Vnukovo International Airport

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Vnukovo International Airport

Международный аэропорт Внуково

Mezhdunarodnyĭ aėroport Vnukovo
VKO new logo.png
Аэропорт Внуково.JPG
Airport typePublic
OperatorJSC "Vnukovo Airport"
LocationMoscow, Russia
Hub for
Elevation AMSL209 m / 686 ft
Coordinates55°35′46″N 37°16′03″E / 55.59611°N 37.26750°E / 55.59611; 37.26750Coordinates: 55°35′46″N 37°16′03″E / 55.59611°N 37.26750°E / 55.59611; 37.26750
VKO is located in Moscow
Location in Moscow
Direction Length Surface
m ft
06/24 3,500 11,483 Concrete
01/19 3,060 10,039 Concrete
Statistics (2017)
Aircraft movements163,600
Source: DAFIF,[2][3] airport web site[4]

Vnukovo International Airport (Russian: Международный аэропорт Внуково, IPA: [ˈvnukəvə]) (IATA: VKO, ICAO: UUWW), is a dual-runway international airport located 28 kilometres (17 mi) southwest of the centre of Moscow, Russia. It is one of the four major airports that serve Moscow, along with Moscow Domodedovo Airport, Sheremetyevo International Airport, and Zhukovsky International Airport. In 2015, the airport handled 15.82 million passengers, representing an increase of 24% compared to the previous year. It is the third-busiest airport in Russia.


US president Ronald Reagan at Vnukovo in 1988
Old terminal (pictured in 2000).

Vnukovo is Moscow's oldest operating airport. It was opened and used for military operations during the Second World War, but became a civilian facility after the war. Its construction was approved by the Soviet government in 1937, because the older Khodynka Aerodrome (located much closer to the city centre, but closed by the 1980s) was becoming overloaded. Vnukovo was opened on 1 July 1941. During the Great Patriotic War, it was used as a military airbase; passenger services started after the war.

On 15 September 1956, the Tupolev Tu-104 jetliner made its first passenger flight from Moscow Vnukovo to Irkutsk via Omsk.

On 4 November 1957, a plane carrying Romanian Workers' Party officials, including the most prominent politicians of Communist Romania (Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, Chivu Stoica, Alexandru Moghioroș, Ştefan Voitec, Nicolae Ceauşescu, Leonte Răutu, and Grigore Preoteasa), was involved in an accident at Vnukovo Airport. Preoteasa, who was Minister of Foreign Affairs at the time, was killed, as was the aircraft's crew. Several others were seriously injured.

The first passenger flights of the IL-18 (Moscow to Alma-Ata on 20 April 1956) and Tu-114 (Moscow to Khabarovsk on 24 April 1961) were also made from Vnukovo Airport. In 1980, Vnukovo was expanded because of the 22nd Summer Olympic Games. In 1993, Vnukovo Airport became a joint-stock company.

Apron view
Departure gate area

A massive reconstruction and strategic development programme commenced at Vnukovo International in late 2003, following the transfer by the Federal Government of the controlling stake in the airport to the Government of Moscow.

As part of the Airport Strategic Development Plan, the following projects were completed between 2003 and 2005:

  • April 2004: New Terminal B was opened. The terminal currently handles international passengers. But in the future, it will be converted to handle domestic flights or to fulfill any other dedicated functions to be determined at a later date. The terminal's total floor space offering stands at 80,000 square meters (861,000 ft2), allowing for an annual passenger throughput capacity of four million.
  • August 2005: Vnukovo's Aeroexpress rail link to Kiyevsky Rail Terminal was opened.
  • December 2010: New Terminal A was opened.

Vnukovo is Europe's busiest airport for international flights by larger private planes.[5]

Location and capacity[edit]

Terminal A

Of the three Moscow airports, Vnukovo is the highest (204 metres (669 ft) above sea level). Hence, in case of fog, it has frequently served as an alternative airport.[6]

The airfield has two intersecting runways of 3,500 metres (11,500 ft) and 3,060 metres (10,040 ft) in length. Each runway is 60 metres (200 ft) wide, with 10 metres (33 ft) wide safety shoulders on each side. The joint runway capacity is 60 aircraft movements per hour. Runway 24 is mostly used for departures, while Runway 01 for landings.

The airport has two passenger terminals (Terminal A and Terminal B), one general aviation terminal (for charter and business flights), one cargo terminal, and 60 aircraft stands.

