Vnukovo International Airport

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Vnukovo International Airport

Международный аэропорт Внуково

Mezhdunarodnyĭ aėroport Vnukovo
VKO new logo.png
Vnukovo International Airport 2019.jpg
Summary
Airport typePublic
OperatorJSC "Vnukovo Airport"
ServesMoscow
LocationMoscow, Russia
Hub for
Elevation AMSL209 m / 686 ft
Coordinates55°35′46″N 37°16′03″E / 55.59611°N 37.26750°E / 55.59611; 37.26750Coordinates: 55°35′46″N 37°16′03″E / 55.59611°N 37.26750°E / 55.59611; 37.26750
Websitevnukovo.ru
Map
VKO is located in Moscow
VKO
VKO
Location in Moscow
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
06/24 3,500 11,483 Concrete
01/19 3,060 10,039 Concrete
Statistics (2017)
Passengers18,139,000
Aircraft movements163,600
Source: DAFIF,[2][3] airport web site[4]

Vnukovo International Airport, formally "Vnukovo Andrei Tupolev International Airport", (Russian: Международный аэропорт Внуково, IPA: [ˈvnukəvə]) (IATA: VKO, ICAO: UUWW), is a dual-runway international airport located 28 kilometres (17 mi) southwest of the centre of Moscow, Russia. It is one of the four major airports that serve Moscow, along with Moscow Domodedovo Airport, Sheremetyevo International Airport, and Zhukovsky International Airport. In 2015, the airport handled 15.82 million passengers, representing an increase of 24% compared to the previous year. It is the third-busiest airport in Russia.

History[edit]

US president Ronald Reagan at Vnukovo in 1988
Old terminal (pictured in 2000).

Vnukovo is Moscow's oldest operating airport. It was opened and used for military operations during the Second World War, but became a civilian facility after the war. Its construction was approved by the Soviet government in 1937, because the older Khodynka Aerodrome (located much closer to the city centre, but closed by the 1980s) was becoming overloaded. Vnukovo was opened on 1 July 1941. During the Great Patriotic War, it was used as a military airbase; passenger services started after the war.

On 15 September 1956, the Tupolev Tu-104 jetliner made its first passenger flight from Moscow Vnukovo to Irkutsk via Omsk.

On 4 November 1957, a plane carrying Romanian Workers' Party officials, including the most prominent politicians of Communist Romania (Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, Chivu Stoica, Alexandru Moghioroș, Ştefan Voitec, Nicolae Ceauşescu, Leonte Răutu, and Grigore Preoteasa), was involved in an accident at Vnukovo Airport. Preoteasa, who was Minister of Foreign Affairs at the time, was killed, as was the aircraft's crew. Several others were seriously injured.

The first passenger flights of the IL-18 (Moscow to Alma-Ata on 20 April 1956) and Tu-114 (Moscow to Khabarovsk on 24 April 1961) were also made from Vnukovo Airport. In 1980, Vnukovo was expanded because of the 22nd Summer Olympic Games. In 1993, Vnukovo Airport became a joint-stock company.

Apron view
Departure gate area

A massive reconstruction and strategic development programme commenced at Vnukovo International in late 2003, following the transfer by the Federal Government of the controlling stake in the airport to the Government of Moscow.

As part of the Airport Strategic Development Plan, the following projects were completed between 2003 and 2005:

  • April 2004: New Terminal B was opened. The terminal currently handles international passengers. But in the future, it will be converted to handle domestic flights or to fulfill any other dedicated functions to be determined at a later date. The terminal's total floor space offering stands at 80,000 square meters (861,000 ft2), allowing for an annual passenger throughput capacity of four million.
  • August 2005: Vnukovo's Aeroexpress rail link to Kiyevsky Rail Terminal was opened.
  • December 2010: New Terminal A was opened.
  • Summer 2016: all flights served by Terminal B transferred into Terminal A, Terminal B is closed.

Vnukovo is Europe's busiest airport for international flights by larger private planes.[5]

Location and capacity[edit]

Terminal A

Of the three Moscow airports, Vnukovo is the highest (204 metres (669 ft) above sea level). Hence, in case of fog, it has frequently served as an alternative airport.[6]

The airfield has two intersecting runways of 3,500 metres (11,500 ft) and 3,060 metres (10,040 ft) in length. Each runway is 60 metres (200 ft) wide, with 10 metres (33 ft) wide safety shoulders on each side. The joint runway capacity is 60 aircraft movements per hour. Runway 24 is mostly used for departures, while Runway 01 for landings.

