Ivanjica

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For the racehorse, see Ivanjica (horse).
Ivanjica
Ивањица
Town and municipality
Поглед на Ивањицу.jpg
Le centre ville d'Ivanjica.jpg Kameni most - panoramio.jpg
Clockwise, from top: Town panorama, 19th century "Stone Bridge", town center promenade
Official seal of Ivanjica
Seal
Etymology: Salix caprea (sr. Vrba iva)
Location of the municipality of Ivanjica within Serbia
Location of the municipality of Ivanjica within Serbia
Coordinates: 43°34′52″N 20°13′47″E / 43.58111°N 20.22972°E / 43.58111; 20.22972Coordinates: 43°34′52″N 20°13′47″E / 43.58111°N 20.22972°E / 43.58111; 20.22972
Country  Serbia
Region Šumadija and Western Serbia
District Moravica
Settlements 49
Founded 1833
Town status 16 June 1866 (1866-06-16)
Founded by Mihailo Obrenović
Government
 • Mayor Zoran Lazović (SNS)
Area
Area rank 8th
 • Town 3.88 km2 (1.50 sq mi)
 • Municipality 1,090 km2 (420 sq mi)
Elevation 468 m (1,535 ft)
Highest elevation
(Jankov Kamen peak)
1,833 m (6,014 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Rank 50th
 • Town 11,715
 • Town density 3,000/km2 (7,800/sq mi)
 • Municipality 31,963
 • Municipality density 29/km2 (76/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Ivanjičani
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 32250
32251
32252
32253
32254
32255
32256
32258
32259
Area code(s) +381(0)32
ISO 3166 code SRB
Vehicle registration IC
Website www.ivanjica.rs

Ivanjica (Serbian Cyrillic: Ивањица, pronounced [ǐʋaɲitsa]) is a town and municipality located in the Moravica District of western Serbia. The population of the town is 11,715, while the population of the municipality is 31,963. With an area of 1090 km², it is the seventh largest municipality in Serbia.

The municipality is famous for having large potato and raspberry plantations in which many locals are employed. It is also known for the cultural event Nušićijada and as being the birthplace of World War II Chetnik leader, Draža Mihailović.

History[edit]

Panorama of Ivanjica in 1941.

Following the Serbian Revolution which took place in early 19th century, and Serbian liberation from the Ottoman Empire, Ivanjica has gained the status of village in 1833, after the Prince of Serbia, Miloš Obrenović took the area.[1] Ivanjica got the status of a town on June 16, 1866 through the Prince Mihailo Obrenović’s decree, thus becoming one of the first towns in the region.[2]

With the 1878 Congress of Berlin recognition of the independence of Principality of Serbia, King Milan I founded the Kingdom of Serbia. In 1918, Kingdom of Yugoslavia was formed, following the World War I. From 1929 until the beggining of the World War II, Ivanjica was part of Drina Banovina.

With the end of World War II, Ivanjica was part of Užice Oblast. At the time, Ivanjica was the administrative center of so called Moravica County (Serbian Cyrillic: Моравички срез). That changed in 1964, when counties were replaced with regions and municipalities, thus way creating municipality of Ivanjica, as a part of Užice District.[2] Since the founding, Ivanjica's population was mostly living in the rural areas, with less than 5% living in the town. That bagan to change with the period of industrialisation which hit Ivanjica during the 1960s. That caused rural population to move to the urban areas of municipality. Until the 1990s urban population made up to 31% of total municipality's population.

Following the Government of Serbia Enactment of 29 January 1992, Ivanjica became part of Moravica District, with the administrative center in Čačak, thus way becoming naturally more connected to the region.[2] In 2003, a monument of Draža Mihailović, former Chetniks leader who was born in Ivanjica, was set in town center on his 110th birth anniversary.[3]

Today, Ivanjica is a modern little town and the municipality with around 32,000 citizens. It is the economic, cultural, administrative and health care center of the municipality. Its development is based on agriculture, lumber industry and tourism as three main bearers of prosperity.[4]

Culture and tourism[edit]

Cultural monuments[edit]