The airport can handle a maximum of 10,100 passengers per hour,[7] and 4,000 people are employed there. In 2013, the airport handled almost 11.18 million passengers, representing a 15.3% increase compared to 2012.[4] In February 2014 the airport handled 722,500 passengers, an increase of 23.8% compared to February 2013, partly attributed to expansion by Utair.[8]

Vnukovo Airport is equipped with a VIP hall, which is used by many political leaders and important people visiting Russia. The Russian President also uses Vnukovo's VIP facility.

The Tupolev airliner rework facility is located at the edge of the airport, and major overhaul and modification programmes are carried out in several large aircraft hangars.

On the northern perimeter of the airport, the government VIP transport wing is located, operating head-of-state flights for high-ranking government officials. Thus, the airport is occasionally closed for regular flights when VIP flights arrive or depart.

Further expansion[edit]

The prospective development programme is intended to last until the year 2015,[needs update] and is aimed at transforming Vnukovo International into a highly competitive air transportation hub of international significance – one that would offer a comprehensive range of quality services to both its passengers and its tenant carriers.

A new international passenger Terminal A will have a total floor space of 250,000 square metres (2,700,000 sq ft) and passenger throughput capacity of 7,800 passengers per hour, making a total capacity of 18–20 million passengers annually.[9] This will open up a plethora of opportunities for the tenant airlines to expand and radically improve the quality of their customer service at the airport, and ensure the introduction of international-quality service and comfort overall. The sprawling terminal building will be located on the site of the existing domestic passenger terminal, and will also serve as a springboard for the subsequent development of the entire adjacent landside area both next to the terminal and further out towards Vnukovo Settlement. The oldest of the Vnukovo passenger terminals, dating back to 1941, will be demolished by the time construction of the new one goes ahead (it started to be dismantled in November 2005). The existing Domestic Terminal 2, built in the late 1970s, will continue in operation until its eventual demolition during the final phase of construction and replacement with the new terminal.

The expansion plans include lengthening one of the two V-configured runways (3,000 metres (9,800 ft) and 3,060 metres (10,040 ft) long) to 3,800 metres (12,500 ft) and upgrading the instrument landing system from the present CAT II to CAT III. The existing taxiways are to be extended as part of the expansion and new ones will also be built, along with a brand new control tower, an extension to the cargo terminal, and a multistory car park.


Terminal A is the only terminal used both for domestic and international flights. Terminals B and D are out of service as of October 2017.

Airlines and destinations[edit]