The airport has two passenger terminals (Terminal A and Terminal B), one general aviation terminal (for charter and business flights), one cargo terminal, and 60 aircraft stands.

The airport can handle a maximum of 10,100 passengers per hour,[7] and 4,000 people are employed there. In 2013, the airport handled almost 11.18 million passengers, representing a 15.3% increase compared to 2012.[4] In February 2014 the airport handled 722,500 passengers, an increase of 23.8% compared to February 2013, partly attributed to expansion by Utair.[8]

Vnukovo Airport is equipped with a VIP hall, which is used by many political leaders and important people visiting Russia. The Russian President also uses Vnukovo's VIP facility.

The Tupolev airliner rework facility is located at the edge of the airport, and major overhaul and modification programmes are carried out in several large aircraft hangars.

On the northern perimeter of the airport, the government VIP transport wing is located, operating head-of-state flights for high-ranking government officials. Thus, the airport is occasionally closed for regular flights when VIP flights arrive or depart.

Further expansion[edit]

The prospective development programme is intended to last until the year 2015,[needs update] and is aimed at transforming Vnukovo International into a highly competitive air transportation hub of international significance – one that would offer a comprehensive range of quality services to both its passengers and its tenant carriers.

A new international passenger Terminal A will have a total floor space of 250,000 square metres (2,700,000 sq ft) and passenger throughput capacity of 7,800 passengers per hour, making a total capacity of 18–20 million passengers annually.[9] This will open up a plethora of opportunities for the tenant airlines to expand and radically improve the quality of their customer service at the airport, and ensure the introduction of international-quality service and comfort overall. The sprawling terminal building will be located on the site of the existing domestic passenger terminal, and will also serve as a springboard for the subsequent development of the entire adjacent landside area both next to the terminal and further out towards Vnukovo Settlement. The oldest of the Vnukovo passenger terminals, dating back to 1941, will be demolished by the time construction of the new one goes ahead (it started to be dismantled in November 2005). The existing Domestic Terminal 2, built in the late 1970s, will continue in operation until its eventual demolition during the final phase of construction and replacement with the new terminal.

The expansion plans include lengthening one of the two V-configured runways (3,000 metres (9,800 ft) and 3,060 metres (10,040 ft) long) to 3,800 metres (12,500 ft) and upgrading the instrument landing system from the present CAT II to CAT III. The existing taxiways are to be extended as part of the expansion and new ones will also be built, along with a brand new control tower, an extension to the cargo terminal, and a multistory car park.

Terminals[edit]

Terminal A is the only terminal used both for domestic and international flights. Terminals B and D are out of service as of October 2017.

