001–2003)
  • Most Rev. Artemio Casas (1974–1975)
  • Most Rev. Oscar V. Cruz (1976–1978)
  • Most Rev. Protacio Gungon (1977–1983)
  • Most Rev. Leoncio Lat (1986–2002)
  • Most Rev. Leonardo Legaspi, OP (1977–1983)
  • Most Rev. Bienvenido López (1974–1995)
  • Most Rev. Ramón C. Arguelles (1993–1995) (current Archbishop of Lipa)
  • Most Rev. Jesse Mercado (1997–2002) (current Bishop of Parañaque)
  • Most Rev. Amado Paulino (1974–1985)
  • Most Rev. Gabriel V. Reyes (1981–1992)
  • Most Rev. Gaudencio Borbón Rosales (1974–1982) (later Archbishop of Manila, 2003 - 2011)
  • Most Rev. Rolando Tría-Tirona, OCD (1994–1996) (current Archbishop of Nueva Caceres)
  • Most Rev. Juan Velasco, OP
  • Most Rev. Socrates B. Villegas (2001–2003 as auxiliary bishop; named Vicar-General in 1993; current Archbishop of Lingayen-Dagupan)
  • Most Rev. Crisostomo Yalung (1994–2001)

List of Vicars-General[edit]

Aside from auxiliary bishops, the following are priests who served as Vicar-General during Sin's term

  • Rev. Msgr. Jose Abriol, PA (1974–2003)
  • Rev. Msgr. Benjamin Mariño, PA
  • Rev. Msgr. Benedicto Aquino, PC
  • Rev. Msgr. Josefino Ramirez, HP (1985–2003)

Honours and awards[edit]

Sin was decorated three times by the Philippine government. The first time was by president Corazon C. Aquino, who conferred him with the Philippine Legion of Honor, rank of Chief Commander; the second, by president Joseph Estrada, who conferred on him the Order of Sikatuna, rank of Rajah; the final time was shortly after his retirement, when President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo conferred on him the Order of Lakandula, rank of Bayani (Grand Cross).

Sin also received 26 honorary doctorates in various fields from higher education institutions in the Philippines and abroad (mostly from notable universities in the United States of America), among which are the Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas in Manila, Yale University, Georgetown University, and Boston College.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Labog-Javellana, Juliet (21 January 2008). "Sin opposed Vatican order, pushed Edsa II". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2008-01-21. 
  2. ^ Engel, Jonathan (2006). The epidemic : a global history of AIDS. New York: Smithsonian Books/Collins. p. 262. ISBN 978-0-06-114488-2. 
  3. ^ a b Shenon, Philip (21 January 1996). "DEADLY TURNING POINT: A special report.;AIDS Epidemic, Late to Arrive, Now Explodes in Populous Asia – Page 7 – New York Times". The New York Times (New York City: NYTC). ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2 November 2011. 
  4. ^ McIntosh, Alistair (4 January 1995). "Philippines: Manila Health Minister an Unlikely Agent of Satan". Reuters NewMedia. Retrieved 2 November 2011. 
  5. ^ http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/new.php?n=4245
  6. ^ http://www.cbcponline.net/bishops/cardinals/sin.html

External links[edit]

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Paul Aijirô Yamaguchi
Titular Bishop of Massa Lubrense
10 February 1967 - 8 October 1972
Succeeded by
Robert Fealey Morneau
Preceded by
Julio Rosales
CBCP President
1976 - 1981
Succeeded by
Antonio Lloren Mabutas
Preceded by
Jose Maria Cuenco
Archbishop of Jaro
8 Oct 1972 - 21 Jan 1974
Succeeded by
Artemio Casas
Preceded by
Rufino Santos
Archbishop of Manila
1974–2003
Succeeded by
Gaudencio Rosales
Preceded by
Rufino Santos
Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria ai Monti
24 May 1976–21 June 2005
Succeeded by
Jorge Urosa