Armenia Aircompany Yerevan (resumes 16 December 2018)
Azerbaijan Airlines Baku, Ganja
Seasonal: Lankaran,[10] Qabala
Azimuth Elista,[11] Grozny, Krasnodar, Omsk, Pskov,[12] Rostov-on-Don-Platov
Azur Air[13] Seasonal: Dubai–International, Larnaca, Nha Trang, Punta Cana, Sanya, Varadero
Seasonal charter: Antalya, Barcelona, Bodrum, Cancún, Cayo Coco, Colombo, Dalaman, Djerba, Enfidha, Gazipaşa, Goa, Pattaya–U-Tapao, Phu Quoc, Phuket, Puerto Plata
Bul Air Seasonal charter: Burgas, Varna
Buta Airways Baku, Ganja[14]
Ellinair Seasonal: Heraklion, Thessaloniki[15]
flydubai Dubai–International
FlyOne Chișinău[16]
Gazpromavia Bovanenkovo, Nadym, Novy Urengoy, Noyabrsk, Tyumen, Ufa, Yamburg, Yekaterinburg
Georgian Airways Tbilisi
I-Fly Seasonal charter: Antalya, Bari, Burgas, Larnaca, Rovaniemi, Punta Cana
Iran Aseman Airlines Seasonal: Tehran–Imam Khomeini
Iraqi Airways Baghdad[17]
Izhavia Izhevsk
Mahan Air Tehran–Imam Khomeini
Seasonal: Mashhad[18]
Nouvelair Seasonal: Djerba, Monastir
Pobeda Antalya,[19] Astrakhan, Bergamo, Berlin-Tegel, Bratislava, Cheboksary, Cologne/Bonn, Eindhoven (begins 21 December 2018),[20][21] Girona, Gyumri, Helsinki,[22] Irkutsk, Istanbul–Atatürk,[23][24][25] Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen,[26] Kaliningrad,[27] Karlovy Vary, Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk–Yemelyanovo, Larnaca, Leipzig/Halle, Magas, Makhachkala, Memmingen, Mineralnye Vody, Nalchik, Nizhnekamsk, Novosibirsk, Palermo, Perm, Pisa, Rostov-on-Don-Platov,[28] Samara, Saransk,[29] St Petersburg,[30] Surgut, Tivat, Tomsk,[31] Treviso,[32] Ulan-Ude,[30] Ulyanovsk-Baratayevka, Vladikavkaz, Volgograd, Yekaterinburg
Seasonal: Anapa, Gazipaşa, Innsbruck (begins 22 December 2018),[33], Reus, Salzburg (begins 22 December 2018),[34] Varna[35]
Rossiya Airlines Prague, Sochi, St Petersburg
Seasonal charter: Antalya,[36] Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi,[36] Barcelona,[36] Dubai–International,[36] Eilat-Ovda,[36] Goa,[36] Larnaca,[36] Phuket,[36] Punta Cana,[36] Rimini
RusLine Belgorod, Elista, Ivanovo, Izhevsk, Kaluga, Kirov, Kursk, Leipzig/Halle, Lipetsk, Penza, Saratov,[37] Tambov, Ulyanovsk–Baratayevka, Vorkuta, Voronezh
Seasonal: Palanga[38]
SCAT Airlines Aktau,[39] Aktobe, Shymkent
Syrian Air Damascus
Tunisair Seasonal: Monastir[40]
Turkish Airlines Ankara, Antalya, Istanbul–Atatürk (ends 31 December 2018),[41] Istanbul–Havalimanı (begins 1 January 2019)[41]
Utair Anadyr, Arkhangelsk, Baku, Belgorod, Berlin–Tegel,[42] Bukhara, Cheboksary, Dushanbe, Fergana, Ganja, Grozny, Kazan, Kaliningrad, Khanty–Mansiysk, Kogalym, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk–Yemelyanovo, Kurgan, Magas, Magnitogorsk, Makhachkala, Milan–Malpensa,[43][44] Mineralnye Vody, Minsk, Munich, Murmansk, Nakhchivan, Nalchik, Naryan-Mar, Nizhny Novgorod, Noyabrsk, Pevek, Riga, Rostov-on-Don-Platov, St Petersburg, Sabetta, Samara, Samarkand, Sanya, Sochi, Stavropol, Surgut, Syktyvkar, Tashkent, Tyumen, Ufa, Ulyanovsk–Baratayevka, Usinsk, Vienna,[42] Vilnius, Vladikavkaz, Yerevan
Seasonal: Anapa, Beloyarsky, Heraklion,[45] Thessaloniki
Seasonal charter: Denpasar/Bali
Uzbekistan Airways Andijan, Bukhara, Fergana, Namangan, Navoiy, Nukus, Samarkand, Tashkent, Termez, Urgench[46]
Vologda Aviation Enterprise Vologda
Wizz Air Budapest, Debrecen[47][48]
Yakutia Airlines Neryungri, Pevek, Sochi, Yakutsk


ATRAN Cologne/Bonn, Yerevan
UPS Airlines Cologne/Bonn


Annual traffic[edit]

Annual Passenger Traffic[49]
Year Passengers % Change
2010 9,460,292 Steady
2011 8,197,162 Decrease -13.4%
2012 9,699,452 Increase 18.3%
2013 11,175,142 Increase 15.2%
2014 12,733,118 Increase 14%
2015 15,815,129 Increase 24.2%
2016 13,946,688 Decrease -11.8%
2017 18,139,000 Increase 30.1%

Ground transportation[edit]


A double-deck Aeroexpress ESh2, at Vnukovo Airport train station
Moscow Aeroexpress
Aeroport Vnukovo railway station [ru] BSicon FLUG.svg
Aeroport [ru]
Moscow Kiyevskaya  3   4   5 
Moscow Belorusskaya  2   5 
Moscow Savelovskaya  9   11 
Sheremetyevo railway station [ru] BSicon FLUG.svg
Lobnya railway station [ru]
Moscow Kalanchyovskaya [ru]  1   5 
Moscow Kurskaya  3   10   5 
Moscow Paveletskaya  2   5 
Aeroport Domodedovo railway station [ru] BSicon FLUG.svg

Aeroexpress direct line connects Vnukovo Airport and Kiyevsky Rail Terminal in Moscow city centre was opened on August 2005. One-way journey costs 500 rubles (420 rubles for online purchase)[50] (as of November 2017). The journey takes 35 minutes.