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

AirlinesDestinations
Aircompany Armenia Yerevan
Azerbaijan Airlines Baku, Ganja
Seasonal: Lankaran,[10] Qabala
Azimuth Elista, Grozny, Krasnodar, Omsk, Pskov, Rostov-on-Don
Azur Air[11] Varadero
Seasonal: Cancún, Larnaca, La Romana, Nha Trang, Sanya, Taiyuan
Charter: Barcelona,[12] Phuket, Tenerife–South
Seasonal charter: Abu Dhabi,[13] Agadir, Antalya, Bodrum,[14] Burgas, Colombo–Bandaranaike, Dalaman, Djerba, Dubai–International, Enfidha, Gazipaşa, Goa, Heraklion, Palma de Mallorca, Pattaya, Phu Quoc, Rhodes, Tivat, Varna
Bulgaria Air Seasonal: Burgas[15]
Buta Airways Baku, Ganja
Ellinair Thessaloniki
Seasonal: Athens, Chania, Heraklion,[16] Kavala,[16] Patras
flydubai Dubai–International
FlyOne Chișinău
Gazpromavia Bovanenkovo, Nadym, Novy Urengoy, Noyabrsk, Tyumen, Ufa, Yamburg, Yekaterinburg
I-Fly[17] Seasonal charter: Antalya, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Barcelona, Bodrum, Burgas, Cagliari, Fuzhou,[18] Guiyang,[18] Haikou,[18] Hangzhou,[18] Heraklion, Jinan,[18] Lamezia Terme, Larnaca, Nanchang,[18] Nanjing,[18] Nanning,[18] Phuket, Podgorica, Punta Cana, Rimini, Salzburg, Sanya,[18] Shenyang, Shenzhen,[18] St Petersburg, Taiyuan,[18] Tenerife-South, Tianjin, Tivat, Turin, Verona, Wuhan, Xi'an, Zhengzhou[18]
IrAero Kyzyl
Iran Aseman Airlines Seasonal: Tehran–Imam Khomeini
Iraqi Airways Baghdad
Izhavia Izhevsk
Mahan Air Tehran–Imam Khomeini
Seasonal: Mashhad[19]
Nouvelair Seasonal: Djerba, Monastir
Pobeda Antalya, Astrakhan, Bari, Bergamo, Berlin–Tegel, Bratislava, Catania, Cheboksary, Cologne/Bonn, Dubai–International,[20] Eilat,[20] Eindhoven, Genoa, Girona, Gorno-Altaysk, Gyumri, Irkutsk, Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen, Kaliningrad, Karlovy Vary, Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk–International, Larnaca, Leipzig/Halle, Magas, Makhachkala, Memmingen, Mineralnye Vody, Murmansk,[21][22] Nalchik,[23] Nizhnekamsk, Novosibirsk, Ostend/Bruges, Palermo, Perm, Petrozavodsk, Pisa, Riga, Rome–Fiumicino, Rostov-on-Don, Samara, Saransk, Saratov,[24] St. Petersburg, Surgut, Tivat, Tomsk, Treviso, Ufa, Ulan-Ude, Ulyanovsk–Baratayevka, Vladikavkaz, Volgograd, Yekaterinburg
Seasonal: Anapa, Bodrum, Cagliari, Dalaman, Gazipaşa, Innsbruck, Reus, Rimini, Salzburg, Varna
Rossiya Airlines Sochi, St. Petersburg
Seasonal charter: Antalya,[25] Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi,[25] Barcelona,[25] Dubai–International,[25] Eilat,[25] Goa,[25] Larnaca,[25] Paphos,[25] Phuket,[25] Punta Cana,[25] Rimini
Royal Flight Seasonal charter: Antalya
RusLine Belgorod, Elista, Ivanovo, Izhevsk, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kirov, Kursk, Leipzig/Halle, Lipetsk, Penza, Saransk,[26] Tambov, Ulyanovsk–Baratayevka, Vorkuta, Voronezh, Yoshkar-Ola
Seasonal: Palanga,[27] Saratov
SCAT Airlines Aktau, Aktobe, Nur-Sultan,[28] Shymkent
Syrian Air Damascus
Tunisair Seasonal: Monastir[29]
Turkish Airlines Ankara, Antalya, Istanbul
Utair Anadyr, Arkhangelsk, Baku, Belgorod, Berlin–Tegel, Bukhara, Cheboksary, Dushanbe, Fergana, Ganja, Grozny, Kazan, Kaliningrad, Khanty–Mansiysk, Kogalym, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk–International, Kurgan, Magas, Magnitogorsk, Makhachkala, Milan–Malpensa, Mineralnye Vody, Minsk, Murmansk, Nakhchivan, Naryan-Mar, Noyabrsk, Pevek, Riga, Rostov-on-Don, Sabetta, Samara, Samarkand, Sanya, Sochi, St. Petersburg, Stavropol, Surgut, Syktyvkar, Tashkent, Tyumen, Ufa, Usinsk, Vienna, Vladikavkaz, Yerevan
Seasonal: Anapa, Beloyarsky, Gelendzhik,[30] Heraklion,[31] Munich,[32] Thessaloniki
Uzbekistan Airways Andijan, Bukhara, Fergana, Namangan, Navoiy, Nukus, Qarshi,[33] Samarkand, Tashkent, Termez, Urgench
Vologda Aviation Enterprise Vologda
Wizz Air Budapest, Debrecen, London–Luton[34][35]
Yakutia Airlines Mineralnye Vody,[36] Neryungri, Novokuznetsk (begins 17 January 2020),[36] Pevek, Sochi, Yakutsk

Cargo[edit]

