Užice

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Uzice)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Užice
Град Ужице
City
City of Užice
Photo-collage of Užice Panorama of the river Đetinje =Church of St. George from 1880. =Remains of the old Roman fortress Kapedunum near Uzice. =Hydroelectric power plant on the river Đetinje. The first in Europe, built in 1890. =Jokanovic house in the center of Uzice, former Turkish han. =Monument to the fallen Partisan fighters from 1941 on the Kadinjača hill, 14 km from Uzice. =The old church of St. Peter in the village of Rakijski pijac in Uzice.
Photo-collage of Užice
                          Panorama of the river Đetinje
                         =Church of St. George from 1880.
                         =Remains of the old Roman fortress Kapedunum near Uzice.
                         =Hydroelectric power plant on the river Đetinje. The first in Europe, built in 1890.
                         =Jokanovic house in the center of Uzice, former Turkish han.
                         =Monument to the fallen Partisan fighters from 1941 on the Kadinjača hill, 14 km from Uzice.
=The old church of St. Peter in the village of Rakijski pijac in Uzice.
Coat of arms of Užice
Coat of arms
Location of the city of Užice within Serbia
Location of the city of Užice within Serbia
Coordinates: 43°51′N 19°51′E / 43.850°N 19.850°E / 43.850; 19.850Coordinates: 43°51′N 19°51′E / 43.850°N 19.850°E / 43.850; 19.850
Country Serbia
RegionŠumadija and Western Serbia
DistrictZlatibor
Municipalities2
Settlements38
Government
 • MayorTihomir Petković (SNS)
Area[1]
 • Urban41.10 km2 (15.87 sq mi)
 • Administrative667.00 km2 (257.53 sq mi)
Elevation411 m (1,348 ft)
Population (2011 census)[2]
 • Rank20th in Serbia
 • Urban59,747
 • Urban density1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)
 • Administrative82,060
 • Administrative density120/km2 (320/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code31000
Area code+381(0)31
ISO 3166 codeSRB
Car platesUE
Websitewww.graduzice.org

Užice (Serbian Cyrillic: Ужице, pronounced [ûʒit͡se] (About this sound listen)) is a city and the administrative center of the Zlatibor District in western Serbia. It is located on the banks of the river Đetinja. The administrative area has a total population of 82,060, while the urban area has a population of 59,747 (2011 census).[2]

Geography[edit]

Mountain Zlatibor

Užice lies at 411 metres (1,348 feet) above sea level, on both sides of the river Đetinja. The city is completely surrounded by the Dinaric Alps, which are interconnected. 25 kilometres (16 miles) south of the city is Zlatibor mountain, which has a 120-year tradition of tourism.

West of the city are Tara mountains and Zvijezda, which include The National Park with an area of 220 square kilometres (85 square miles) of unspoiled nature.

The Belgrade-Bar railway passes through Užice and connects it with both the northern parts of the country and the Montenegrin coast. Užice has a fairly developed transportation infrastructure, connected with the surrounding areas by state roads of the first order.

Climate[edit]

Užice has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb), that's very close to an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb) .

Climate data for Užice
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
6.3
(43.3)
11.6
(52.9)
15.3
(59.5)
20.1
(68.2)
23.6
(74.5)
25.8
(78.4)
26.1
(79)
22.6
(72.7)
17.2
(63)
9.6
(49.3)
5.0
(41)
15.5
(60)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.3
(31.5)
2.2
(36)
6.5
(43.7)
10.0
(50)
14.6
(58.3)
18.1
(64.6)
19.9
(67.8)
19.9
(67.8)
16.6
(61.9)
11.8
(53.2)
5.7
(42.3)
1.7
(35.1)
10.6
(51)
Average low °C (°F) −3.9
(25)
−1.8
(28.8)
1.4
(34.5)
4.7
(40.5)
9.2
(48.6)
12.6
(54.7)
14.1
(57.4)
13.8
(56.8)
10.6
(51.1)
6.5
(43.7)
1.8
(35.2)
−1.6
(29.1)
5.6
(42.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 66
(2.6)
61
(2.4)
60
(2.36)
72
(2.83)
92
(3.62)
91
(3.58)
80
(3.15)
66
(2.6)
71
(2.8)
72
(2.83)
85
(3.35)
80
(3.15)
896
(35.27)
Source: Climate-Data.org [3]

History[edit]

Ancient era[edit]

The region surrounding Užice was settled by Illyrians, specifically the Parthini and Autariatae tribes. Their tombs are found throughout the region. In the 3rd century BC, Scordisci were formed here after the Gallic invasion of the Balkans. The region was conquered by the Roman Empire in 168 BC, being organized into the Illyricum province in 32–27 BC, and after 10 AD, the province of Dalmatia. The town municipium Capedunum existed here during Roman times; its name indicates a Celtic origin (dun, fortress),[4] similar to Singidunum, the founding of Belgrade.