The Old Bazaar (Serbian Cyrillic: Stara čaršija) - stands for the center of the town, which was declared good for a remarkable stationary culture in 1987.[5] The center of the town, especially the main street, Milinka Kušića, retains its authentic appearance dating back to the middle of the 19th century. Most of the structures were built after the Great Fire in 1846, which burned the town to the ground which was stopped after some houses where blown up to prevent spread.[6] Old Bazaar was used for a decades as backdrop for making movies and TV shows in the golden age of Yugoslavian cinematography. Promotion of the Old Bazaar as a place for making films started with Soja Jovanović making the first version of Branislav Nušić's Sumnjivo lice, in the 1950s. Later Zdravko Šotra made the TV show Više od igre,[7] and after that, the movies Sok od šljiva, Užička republika and so on. For this film era authentic ambiance of a town from the 19th century was desirable, so Ivanjica was named "Little Hollywood".[8]

There are several monuments of culture in the area of the Old Bazaar:

  • Jeremić House - one of the oldest structures in the Old Bazaar, a two-floor building that was one of the twelve buildings saved after fire. The ground floor used to be a manufacturing workshop, while the upper floor functioned as a living space. It is located at the end of boulevard and is one of the symbols of Ivanjica.
  • Church of Saint Emperor Konstantin and Empress Jelena - immediately after the town was founded, around 1836, construction of the town church started and constructed within three years, with the donations from locals. The first restoration of the church was in the 1850s, and a famous artist from the time period, Dimitrije Posniković, painted it in 1862. Authentic iconostases were saved and remain even today.
  • Stone Bridge - at the end of the 19th century a single-arched bridge was constructed. The project was signed by engineer Milenko Trudić, and construction work was entrusted to Blagoje Luković from Ivanjica. Stone for the construction was transported from a mine in Rašići. According to local stories, a lack of cement called for the use of 30 thousand chicken eggs to keep the stones together. At the time it was the only single-arched bridge in that part of the Balkans, for which a crossed-wedges system of construction was used. The length of the arches which connect the two coasts is 25 meters. During construction four people lost their lives. In their honor, a monument was built in Ivanjica cemetery. Bridge construction ended in 1906.
  • Kušića han - in the area of the Old Bazaar there is also this object as a symbol of the rural construction of the Moravica area. It is built in mountain style from wood and stone. It used to be a doss-house for travelling traders, which were passing through on the way from Sandžak and Zlatibor.
  • Monument of Revolution - it stands across from the Kušića han. The author of this monument is Yugoslav painter Đorđe Andrejević Kun, who was aided by Nada Hude, Miloš Gvozdenović and Ljuba Lah. Records about these artists were saved on a panel on the north side of the monument. The monument is shaped in a slightly curved semi-cylindrical reversed trapeze. It is installed on a rectangular pedestal made from white marble.On the front side there is a mosaic illustration of revolutionaries in a battle storm, made from small ceramic panels. From each side there are marble planters. The mosaic does not contain written epitaph, only an engraved inscription in marble "1941-1945". The monument was reviewed in 1957.[9]
  • Moravica Hydroelectric power plant - built in 1911, it started working as the ninth hydro power plant in Serbia. Hydro power plants had 260 hp and illuminated only the town. Siemens generator was transported in Ivanjica on steer harness, which has no railway even today. In 1936, a concrete breakwater was built 9m height and 25m width. In 2011 the appearance of the hydro-power plants was changed, with a view of a waterfall which attracted visitors to the area.

Culture institutions and events[edit]

The bearers of cultural development in the municipality of Ivanjica are numerous institutions and organizations. The leading role among them belongs to the Ivanjica Culture Centre and the Svetislav Vulović Library.

Some of Cultural events are: Hunters’ Fair and Wolf Hunt, Parade of Folk Creative Work - Sounds of Golija, Motorcycle Meetings in Ivanjica, Most Beautiful Love Poem Competition, If May Were All the Time, Parade of Reciters and many others.

In 2010, cultural event Nušićijada was renewed by initiative of Cultural Artistic Society "Dom Kulture" from Ivanjica.[10] This is a specific cultural Festival in-wrought with humor, entertainment, old town spirit returns to the scene after 40 years.

Tourism[edit]

The beginnings of the development of tourism in Ivanjica municipality are connected with the 1930s when Ivanjica was proclaimed to be a spa and a climatic place.[11]

Tourist charm of Ivanjica municipality is based on its rich natural and cultural resources, long history and tradition, specific identity of numerous sites and cordiality of Ivanjica’s hosts. Ivanjica has numerous possibilities for the development of all kinds of tourism: medical, village, sports, hunting and fishing, excursion, congress, and festival and event tourism. This municipality was proclaimed to be the first air spa in Serbia in January 2000,[11] while Golija Mountain is Biosphere reserve under the UNESCO protection.[12] As far as the available accommodation capacities are concerned, the municipality has around 1000 beds in classified facilities and around 200 beds in village households, in the town and in the suburbs.