AirlinesDestinations
ATRAN Cologne/Bonn, Yerevan
UPS Airlines Cologne/Bonn

Statistics[edit]

Annual traffic[edit]

Annual Passenger Traffic[37]
Year Passengers % Change
2010 9,460,292 Steady
2011 8,197,162 Decrease -13.4%
2012 9,699,452 Increase 18.3%
2013 11,175,142 Increase 15.2%
2014 12,733,118 Increase 14%
2015 15,815,129 Increase 24.2%
2016 13,946,688 Decrease -11.8%
2017 18,139,000 Increase 30.1%
2018 21,478,000 Increase 18.4%

Ground transportation[edit]

Rail[edit]

A double-deck Aeroexpress ESh2, at Vnukovo Airport train station
Moscow Aeroexpress
Aeroport Vnukovo railway station [ru] BSicon FLUG.svg
Aeroport [ru]
Moscow Kiyevskaya Transfer for #3 Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line at Kiyevskaya Transfer for #4 Filyovskaya line at Kiyevskaya Transfer for #5 Koltsevaya line at Kiyevskaya
Moscow Belorusskaya Transfer for #2 Zamoskvoretskaya line at Belorusskaya Transfer for #5 Koltsevaya line at Belorusskaya
Moscow Savelovskaya Transfer for #9 Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya line at Savyolovskaya Transfer for #11 Bolshaya Koltsevaya line at Savyolovskaya
Okruzhnaya Transfer for #14 Moscow Central Circle at Okruzhnaya
Sheremetyevo railway station [ru] BSicon FLUG.svg
Lobnya railway station [ru]
Moscow Kalanchyovskaya [ru] Transfer for #1 Sokolnicheskaya line at Komsomolskaya Transfer for #5 Koltsevaya line at Komsomolcheskaya
Moscow Kurskaya Transfer for #3 Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line at Kurskaya Transfer for #10 Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya line at Chkalovskaya Transfer for #5 Koltsevaya line at Kurskaya
Moscow Paveletskaya Transfer for #2 Zamoskvoretskaya line at Paveletskaya Transfer for #5 Koltsevaya line at Paveletskaya
Verkhnie Kotly Transfer for #14 Moscow Central Circle at Verkhnie Kotly
Aeroport Domodedovo railway station [ru] BSicon FLUG.svg

Aeroexpress direct line connects Vnukovo Airport and Kiyevsky Rail Terminal in Moscow city centre was opened in August 2005. One-way journey costs 500 rubles (420 rubles for online purchase)[38] (as of November 2017). The journey takes 35 minutes.

Bus[edit]

Moscow city can be reached by the municipal Mosgortrans bus lines: 611 - reaches two consecutive stations (Troparyovo and Yugo-Zapadnaya) of Moscow Metro Sokolnicheskaya Line, 611k (Russian: 611к) reaches only the nearest Salaryevo station of Moscow Metro Sokolnicheskaya Line, but avoids the often congested crossing with MKAD road; nearby Rumyantsevo station is only easily accessible on the way to the airport, not away from it. The fare is 50 rubles (as of September, 2016; eq. to 0.77 US$), travel time 20-35 min. by schedule.
Private marshrutka line 45 also serves this direction. One-way journey costs 150 rubles (as of February 2016; eq. to 2 US$). Due to heavy traffic in Moscow, journey takes 15 minutes to 1 hour.

Taxi[edit]

Several taxi services to Moscow city and suburbs are available at the airport. Uber, Gett, Yandex.Taxi and local Transportation Network Companies offer flat rate trips to anywhere in Moscow.

Metro[edit]

After 2020, the Government of Moscow plans a future expansion of metro line 8 (Kalininsko-Solntsevskaya) which will go from the Rasskazovka station to Vnukovo with one station between them. Should the plan be approved, this will be the first ever Moscow airport to be directly connected by a metro line.