Moscow city can be reached by the municipal Mosgortrans bus lines: 611 - reaches two consecutive stations (Troparyovo and Yugo-Zapadnaya) of Moscow Metro Sokolnicheskaya Line, 611k (Russian: 611к) reaches only the nearest Salaryevo station of Moscow Metro Sokolnicheskaya Line, but avoids the often congested crossing with MKAD road; nearby Rumyantsevo station is only easily accessible on the way to the airport, not away from it. The fare is 50 rubles (as of September, 2016; eq. to 0.77 US$), travel time 20-35 min. by schedule.
Private marshrutka line 45 also serves this direction. One-way journey costs 150 rubles (as of February 2016; eq. to 2 US$). Due to heavy traffic in Moscow, journey takes 15 minutes to 1 hour.


Several taxi services to Moscow city and suburbs are available at the airport. Uber, Gett, Yandex.Taxi and local Transportation Network Companies offer flat rate trips to anywhere in Moscow.


After 2020, the Government of Moscow plans a future expansion of metro line 8 (Kalininsko-Solntsevskaya) which will go from the Rasskazovka station to Vnukovo with one station between them. Should the plan be approved, this will be the first ever Moscow airport to be directly connected by a metro line.

Other facilities[edit]

Previously Vnukovo Airlines had its head office at the airport.[51]


The airport is co-owned by the Russian state and Russian businessman Vitaly Vantsev and his partners. In March 2018, Qatar Airways announced plans buy a 25 percent stake in Vnukovo Airport.[52]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 21 December 1943, a Lisunov Li-2 crashed while on a training flight due to a defect in the left rear fuel tank.[53]
  • On 4 March 1944, Douglas C-47A crashed into a Bell P-39Q Airacobra on the ground while attempting to execute a go-around.[54]
  • On 5 November 1946, Douglas C-47B crashed after the crew decided to go-around some 300 m (980 ft) past a landing sign. The aircraft was flying low and engine power was sharply increased. The aircraft went into a steep climb, lost speed and crashed 600 m (2,000 ft) from the landing sign.[55]
  • On 5 November 1946, an Aeroflot-Lithuania Lisunov Li-2 crashed due to fuel exhaustion after repeated approach attempts while in a holding pattern.[56]
  • On 1 July 1947, an Aeroflot Ilyushin Il-12 crashed after the left engine failed on takeoff, causing a loss of airspeed.[57]
  • On 29 March 1951, an Aeroflot Ilyushin Il-12P crashed during which the right propeller struck the top of a radio tower.[58]
  • On 14 June 1957, an Ilyushin Il-14P operating LOT Polish Airlines Flight 232 crashed after the crew did not follow instruction to use an instrument approach.[59]
  • On 4 November 1957, an Ilyushin Il-14P belonging to the Romanian Government crashed on approach in the fog.[60]
  • On 2 September 1959, an Ilyushin Il-18B suffered significant structural damage, forcing it to make an emergency landing. The aircraft was written off.[61]
  • On 23 October 1959, Aeroflot Flight 200 crashed in a forest on approach and was destroyed by fire, killing 28 of the 29 people aboard.[62]
  • On 26 August 1969, an Aeroflot Ilyushin Il-18B crashed after the crew forgot to lower the landing gear, killing 16 passengers.[63]
  • On 10 October 1971, Aeroflot Flight 773 crashed shortly after takeoff when an explosive device on board detonated, killing all 25 people aboard.[64]
  • On 3 January 1976, Aeroflot Flight 2003, a Tupolev Tu-124, crashed 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) west of Vnukovo Airport after both artificial horizons failed in IMC.
  • On 17 March 1979, Aeroflot Flight 1691 crashed 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) away from the runway while attempting to return to the airport.[65]
  • On 2 June 1980, a Soviet Air Force Antonov An-22A suffered an in-flight fire and crashed short of the runway.[66]
  • On 16 January 2010, Utair Boeing 737-500 VQ-BAC departed the runway on landing and was substantially damaged when the nosewheel collapsed.[67]
  • On 4 December 2010, South East Airlines Flight 372, which had departed from Vnukovo, lost power to all of its engines and made an emergency landing at Domodedovo International Airport. Upon landing, the plane overshot the runway, resulting in a crash and the death of two of the 168 passengers and crew.[68]
  • On 29 December 2012, a Red Wings TU-204 overran the runway. The aircraft burst into flames and broke into three pieces. At least five people were killed.[69]
  • On 20 October 2014, a Dassault Falcon 50 collided on take-off with a snow plow, killing all four people on board, including the CEO of Total S.A. oil and gas company Christophe de Margerie.

