Help:IPA for Catalan

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Catalan language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-ca}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation#Entering IPA characters.

Key for Standard Catalan and Valencian[edit]

There are two major standards, one of Catalan (C)—based in Central Catalonia, encompassing most Eastern Catalan features—and one of Valencian (V)—based in Southern Valencia, encompassing most Western Catalan features. Neither variant is preferred over the other in Wikipedia articles except in cases where a local pronunciation is clearly more relevant (such as a place in Catalonia or a Valencian artist).

See Catalan phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Standard Catalan and Valencian, and Catalan orthography for the correspondence between spelling and pronunciation.

IPA Consonants
Valencian Community
Examples English approximation
b b bell, àmbit, capgròs [1] best
v vell, watts [1][2] best (C), vest (V)
β avanç, selva [3] a vest
b abans, arbre [3] a vest (C), the best (V)
d drac, indret, ritme [1] door
ð cada, lladre [3] other
f força, bafs, salv face
ɡ guant, angle, guiar, ècdisi [1] get
ɣ aigües, agrat, lloguer [3] somewhat like away
k cors, quan, qui, llarg, Folch, kiwi scan
l laca, tela, cel·la,[4] val [5] US look – dark l
ʎ llacs, cella,[4] vall, Elx [5] billion
m meu, em, canvi [5] mode
n neu, on, dansa [5] need
ɲ nyeu, any, penges [5] onion
ŋ sang, tinc, cigne [5] ring
p por, dubte span
r ruc, mirra, honra [6] Scots aretrilled r
ɾ truc, mira, hora, per [6] US ladder
s set, rossa, està, ascens, cel, feliç sack
ts potser, tots, fluids, hertz cats
ʃ ʃ Xixona, guix, ells [7] fish
jʃ caixa, peix fish (C), geisha (V)
xec, clenxa, Barx fish (C), cheap (V)
txec, empatx, raig, mig [7] cheap
t terra, fred stand
v hafni, bafs d'aigua [1] of
z z zel, onze, rosa, esma, feliçment [1] zebra
dz utilitza pads (C), zebra (V)
dz tretze, tots alhora [1] pads
ʒ ʒ guix blau [1][7] rouge
jʒ caixmir, peix de roca [1][7] rouge (C), beige (V)
j jo, ja [1][7] rouge (C), young (V)
joc, aljub, gespa, sorgir [7] rouge (C), jeep (V)
mitjà, viatge, adjunt, migdia [1][7] jeep
IPA Marginal consonants
θ theta thing
h ehem [8] ham
x Bach, kharja, Jaén loch
IPA Stressed vowels[9]
Valencian Community
Examples English approximation
a sac, ànecs bra
ɛ ɛ set, pèls, essències let
e sec, cafè / café, què let (C), they (V)
e séc, anells they
i sic, ties, país, raïm ski
ɔ soc, mòlt, això US fort / UK hot
o sóc, molt US crow
u suc, dues, ús, reüll rule
IPA Unstressed vowels
Valencian Community
Examples English approximation
ə a dona, amb, entens alpha (C), grandma (V)
e dones, ens, que alpha (C), survey (V)
i naixement alpha (C), kiwi (V)
i fillet, llavis, hi posa, aïllar kiwi
u o oratge, baixos, posar-ho igloo (C), US pillow (V)
u fullet, ritu, cobert, ho posa igloo
IPA Marginal reduced vowels
a ad hoc, allegro grandma
e ídem, àlien, oceans survey
o ego, mourà, caos US pillow
IPA Semivowels[10]
Valencian Community
Examples English approximation
j iogurt, llei, hi ha, posa-hi, York young / joy
w quatre, Güell, lleu, posa-ho, web quick / grow
IPA Suprasegmentals
Valencian Community
Examples Explanation
ˈ dac [ˈdiðək] (C) / [ˈdiðak] (V) primary stress
ˌ Bellpuig [ˌbɛʎˈputʃ] (C / V) secondary stress
. Maria [məˈɾi.ə] (C) / [maˈɾi.a] (V) syllable break
ː Imma [ˈimːə] (C) / [ˈimːa] (V) gemination
IPA Other representations
( ) Corts [ˈkɔɾ(t)s] (C / V) optional sound