In 1978, the Institute for Specialized Rehabilitation was opened and it operates as a state institution which has both medical and tourist character. Its basic activity is medical rehabilitation and provision of services based on recreational medical tourism.[13][11] Air spa of Ivanjica spreads on 2,165 hectares with 7 hectares belonging to the Institute for Specialized Rehabilitation.

Ivanjica also has several transport links to monasteries Studenica Monastery, Kovilje Monastery etc.

Geography and infrastructure[edit]

Ivanjica lies in the southwest of Serbia, at the bank of the Moravica river. It is surrounded by the mountain ranges of Golija, Javor, Mučanj, Čemerno and Radočelo and it is placed in a picturesque valley. Ivanjica's highest elevation is 1833 m, at the Jankov Kamen peak. Mountains are the dominant form of relief in this area and they belong to the Dinaric range. They are rich in forests, clearings, pastures, cold springs, clear rivers and clear air, wild fruit, medicinal herbs and various game.

The river system of the municipality and its neighborhood is made up of clear, clean and unpolluted fast mountain rivers: the Moravica, the Studenica and the Nošnica which, together with their tributaries, curve down the Moravica mountains. There are and two small lakes: Nebeska Suza and Tičar Lake.[14]

Ivanjica lies on IB-21 highway which intersects with IB-23 highway in Požega.

Location[edit]

Užice (65 km),
Zlatibor (81 km)
Arilje (30 km),
Požega (44 km),
Čačak (76 km),
Belgrade (195 km)
Kraljevo (72 km),
Kragujevac (106 km)
Sarajevo (249 km) Brosen windrose.svg Kruševac (130 km),
Niš (217 km)
Sjenica (64 km),
Nova Varoš (74 km),
Podgorica (260 km)
Novi Pazar (104 km),
Tutin (106 km)

Economy and industry[edit]

The municipality of Ivanjica, with a total area of 1090 km², has 49.54% under forests, 47% of arable land and only 3.40% of non-arable land.[15] The economy of Ivanjica municipality is typified by the processing industry, lumber processing, production of textile products and production of raspberry and potato.

Ivanjica belongs to group of economically underdeveloped part of Serbia, with the level of GDP in the range of 60% to 80% of the national average.[16] Coverage of imports by exports is 92%. There are 362 active enterprises in the municipality of Ivanjica. Small enterprises make 95% of the total number of enterprises.[17]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1948 37,891 —    
1953 40,258 +6.2%
1961 40,526 +0.7%
1971 39,233 −3.2%
1981 37,887 −3.4%
1991 36,686 −3.2%
2002 35,445 −3.4%
2011 31,963 −9.8%
Source: [18]

According to the latest official census done in 2011, the municipality of Ivanjica had 31,963 inhabitants. Population density of the municipality is 29.3 inhabitants per square kilometer. There is a trend of population decline since the 1960s. The reasons for this trend are bad economic conditions in Serbia, negative natural increase rate and majority of the older population. Depopulation is typical for villages because of the migrations to urban and other areas. The municipality of Ivanjica has 10,388 households with 3,03 members on average, while the number of homes is 13,469.[19]

Religion structure in the municipality of Ivanjica is predominantly Serbian Orthodox (31,541), with minorities like Atheists (26), Catholics (22), Muslims (15) and others.[20] Most of the population speaks Serbian language (31,658).[20]

Estimated composition of population by sex and average age are:[20]

  • Male - 16,081 (42.19 years) and
  • Female - 15,882 (44.09 years).