Middle Ages[edit]

Slavs have been recorded in the region since the 520s, when tribes pillaged the Eastern Roman Empire; during Justinian I's rule (527–565), up to 100,000 Slavs raided Thessalonica. The region (Drina župania) was part of the Vlastimirović dynasty when they established the Serbian Principality, the first Serb state. Across the Drina, the army of Časlav fought the invading Magyars in ca 950–960. The region was annexed by the Byzantine Empire after 969, becoming part of the katepanate of Ras, then the Theme of Sirmium.

Stari Grad (Old town),
Castle fort built in the 1300s by Serbian nobleman Nikola Altomanović

The region may have been returned to Serbian hands in the 1040s, during the revolt against the Byzantines led by Stefan Vojislav, progenitor of the Vojislavljević dynasty. In 1083, Vukan and Marko were appointed vassal princes in Rascia. In 1091, Vukan became independent, while Duklja (up until this, the most powerful Serbian principality) slowly crumbled, eventually coming under the rule of Rascia.

The Serbian Grand Principality stayed in the hands of the Vukanović dynasty until another line of the same dynasty was set to rule by Manuel I Komnenos (r. 1143–1180). Zavida, thought to be a brother of Uroš II and Desa, fled after trying to acquire an appanage or the throne itself. Zavida's four sons divided the rule, each holding česti (parts): Stracimir ruled West Morava (including Užice), Miroslav ruled Zahumlje and Travunia, and Stefan Nemanja was given Toplica, Ibar, Rasina and Reke.[5] Stefan Nemanja eventually wrestled the rule[clarification needed] when defeating Tihomir in 1171, Stracimir continued ruling in Nemanja's name. The Nemanjić dynasty is named after Nemanja, who began the prospering of Serbia in the Middle Ages.

When King Dragutin abdicated in favor of his brother Milutin, he retained control of Užice region and was given the Mačva region by the Hungarian king, of which he formed the Kingdom of Srem. After King Dragutin died, his lands were annexed to Serbia. The old Fortress on the hill was founded in the mid 14th century. After the death of Emperor Dušan the Mighty, in the period known as the "fall of the Serbian Empire", Užice came under the control of Vojislav Vojinović, a nobleman in the service of Emperor Uroš the Weak. When Vojislav died, his nephew Nikola Altomanović controlled the region. When Uroš died childless, the former Imperial provincial lords begin fighting each other. Serbian Autokrator Lazar Hrebeljanović and Tvrtko I of Bosnia defeated Nikola Altomanović, and divided his lands between themselves. Nikola was blinded in the fortress on the orders of Stefan Musić. Užice came under the control of Lazar, then the Serbian Despotate under his son Stefan Lazarević.

Ottoman period[edit]

Užice fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1463, and was part of the Sanjak of Smederevo until 1807, when it was liberated by the Serbian revolutionaries, during the First Serbian Uprising.

Modern Serbia[edit]

Užice in the 1890s.

Užice was the first town in Serbia with a hydroelectric power plant producing alternating current. It was built on the Đetinja river in 1900.

World War II[edit]

Monument to fallen Partisans, Kadinjača.

In 1941, Užice was liberated by the Partizans, who chose it as the capital of the Republic of Užice. This republic was a short-lived military mini-state that existed in the autumn of 1941 in the western part of Nazi-occupied Serbia.

The Republic of Užice comprised almost the whole of western Serbia, with a population of more than 300,000 people. It was located between the Skrapež river in the north, the river Drina in the west, the river Zapadna Morava in the east, and the Uvac river in the south.

In November 1941, the German army re-occupied this territory, while the majority of Partisan forces escaped to Bosnia, Sandžak and Montenegro.

Yugoslav era[edit]

The train station in the 1970s

Within the former Yugoslavia (established after the Second World War), Užice was renamed "Titovo Užice" (Титово Ужице). From 1992, following the collapse of the pro-communist administration, "Titovo" (meaning Tito's) was removed, leaving the original city name Užice. It was one of eight towns renamed Tito's town in Yugoslavia. Due to being "Titove" and central-planning communist system, Užice received significant amounts of investment in infrastructure and local factories, which made the city one of the most highly developed for its size in former Yugoslavia. Following the break-up of the region, all the towns dropped the "Titove" title.

1990s[edit]

During the 1990s Užice's economy shrank rapidly due to war and instability in the region.

In 1999 the city was bombed multiple times during the Operation Allied Force. The largest scale bombing occurred on May 6, 1999 when NATO forces bombed many roads and highways, the airport, civilian buildings and government buildings.[6] After this, thousands of people turned out at the city's main square to protest the bombings and destruction of the city and killings of civilians.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
194845,667—    
195350,775+2.14%
196157,062+1.47%
197167,555+1.70%
198177,049+1.32%
199182,723+0.71%
200283,022+0.03%
201178,040−0.69%
Source: [7]

According to the 2011 census results, Užice has a total population of 78,040 inhabitants.

