Hawaiian Airlines

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Hawaiian Airlines
Hawaiian Airlines Logo.svg
IATA
HA
ICAO
HAL
Callsign
HAWAIIAN
Founded January 30, 1929 (as Inter-Island Airways)
Hubs
Frequent-flyer program HawaiianMiles
Airport lounge Premier Club
Subsidiaries 'Ohana by Hawaiian
Fleet size 50
Destinations 28
Company slogan Hawai'i flies with us
Parent company Hawaiian Holdings Inc.
Headquarters Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
Key people Mark Dunkerley (President & CEO)
Website hawaiianairlines.com

Hawaiian Airlines, Inc. is the largest airline in Hawaii. It is the 8th largest commercial airline in the US, and is based in Honolulu, Hawaii.[2][3] The airline operates its main hub at Honolulu International Airport and a secondary hub out of Kahului Airport on the island of Maui.[1] Hawaiian Airlines is owned by Hawaiian Holdings, Inc. Mark Dunkerley is the President and Chief Executive Officer of Hawaiian Holdings.[4]

Hawaiian has never had a fatal accident in its entire history, nor has it ever had an accident with a hull loss, and is the oldest US carrier with such a distinction in both fields.[5] Hawaiian Airlines was the number one on-time carrier in the United States from November 2003 until November 2006, when rival Aloha Airlines took the number one spot, pushing Hawaiian to a close second.[6][7] The airline has also frequently been number one in fewest cancellations,[8] baggage handling, and fewest oversales.[9] Hawaiian Airlines has been rated the best carrier serving Hawaii by Travel + Leisure,[10] Zagat, and Condé Nast Traveler.[11]

History[edit]

Early years (1929–1966)[edit]

A Bellanca CH-300, similar to the one which Inter-Island Airways used for its inaugural service
Convair 640 turboprop airliner of Hawaiian at Honolulu in 1971. The airline operated Convairs from 1952 until 1974

Inter-Island Airways, the forerunner of the airline which is now known as Hawaiian Airlines, was incorporated on January 30, 1929. Inter-Island Airways, a subsidiary of Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company, began operations on October 6, 1929 with a Bellanca CH-300 Pacemaker, providing short sightseeing flights over Oʽahu.[12][13] Scheduled service began a month later on November 11 using Sikorsky S-38s with a flight from Honolulu to Hilo, via intermediary stops on Molokai and Maui.[14]

On October 1, 1941, the name was changed to Hawaiian Airlines[15] when the company phased out the older Sikorsky S-38 and Sikorsky S-43 flying boats. The first Douglas DC-3s were added to the fleet in August 1941, some examples remaining in operation until final disposal in November 1968.[16]

Modern pressurised equipment was introduced from 1952 in the form of the Convair 340. Further Convair 440s were added in 1959-60, most of the Convairs being converted to turbine propellor power in 1965-67. The last were sold in 1974.[17]

Jet age and route expansion (1966–1994)[edit]

In 1966 jet travel started with the acquisition of Douglas DC-9 aircraft, which cut travel times in half on most of the routes. In 1984 the company began to operate charter services to the South Pacific using Douglas DC-8 aircraft, and soon added Lockheed L-1011 aircraft to the fleet for West Coast services. As the west coast market grew, the South Pacific market shrunk, and service was reduced when the company's DC-8s were retired in 1993; and when the L-1011s were replaced by the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 in 1994. According to State of Hawaii historical records, Hawaiian also constructed the Kapalua Airport in 1987 on the western side of Maui. The airline served this small airfield with de Havilland Dash 7 four engine turboprops. Kapalua Airport was acquired by the state in 1993, and Hawaiian discontinued service to the airport with the retirement of the Dash 7 fleet in 1994. The retirement of the Dash 7 in 1994 also resulted in the airline operating an all-jet fleet.

Aircraft equipment change (1994–2003)[edit]

The DC-10s were obtained from American Airlines, who continued to provide maintenance on the aircraft. An agreement with American also included converting to American's SABRE reservation system and participation in American Airlines' AAdvantage frequent flyer program. The DC-10s were retired between 2002 and 2003.[5] The company replaced these leased DC-10s with 14 leased Boeing 767 aircraft during the fleet modernization, and replaced the DC-9s with Boeing 717 aircraft. The Boeing aircraft featured an updated rendition of the company's "Pualani" tail art, which had appeared on its Douglas aircraft since the 1970s.