The total of 11,595 citizens have secondary education (36.3%), while the 2,167 citizens have higher education (6.8%). Of those with higher education, 1,182 (3.7%) have university education.[21]

Ethnic composition[edit]

Most of Ivanjica’s population is of Serbian nationality (98.6%), while the 63.3% of the municipality’s population is living in rural areas. The ethnic composition of the municipality:

Ethnic group Population
1931[22]
Population
1948[23]
Population
1953[24]
Population
1961[25]
Population
1971[26]
Population
1981[27]
Population
1991[28]
Population
2002[29]
Population
2011[30]
Serbs - 32,597 36,154 34,161 38,919 37,331 36,111 35,021 31,507
Romani - - - 2 1 10 8 33 29
Montenegrins - 19 69 41 65 79 134 68 24
Albanians - - 9 10 13 16 - - 13
Macedonians - 8 14 15 17 21 - 12 13
Croats - 13 43 11 12 24 12 9 9
Muslims - 1 - 3 12 5 11 6 8
Gorani - - - - - - - 7 7
Yugoslavs - - 2 1 20 265 245 32 7
Others - 159 29 47 174 136 286 257 346
Total 24,820 32,797 36,320 34,291 39,233 37,887 36,686 35,445 31,963

Notable residents[edit]

Settlements[edit]

Aside from the town of Ivanjica, the municipality of Ivanjica includes the following 48 settlements:

Sport[edit]

There are 28 sports clubs in the municipality of Ivanjica. The dominant sports are football, basketball, volleyball, archery and winter sports. According to results, the most successful sport club is a football club FK Javor Ivanjica, which was founded in 1912. In 2012 this football club was celebrating its centenary from club founding.[31] This club was a continuous member of the First League for the last several years. Other popular sport clubs are OK Putevi volleyball club and KK Ivanjica basketball club, playing in the lower, regional leagues of Western Serbia.

On the territory of Ivanjica municipality there are 6 football fields, 2 indoor swimming pools, 2 outdoor swimming pools, 3 gyms, one air rifle range, 29 outdoor fields for recreation, one athletics track, one chess hall and 2 sports halls.[32]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "IVANJICA". srbijanac.rs. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c "Položaj (Ivanjica)". wpsajt.ivanjica.gov.rs. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  3. ^ "Demokratski Draža". vreme.com (in Serbian). 8 May 2003. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  4. ^ "ECONOMY (Ivanjica)". Archived from the original on March 4, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2016. 
  5. ^ "Official website of Municipality of Ivanica". Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  6. ^ "Cultural monuments of Serbia". Retrieved 11 May 2014. 
  7. ^ "Intervju: Petar Božović - Slike iz bivšeg sveta". vreme.com (in Serbian). 15 January 2000. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  8. ^ "Mali Holivud na obali Moravice". blic.rs (in Serbian). 2 March 2006. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  9. ^ "Tourist Organisation of Ivanjica". Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  10. ^ "Humor, zabava, starogradski duh - Danas". Naslovi.net. 2010-08-30. Retrieved 2015-06-10. 
  11. ^ a b c "Vazdušna banja". ivanjica.gov.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  12. ^ "GOLIJA-STUDENICA". unesco.org. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  13. ^ "TOURISM (Ivanjica)". Archived from the original on March 4, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2016. 
  14. ^ "POSITION (Ivanjica)". Archived from the original on March 4, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2016. 
  15. ^ "Opština IVANJICA". skgo.org (in Serbian). Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  16. ^ "Stepen razvijenosti za 2014. godinu". regionalnirazvoj.gov.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 26 September 2015. 
  17. ^ "Privreda". ivanjica.gov.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 26 September 2015. 
  18. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 11 January 2017. 
  19. ^ "Number and the floor space of housing units" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  20. ^ a b c "Religion, Mother tongue, and Ethnicity" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  21. ^ "Educational attainment, literacy and computer literacy" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  22. ^ "PRISUTNO STANOVNISTVO PO VEROISPOVESTI I MATERWEM JEZIKU" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  23. ^ "STALNO STANOVNISTVO PO NARODNOSTI" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 4 March 2015. 
  24. ^ "UKUPNO STANOVNIŠTVO PO NARODNOSTI (1953)" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  25. ^ "Knjiga III: Nacionalni sastav stanovništva FNR Jugoslavije (1961)" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  26. ^ "Knjiga III: Nacionalni sastav stanovništva FNR Jugoslavije (1971)" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  27. ^ "Nacionalni sastav stanovništva SFR Jugoslavije (1981)" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  28. ^ "STANOVNIŠTVO PREMA NACIONALNOJ PRIPADNOSTI (1991)" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  29. ^ "Popis stanovnistva, domacinstava i stanova u 2002" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  30. ^ "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  31. ^ "FK Javor iz Ivanjice slavi 100. rođendan". 24sata.rs (in Serbian). 23 August 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2015. 
  32. ^ [1] Archived October 17, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]