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Obstruents assimilate to the place of articulation of the following consonant. In syllables produced in utterance-final position (i.e. the coda), voiced obstruents become devoiced.
  2. ^ While betacism (that is, the merging of /b/ and /v/ into one phoneme) is common in most speakers of in Catalan and Valencia, several dialects still contrast the two sounds (represented as b and v respectively in Catalan orthography). The contrast is also maintained in Standard Valencian and among cultivated Catalan speakers.
  3. ^ a b c d Voiced stops /b, d, ɡ/ become lenited [β, ð, ɣ] (that is, fricatives or approximants of the same place of articulation) when in the syllable onset and after a continuant. Otherwise they are pronounced as voiced or devoiced stops, similar to English b, d, g and p, t, k. Exceptions include /d/ after a lateral consonant, and /b/ after /f/. In traditional non-betacist dialects, /b/ fails to lenite.
  4. ^ a b Catalan orthography distinguishes between ll (representing /ʎ/) and l·l (representing a geminated /lː/). In regular speech gemination of l·l is ignored altogether. Some dialects as well as young speakers can merge /ʎ/ with the glide [j] in a process similar to Spanish yeísmo.
  5. ^ a b c d e f /n/ and /l/ assimilate the place of articulation of a following consonant.
  6. ^ a b The rhotic consonants r /ɾ/ and rr /r/ only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as r with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and in compounds; and [ɾ] after hard plosives, the soft spirants [β, ð, ɣ], and /f/. Syllable-final /ɾ/ varies according to dialect, emphasis, morpheme and the following sound. In all Catalan dialects, except most of Valencian, /ɾ/ is lost in coda position in suffixes of nouns and adjectives denoting the masculine singular and in the infinitive suffixes of verbs, except when the following morpheme begins with a vowel (although this may vary).
  7. ^ a b c d e f g While /ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ/ are often described simply as "postalveolar" by many sources, phonetic work done by Daniel Recasens shows the postalveolar sibilants to be alveolo-palatal ([ɕ], [ʑ], [] and [], respectively). Nevertheless, since ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ are overwhelmingly used in the linguistic literature on Catalan and Valencian, those characters are also used on Wikipedia.
  8. ^ Other than in loanwords and interjections, the letter h is always silent.
  9. ^ All Catalan dialects contrast seven stressed vowels /a, ɛ, e, i, ɔ, o, u/ (except for Balearic dialects that contrast eight stressed vowels—i.e. /a, ɛ, e, i, ɔ, o, u/, plus /ə/). In unstressed position, the seven-way vowel contrast is reduced in all dialects.
    • Eastern Catalan (Alguerese, Balearic, Central and Northern): /e/, /ɛ/, and /a/ reduce to [ə] (though in Alguerese /e/, /ɛ/, and /a/ merge to [a]) while /o/ and /ɔ/ reduce to [u] (however, in most of Majorcan /ɔ/ and /o/ merge to [o]).
    • Western Catalan (North-Western, Tortosan and Valencian): /ɛ/ reduces to [e] and /ɔ/ reduces to [o]. Exceptionally there are some cases where unstressed e and o may reduce to [a] and [u] respectively.
  10. ^ The semivowels [j] and [w] can be combined with most vowels to form diphthongs and triphthongs.



  • Burguet Ardiaca, Francesc (1980). Introducció a la fonologia, fonètica i ortografia del català (in Catalan). Mataró (Barcelona): Robrenyo. ISBN 84-7466-025-4. 
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992). "Catalan". Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1-2): 53–56. 
  • Recasens i Vives, Daniel (1991). Fonètica descriptiva del català : assaig de caracterització de la pronúncia del vocalisme i consonantisme del català al segle XX (in Catalan). Institut d'Estudis Catalans. ISBN 8472831728. 
  • Romeu i Juvé, Xavier (1983). Manual de fonologia catalana (in Catalan). Barcelona: Barcanova. ISBN 847533119X. 
  • Veny, Joan (1978). Els Parlars (in Catalan). Barcelona: Dopesa. ISBN 8472353885. 
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005). The Phonology Of Catalan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199258147.