Hawaiian's original 1975 Pualani logo, designed by Landor Associates and introduced on the McDonnell Douglas DC-9-50.[18][page needed]

Reorganization (2003–2005)[edit]

Hawaiian Airlines filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on March 21, 2003 with operations still continuing, and at the time was overdue for $4.5 million USD worth of payments to the pilots' pension plan. Within the company, it was suggested that the plan be terminated. As of May 2005, Hawaiian Airlines had received court approval of its reorganization plan. The company emerged from bankruptcy protection on June 2, 2005, with reduced operating costs through renegotiated contracts with its union work groups; restructured aircraft leases; and investment from RC Aviation, a unit of San Diego-based Ranch Capital, which bought a majority share in parent company Hawaiian Holdings Inc in 2004.

Further expansion (2005–2012)[edit]

Passengers boarding a Hawaiian Boeing 717–200 at Kona International Airport for an inter-island flight

On October 1, 2005 Hawaiian Airlines began nonstop daily flights from Honolulu to San Jose, California. This made San Jose the fifth gateway city in California to be serviced by Hawaiian; the others were Los Angeles, San Diego, Sacramento and San Francisco.[19]

On May 4, 2006 Hawaiian Airlines announced expanded service between the U.S. mainland and Hawaii in anticipation of the induction of four additional Boeing 767–300 aircraft, primarily focused on expanding non-stop service to Kahului Airport from San Diego, Seattle, and Portland. Additional flights were also added between Honolulu and the cities of Sacramento, Seattle and Los Angeles.

On July 24, 2007 Hawaiian Airlines and Air New Zealand signed a $45 million contract for Air New Zealand to perform heavy maintenance on Hawaiian's Boeing 767 aircraft. The contract is to last for five years. Air New Zealand stated that this opportunity will also give a chance for them to build their expertise working on 767s.[20]

This Hawaiian 767–300 wears the Oakland Raiders logo on its forward fuselage

On August 27, 2007 the airline announced plans to launch flights to Manila in the Philippines. Hawaiian Airlines said it will begin nonstop service to the Philippines in March 2008, in the first major international expansion since it emerged from bankruptcy protection in June 2005.[21][22] In response to the closure of ATA Airlines and Aloha Airlines, the airline announced new flights to Oakland beginning on May 1, 2008.[23]

In August 2007 the Seattle Seahawks announced that they would be flying on Hawaiian Airlines for the upcoming National Football League seasons. This marks the second team that Hawaiian Airlines will be flying. The Oakland Raiders of the NFL have also been flying Hawaiian Airlines since the 1990s. The two teams fly on Hawaiian's Boeing 767s to and from all their games. Two of Hawaiian's Boeing 767 aircraft have been fitted with decals of logos from the Seahawks and the Raiders.

In late 2009 Hawaiian airlines began to install winglets on their existing 767-300s to cut fuel costs.

On February 16, 2010, Hawaiian Airlines announced that they will seek approval from the U.S. Department of Transportation to begin nonstop flights from its hub at Honolulu to Tokyo-Haneda sometime in 2010. The airline is one of the 5 US carriers (the others being Delta, Continental (until it merged with United), United, and American seeking approval to serve Haneda as part of the U.S.-Japan OpenSkies agreement.[24] Approval was granted from USDOT to begin nonstop service to Haneda, Japan. The flight began service on November 18, 2010.[25] In addition, the airline is planning to establish a codeshare agreement with All Nippon Airways.[26]

On June 30, 2010, Hawaiian Airlines announced they would begin nonstop service to Seoul-Incheon, South Korea. Flights began on January 12, 2011.[27]

On February 14, 2011, Hawaiian announced that it will add Osaka, Japan to its network, with flights beginning July 12, 2011.[28]

On March 31, 2011, Hawaiian announced that they will be renovating the check-in lobby of the inter-island terminal at the Honolulu International Airport (Hawaiian's main hub). Hawaiian, the only occupant of the inter-island terminal, will be removing the traditional check-in counter, to install six circular check-in islands in the middle of the lobbies. Those check-in islands can be used for inter-island, mainland, and international flights.[29]

On September 13, 2011, Hawaiian announced that it will continue its expansion in Asia by adding Fukuoka, Japan to its network, with flights beginning April 16, 2012 pending approval from the Japanese government.[30]

On November 16, 2011, Hawaiian announced that it will expand to the east coast with daily flights to New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport beginning on June 4, 2012.[31]

On November 17, 2011, Airbus and Hawaiian announced that they had signed a firm order for five additional Airbus A330-200.[32]

On May 9, 2012, Hawaiian announced that it will expand in Japan with a route to Sapporo. This will be Hawaiian's fourth destination in Japan. Hawaiian plans to begin this route on November 1, 2012, pending government approval.[33]

On June 19, 2012, Hawaiian announced service to the airline's second destination in Australia, with flights to Brisbane Airport beginning November 27, 2012.[34]

On July 16, 2012, the airline announced that it will start flights to Auckland beginning March 2013.[35] This will make Hawaiian the only US carrier to fly to New Zealand.

