|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Legal status||Controlled (S8) (AU) Schedule I (US)|
|Excretion||Bile and Urine|
| (what is this?)
Phenoperidine was discovered by Janssen Pharmaceutica 1960. Marketed as its hydrochloride as Operidine or Lealgin, is an opioid used as a general anesthetic. It is a derivative of isonipecotic acid, like pethidine, and is metabolized in part to norpethidine. It is 20-200 times as potent as pethidine as an analgesic. The greatly increased potency essentially eliminates the toxic effects of norpethidine accumulation which are seen when pethidine is administered in high doses or for long periods of time.
In humans 1 milligram is equipotent with 10 mg morphine. It has less effect on the circulatory system and is less hypnotic than morphine, but it has about the same emetic effect. The nausea can be prevented by giving droperidol or haloperidol. After an intravenous dose the analgesia sets in after 3–5 minutes.
Phenoperidine shares structural similarities with both pethidine and haloperidol (and related butyrophenone antipsychotics, e.g. droperidol). While not commonly used today in clinical practice, it is of historical interest as a precursor in the development of some of the most widely used neuroleptic drugs on the market today.
- Kintz, P.; Godelar, B.; Mangin, P.; Lugnier, A.; Chaumont, A. (1989). "Simultaneous Determination of Pethidine (Meperidine), Phenoperidine, and Norpethidine (Normeperidine), their Common Metabolite, by Gas Chromatography with Selective Nitrogen Detection". Forensic Science International 43 (3): 267–273. doi:10.1016/0379-0738(89)90154-0. PMID 2613140.
- Claris, O.; Bertrix, L. (1988). "Phenoperidine: Pharmacology and Use in Pediatric Resuscitation". Pédiatrie (in French) 43 (6): 509–513. PMID 3186421.
- "Antipsychotics - Reference pathway". Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Kanehisa Laboratories, Kyoto University, University of Tokyo. Retrieved 2007-01-16.
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