See also[edit]


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  2. ^ Airport information for UUWW at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006.Source: DAFIF.
  3. ^ Airport information for VKO at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF (effective October 2006).
  4. ^ a b "Vnukovo Airport passenger statistics for 2017". Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  5. ^ Advertising to the super-rich: Posters for plutocrats
  6. ^ "Vnukovo international airport". Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  7. ^ " – Facts and figures". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  8. ^ "Growth at Vnukovo". Airliner World: 12. May 2014.
  9. ^ "Vnukovo international airport". Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  10. ^ Liu, Jim (13 April 2018). "Azerbaijan Airlines adds Lankaran – Moscow service in S18". Routesonline. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  11. ^ "Суперджет и АК "Азимут" расширяют географию межрегиональных полётов". Yandex Zen (Russian Aviation Chanel). 17 May 2018. Archived from the original on 2018-05-19. Retrieved 2018-05-18.
  12. ^ "Первый авиарейс «Москва - Псков» приземлился на аэродроме в Крестах". 2 October 2018.
  13. ^ "Seasonal Timetable". Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  14. ^ "Buta Airways preliminary operation from Sep 2017". 5 July 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
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  16. ^ Liu, Jim (17 April 2017). "FlyOne plans Moscow Vnukovo launch in June 2017". Routesonline. Retrieved 17 April 2017.[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ Liu, Jim (11 October 2017). "Iraqi Airways Germany / Russia service changes from Oct 2017". Routesonline. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  18. ^ Liu, Jim (2 June 2017). "Mahan Air expands Moscow flights from June 2017". Routesonline. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  19. ^ Liu, Jim (27 March 2018). "Pobeda adds Antalya / Berlin service from late-April 2018". Routesonline. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  20. ^ Liu, Jim (13 November 2018). "Pobeda adds Eindhoven service from late-Dec 2018". Routesonline. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  21. ^ "Eindhoven Airport krijgt rechtstreekse verbinding met Moskou".
  22. ^ "Pobeda announces Helsinki sevice from Oct 2018".
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  25. ^ Pobeda schedules Istanbul launch in Dec 2017 Routesonline. 26 October 2017.
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  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Flight schedule". 23 September 2018.
  37. ^ Yuri Plokhotnichenko (2 June 2018). ""Руслайн" совместно с Utair намерен летать из Москвы в Саратов".
  38. ^ "Возобновление рейсов в Ригу и Палангу из Москвы". (in Russian). Airline "RusLine". Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
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  40. ^ Liu, Jim (16 April 2018). "Tunisair adds Monastir – Moscow Vnukovo charters from June 2018". Routesonline. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
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  42. ^ a b Liu, Jim. "UTair expands Moscow routes in 2Q17". Routesonline. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  43. ^ Liu, Jim (12 September 2017). "UTair plans Milan launch in Dec 2017". Routesonline. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  44. ^ Плохотниченко, Юрий (6 September 2017). "UTair будет летать из Москвы в Милан". (in Russian). Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  45. ^ Liu, Jim (26 May 2017). "UTair adds Irakleion service from June 2017". Routesonline. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  46. ^ Liu, Jim (4 October 2018). "Uzbekistan Airways moves Moscow service to Vnukovo from late-Oct 2018". Routesonline. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  47. ^ "Debrecen és Moszkva között indít járatot a Wizz Air". (in Hungarian). 31 August 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
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  49. ^ UUWW-News. "Новости".
  50. ^ "Fares and services". Aeroexpress. Archived from the original on 2016-03-02. Retrieved 2016-02-20.
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  52. ^ "Qatar Airways plans to buy stake in Russian airport as emir visits Moscow". Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  53. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Lisunov Li-2 CCCP-L4032 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  54. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas C-47A-1-DK (DC-3) CCCP-L875 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  55. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas C-47B-5-DK (DC-3) CCCP-L946 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  56. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Lisunov Li-2 CCCP-L4207 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  57. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 12P CCCP-L1317 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  58. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 12P CCCP-L1313 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  59. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 14P SP-LNF Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  60. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 14P YR-PCC Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  61. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 18B CCCP-75676 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  62. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 14P CCCP-41806 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  63. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 18B CCCP-75708 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  64. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Tupolev 104B CCCP-42490 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  65. ^ Tu-104B accident Mar 17 1979
  66. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Antonov 22A CCCP-09311 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  67. ^ "Recent accidents / incidents worldwide". JACDEC. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  68. ^ "Two killed as plane makes emergency landing in Russia". AFP. 4 December 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
  69. ^ "Four dead as passenger jet crashes into highway outside Moscow (PHOTOS, VIDEO)". Retrieved 10 October 2014.

External links[edit]

Media related to Vnukovo International Airport at Wikimedia Commons