Other facilities[edit]

Previously Vnukovo Airlines had its head office at the airport.[39]

Ownership[edit]

The airport is co-owned by the Russian state and Russian businessman Vitaly Vantsev and his partners. In March 2018, Qatar Airways announced plans buy a 25 percent stake in Vnukovo Airport.[40]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 21 December 1943, a Lisunov Li-2 crashed while on a training flight due to a defect in the left rear fuel tank.[41]
  • On 4 March 1944, Douglas C-47A crashed into a Bell P-39Q Airacobra on the ground while attempting to execute a go-around.[42]
  • On 5 November 1946, Douglas C-47B crashed after the crew decided to go-around some 300 m (980 ft) past a landing sign. The aircraft was flying low and engine power was sharply increased. The aircraft went into a steep climb, lost speed and crashed 600 m (2,000 ft) from the landing sign.[43]
  • On 5 November 1946, an Aeroflot-Lithuania Lisunov Li-2 crashed due to fuel exhaustion after repeated approach attempts while in a holding pattern.[44]
  • On 1 July 1947, an Aeroflot Ilyushin Il-12 crashed after the left engine failed on takeoff, causing a loss of airspeed.[45]
  • On 29 March 1951, an Aeroflot Ilyushin Il-12P crashed during which the right propeller struck the top of a radio tower.[46]
  • On 14 June 1957, an Ilyushin Il-14P operating LOT Polish Airlines Flight 232 crashed after the crew did not follow instruction to use an instrument approach.[47]
  • On 4 November 1957, an Ilyushin Il-14P belonging to the Romanian Government crashed on approach in the fog.[48]
  • On 2 September 1959, an Ilyushin Il-18B suffered significant structural damage, forcing it to make an emergency landing. The aircraft was written off.[49]
  • On 23 October 1959, Aeroflot Flight 200 crashed in a forest on approach and was destroyed by fire, killing 28 of the 29 people aboard.[50]
  • On 26 August 1969, an Aeroflot Ilyushin Il-18B crashed after the crew forgot to lower the landing gear, killing 16 passengers.[51]
  • On 10 October 1971, Aeroflot Flight 773 crashed shortly after takeoff when an explosive device on board detonated, killing all 25 people aboard.[52]
  • On 3 January 1976, Aeroflot Flight 2003, a Tupolev Tu-124, crashed 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) west of Vnukovo Airport after both artificial horizons failed in IMC.
  • On 17 March 1979, Aeroflot Flight 1691 crashed 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) away from the runway while attempting to return to the airport.[53]
  • On 2 June 1980, a Soviet Air Force Antonov An-22A suffered an in-flight fire and crashed short of the runway.[54]
  • On 16 January 2010, Utair Boeing 737-500 VQ-BAC departed the runway on landing and was substantially damaged when the nosewheel collapsed.[55]
  • On 29 December 2012, a Red Wings TU-204 overran the runway. The aircraft burst into flames and broke into three pieces. Five people were killed.[56][57]
  • On 20 October 2014, a Dassault Falcon 50 collided on take-off with a snow plow, killing all four people on board, including the CEO of Total S.A. oil and gas company Christophe de Margerie.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Авиакомпания "РусЛайн" меняет аэропорт базирования в Москве. www.rusline.aero (in Russian). Airline "RusLine". Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  2. ^ Airport information for UUWW at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006.Source: DAFIF.
  3. ^ Airport information for VKO at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF (effective October 2006).
  4. ^ a b "Vnukovo Airport passenger statistics for 2017". Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  5. ^ Advertising to the super-rich: Posters for plutocrats
  6. ^ "Vnukovo international airport". Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  7. ^ "vnukovo.ru – Facts and figures". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  8. ^ "Growth at Vnukovo". Airliner World: 12. May 2014.
  9. ^ "Vnukovo international airport". Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  10. ^ Liu, Jim (13 April 2018). "Azerbaijan Airlines adds Lankaran – Moscow service in S18". Routesonline. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  11. ^ "Flight map". azurair.ru.
  12. ^ Liu, Jim (13 June 2019). "AZUR Air schedules limited-time Boeing 777 Barcelona service in late-June 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  13. ^ Liu, Jim (3 October 2019). "AZUR Air adds Abu Dhabi service from Nov 2019". routesonline.com.
  14. ^ Liu, Jim (13 May 2019). "AZUR Air adds 777-300ER Moscow – Bodrum service in W19". Routesonline. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  15. ^ Liu, Jim (15 May 2019). "Bulgaria Air resumes Bourgas – Moscow Vnukovo from late-May 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  16. ^ a b Liu, Jim (24 January 2019). "Ellinair S19 Moscow service changes". Routesonline. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  17. ^ "I-Fly Destinations". iflyltd.ru. 20 June 2018.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Russia's iFly Airlines extends its China connections". routesonline.com. 20 June 2018.