On August 30, 2012, Hawaiian filed an application with the U.S. Department of Transportation for a nonstop route between Kona and Tokyo-Haneda.[36] This would fill a void that Japan Airlines left when it ceased service to Kona nearly two years ago.[36] However, the US Department of Transportation rejected the airline's application to begin service.[37]

On December 3, 2012, the airline announced it plans to begin flights to Taipei, Taiwan (Republic of China) beginning July 9, 2013 as part of its aggressive expansion plans.[38]

Further fleet expansion and new subsidiary carrier (2013–present)[edit]

On February 11, 2013, the airline announced the name of its new venture into the turboprop interisland business. "Ohana by Hawaiian" will be operated by Empire Airlines using ATR 42 Turboprop airplanes. Service will begin in Summer 2013 to Molokai and Lanai.[39]

On February 14, 2013, Hawaiian announced service to the airline's fifth destination in Japan, with flights to Sendai Airport beginning June 25, 2013.[40]

On April 10, 2013, the airline announced its first destination in China, with service to Beijing expected to start on April 16, 2014, pending government approval. At the same time, the airline announced that it would end service to Manila in the Philippines on July 31, 2013.[41]

On July 11, 2013, the airline is planning to establish a codeshare agreement with China Airlines.[42]

On January 6, 2014 the airline announced its daily year-round non-stop service between Los Angeles and Maui beginning on July 1, 2014.[43]

On February 26, 2014, the airline announced that it would end service to Fukuoka on June 30, 2014.[44]

On March 5, 2014, the airline announced that it would end service to Taipei on April 7, 2014.[45]


Hawaiian Holdings[edit]

Hawaiian Holdings, Inc. (NASDAQ: HA) is the parent company of Hawaiian Airlines, Inc.[46]

Previously listed on the American Stock Exchange, the company moved to NASDAQ on June 2, 2008.[47] Hawaiian Holdings, Inc. is a holding company whose primary asset is the sole ownership of all issued and outstanding shares of common stock of Hawaiian Airlines, Inc. On June 30, 2008, the company announced that it had been added to the Russell 3000 Index.[48]

ʻOhana by Hawaiian[edit]

ʻOhana by Hawaiian is a regional subsidiary carrier of Hawaiian Airlines. The service is operated using three ATR 42 turboprop airplanes owned by Hawaiian and operated under contract by Empire Airlines. The new service was slated to begin in Summer 2013 initially flying to Molokai and Lanai, however the airline was unable to begin during that period due to Federal Aviation Administration delays in certifying ʻOhana's operation.[49] ʻOhana by Hawaiian is fully integrated into the Hawaiian Airlines network, offering seamless connectivity throughout the islands and onto North America and Asia-Pacific regions.[39] In February 2014, Hawaiian announced that ʻOhana would begin service on March 11.[50] On June 12, 2014, ʻOhana by Hawaiian announced it will be expanding its route network to Maui offering daily flights between Kahului, Maui and Moloka'i; Kahului and Kona, Hawai'i Island; and Kahului and Hilo.[51]

Destinations[edit]

Hawaiian Airlines serves destinations in several Asia-Pacific countries and territories. The airline added its sixth international destination, Incheon International Airport near Seoul, South Korea on January 12, 2011.[27] It also has daily and weekly direct, non-stop international flights from Honolulu to Tahiti, Australia, South Korea, Japan, New Zealand, and China.

Fleet[edit]

As of July 2014, the Hawaiian Airlines fleet consists of the following aircraft with an average age of 8.4 years:[4][52][53]

The airline names its individual aircraft for birds found in Polynesia as well as Polynesian constellations used to navigate to the Hawaiian islands. The fleet of Airbus A330-243 aircraft are named for the constellations Makali‘i, Hokūle‘a, Iwakeli'i, Hanaiakamalama, Hōkūpa‘a, Manaiakalani, Heiheionakeiki, Nahiku, Keali'iokonaikalewa, Nāmāhoe, Hokulei, and Hikianalia. The Boeing 717 are named for the birds ʻIʻiwi, ʻElepaio, ʻApapane, ʻAmakihi, ʻAkepa, Pueo, ʻAlauahio, ʻAnianiau, ʻŌmaʻo, Palila, ʻAkikiki, ʻIo, Puaiohi, Poʻouli, ʻŌʻū, ʻEwa ʻEwa, and ʻUaʻu. The Boeing 767-33A are named for Kōlea, Manu, ʻAkēʻakē, 'A, Noio, Ou, Pakalakala, Iwa, Moli, Koaʻe ʻUla, Hunakai, 'Ulili, Koaʻe Kea, Akohekohe, and ʻAkiapōlāʻau.[54][55]