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic composition of the city:[8]

Ethnic group Population
Serbs 76,089
Montenegrins 144
Yugoslavs 80
Romani 70
Croats 69
Others 1,588
Total 78,040

Settlements[edit]

City municipalities

The City of Užice consists of two city municipalities: Užice and Sevojno. In 2013, the city municipality of Sevojno, located 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) east of Užice, was established.[9] As of 2011, it has 7,101 inhabitants of 78,040 which live in the City of Užice.

Settlements

List of the settlements in the City of Užice (population per 2011 census given in brackets):[2]

Economy[edit]

Užice has historically been a relatively well developed city. In 1981 Užice's GDP per capita was 157% of the SFR Yugoslavia average.[10] In 1990, Užice had 17,000 industry workers and in 2018 that number fell to 5,000.[11] Among large companies that didn't survive 1990-s sanctions and complete change of business environment following the breakup of Yugoslavia and further economy transition are: textile manufacturers "Froteks" and "Desa Petronijević", market chain "Gradina", printing company "Dimitrije Tucović", transport company "Raketa", and other manufacturing companies like "Fasau", "Kotroman" and "Tvrdi metal".[11]

Today, the city has a developed textile, leather, machine and metal industry. Most companies have factories on the outskirts of the city due to good communication connections, notably the close proximity of the main highway, railroad and airport. Ponikve Airport is currently under reconstruction, and as a result cargo airlines will mostly use it for transporting goods. The airport management confirmed interest in low cost, scheduled and chartered airlines.

As of 2018, the largest companies operating in the city of Užice are Prvi Partizan (ammunition), Impol Seval Sevojno (aluminum mill), Valjaonica bakra Sevojno (copper mill), MPP Jedinstvo Sevojno (construction) and Putevi Užice (construction).

The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2016):[12]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 121
Mining 24
Processing industry 6,671
Distribution of power, gas and water 396
Distribution of water and water waste management 550
Construction 2,007
Wholesale and retail, repair 2,987
Traffic, storage and communication 1,326
Hotels and restaurants 688
Media and telecommunications 318
Finance and insurance 487
Property stock and charter 19
Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities 602
Administrative and other services 404
Administration and social assurance 1,580
Education 1,358
Healthcare and social work 2,347
Art, leisure and recreation 431
Other services 418
Total 22,736

Society and culture[edit]

The library and theater are in the main square in the city center. Also located in the area are newspaper agencies, radio and television stations and publishing companies. The city gallery is in the lowlands of Pašinovac, the oldest area of the city. The national museum displays cultural and historical treasures of the city, and with its exhibitions, shows the centuries of rich Užice history. It is located on the Eastern side of the main city street.

The Gymnasium of Užice is one of the oldest high school institutions in Serbia. Beside the gymnasium, there are also several other primary and secondary schools and faculties located in Užice.

Milutin Uskoković, writer from Užice, was described as the author of the first modern novel in Serbia.

The locals, Užičans (Serbian: Ужичани, Užičani), have their own traditional costume, and folk music; the sound of which is transitional between the music of Šumadija (central Serbia) and Bosnia and Herzegovina. They speak a Neo-Štokavian Užican dialect, originally with Ijekavian pronunciation.

Architecture[edit]

Some distinctive buildings in Užice are:

Media[edit]

Užice is turning into the regional media center of western Serbia.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns / sister cities[edit]

Užice is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

Politicians
Sportspeople
Others

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  2. ^ a b c "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. p. 178. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved 2014-06-27.
  3. ^ "Climate: Užice, Serbia". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
  4. ^ p. 340
  5. ^ p. 31
  6. ^ Warfacts.org.yu (1999). "(NATO Aggression) Civilian Infrastructure: Uzice". Archived from the original on 2007-12-04. Retrieved 2007-05-14.
  7. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  8. ^ "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  9. ^ "ОДЛУКА О ИЗМЕНАМА И ДОПУНАМА СТАТУТА ГРАДА УЖИЦА" (PDF). graduzice.org (in Serbian). Службени лист града Ужица. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  10. ^ Radovinović, Radovan; Bertić, Ivan, eds. (1984). Atlas svijeta: Novi pogled na Zemlju (in Croatian) (3rd ed.). Zagreb: Sveučilišna naklada Liber.
  11. ^ a b Janković, Nikola (17 June 2018). "Svetlo valjaonice u sumraku tranzicije". novosti.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  12. ^ "ОПШТИНЕ И РЕГИОНИ У РЕПУБЛИЦИ СРБИЈИ, 2017" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 18 February 2018.

External links[edit]