  19. ^ Liu, Jim (2 June 2017). "Mahan Air expands Moscow flights from June 2017". Routesonline. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  20. ^ a b Liu, Jim (22 July 2019). "Pobeda plans Dubai / Eilat launch in Oct 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  21. ^ Плохотниченко, Юрий (31 July 2019). ""Победа" будет летать из Москвы в Мурманск". Travel.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  22. ^ Liu, Jim (15 August 2019). "Pobeda adds Murmansk service in W19". Routesonline. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  23. ^ ""Победа" возобновит рейсы из Москвы и Санкт-Петербурга в Нальчик". ТАСС. 18 July 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  24. ^ "Авиакомпания "Победа" запустит ежедневные рейсы между Москвой и Саратовом с 20 августа". www.mskagency.ru (in Russian). Агентство "Москва". 9 July 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Flight schedule". bgoperator.ru.
  26. ^ "Открытие нового рейса Саранск - Москва в сентябре". www.rusline.aero. Авиакомпания «РусЛайн». Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  27. ^ Возобновление рейсов в Ригу и Палангу из Москвы. www.rusline.aero (in Russian). Airline "RusLine". Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  28. ^ Liu, Jim (24 June 2019). "SCAT adds Nur-Sultan – Moscow service from July 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  29. ^ Liu, Jim (16 April 2018). "Tunisair adds Monastir – Moscow Vnukovo charters from June 2018". Routesonline. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  30. ^ "Авиакомпания "ЮТэйр" - Utair свяжет Сибирь и Юг России". www.utair.ru. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  31. ^ Liu, Jim (26 May 2017). "UTair adds Irakleion service from June 2017". Routesonline. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  32. ^ Плохотниченко, Юрий (15 January 2019). "Utair приостановит полеты в Вену и Милан на три месяца". Travel.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  33. ^ Liu, Jim (9 July 2019). "Uzbekistan Airways resumes Karshi – Moscow service from late-July 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  34. ^ Dickinson, Greg (12 July 2019). "Russia for £26, anyone? New budget flights from London announced". The Telegraph. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  35. ^ "Wizz Air unveils plans for new Russia connections from Luton". Breaking Travel News. 12 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  36. ^ a b Liu, Jim. "Yakutia W19 Domestic network additions". Routesonline. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  37. ^ Аэропорт Внуково в 2018 году стал вторым в Европе по приросту пассажиропотока. corp.vnukovo.ru (in Russian).
  38. ^ "Fares and services". Aeroexpress. Archived from the original on 2016-03-02. Retrieved 2016-02-20.
  39. ^ Accident Investigation Board Norway (2 November 1999). "Report on the Accident to Vnukovo Airline's Tupolev Tu-154M RA 85621 Near Svalbard Airport Longyear, Norway on 29 August 1996". Retrieved 21 August 2014. p. 4/121. "Owner: Vnukovo Airlines 1st Ulitsa Relsovaya 12 Vnukovo Airport Moscow, 103027, Russia"
  40. ^ "Qatar Airways plans to buy stake in Russian airport as emir visits Moscow". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  41. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Lisunov Li-2 CCCP-L4032 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  42. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas C-47A-1-DK (DC-3) CCCP-L875 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  43. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas C-47B-5-DK (DC-3) CCCP-L946 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  44. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Lisunov Li-2 CCCP-L4207 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  45. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 12P CCCP-L1317 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  46. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 12P CCCP-L1313 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  47. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 14P SP-LNF Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  48. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 14P YR-PCC Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  49. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 18B CCCP-75676 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  50. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 14P CCCP-41806 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  51. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 18B CCCP-75708 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  52. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Tupolev 104B CCCP-42490 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  53. ^ http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19790317-1%7CTupolev Tu-104B accident Mar 17 1979
  54. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Antonov 22A CCCP-09311 Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  55. ^ "Recent accidents / incidents worldwide". JACDEC. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  56. ^ "Four dead as passenger jet crashes into highway outside Moscow (PHOTOS, VIDEO)". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  57. ^ "TU-204 RA-64047 29.12.2012". mak-iac.org. Interstate Aviation Committee. Retrieved 7 May 2019.

External links[edit]

Media related to Vnukovo International Airport at Wikimedia Commons