A Hawaiian Airlines Airbus A330-200 at Tokyo Haneda International Airport in 2011.
Hawaiian Airlines Fleet
Aircraft Total Orders Options Passengers Notes
P Y Total
ATR 42-500 3 0 48 48 Operated by Empire Airlines as ʻOhana by Hawaiian
Airbus A321neo 16 9 TBA Deliveries: 2017–2020
Airbus A330-200 18 4[A] 5 18 276 294 Deliveries until 2015
3 to be leased from AWAS
Airbus A330-800neo 6 6 TBA Deliveries: 2017–2020
Boeing 717-200 18 8 115
110
123
118
3 leased from Boeing Capital
Boeing 767-300 2 18 246 264 oldest of medium range to be phased out and replaced with A330-200 and A321neo jets
Boeing 767-300ER 9 234
241
246
252
259
264
oldest of extended range to be phased out and replaced with A330-200
Total 50 26 20

A 3 lease orders.

Hawaiian Holdings revealed on July 17, 2012, that it had signed a Letter of Intent to acquire turboprop aircraft with the aim of establishing a subsidiary carrier to serve routes not currently in Hawaiian's neighbor island system.[56]

Flight Global reported on September 5 that Hawaiian Airlines has signed agreements to buy two turboprop aircraft from an unnamed supplier.[57] The airline confirmed on October 17 that it had acquired one used ATR 42-500, with a second used aircraft to be acquired the following month with both ATR turboprops to be used to serve the islands of Molokai and Lanai.[58] In December 2012 it was announced that Empire Airlines will operate the aircraft on behalf of Hawaiian.[59]

In January 2013, Hawaiian signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Airbus for an order of 16 A321neo aircraft plus up to 9 options. The aircraft will be operated in a 2-class, 190 seat configuration.[60] Following the completion of labor agreements relating to the operation of the aircraft with the airline's pilot and flight attendant unions, the airline finalized the order in March 2013.[61]

Retired fleet[edit]

Throughout its history, Hawaiian Airlines has operated a diverse range of aircraft including the following aircraft:[18][page needed][62]

Hawaiian Airlines retired passenger fleet
Aircraft Total Year acquired Year retired Notes
Bellanca CH-300 Pacemaker 1 1929 1933 Re-acquired in 2009 and restored to 1929 condition[12][13]
Sikorsky S-38 4 1929 1942 One (1) aircraft converted to an air freighter and used during World War II
Sikorsky S-43 4 1935 1946 Two (2) aircraft converted to air freighters and used during World War II
Douglas DC-3 13 1941 1966
Beechcraft 18 1 1947 (?) Used for charter flights and pilot training
Convair CV-340 13 1953 1973 All aircraft originally delivered as CV-340s
Later upgraded to CV-440 and CV-640 standards. CV-640 conversion involved removal of piston engines and installation of turboprop engines.
Douglas DC-6 4 1958 1969(?)
Vickers Viscount 2 1963 1964 British manufactured four engine turboprop
NAMC YS-11 3 1966 1967 Japanese manufactured twin engine turboprop
McDonnell Douglas DC-9-10 5 1966 1971 First jet aircraft type operated by Hawaiian
McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 12 1968 1975(?) Replaced with Douglas DC-9-50 aircraft
McDonnell Douglas DC-9-50 22 1975 2001 Replaced with Boeing 717-200 aircraft
Shorts 330 3 1978 1980 British manufactured twin engine turboprop
McDonnell Douglas MD-81 5 1981 1990 Replaced with Douglas DC-9-50 aircraft
de Havilland Canada Dash 7 6 1981 1994 Canadian manufactured four engine turboprop with short take off and landing (STOL) performance
Douglas DC-8 3 1983 1993 Super DC-8 aircraft: two (2) DC-8-62s, one (1) DC-8-63
Lockheed L-1011 TriStar 5 1985 1994 Replaced with Douglas DC-10 aircraft
McDonnell Douglas DC-10 14 1994 2003[63] Replaced with Boeing 767-300 aircraft.

Hawaiian Airlines also operated Lockheed L-188 Electra four engine turboprop aircraft which were used to transport cargo only.

Long-haul fleet renewal[edit]

A Hawaiian Airlines Boeing 767–300, christened Akohekohe, similar to the one used to transport stranded Aloha Airlines and ATA Airlines passengers and flight crews.

On November 27, 2007, Hawaiian Airlines signed a MOU (Memorandum of Understanding) with Airbus for 24 long-range jets priced at $4.4 billion. The order includes six Airbus A330-200s with a further six purchase rights; and six Airbus A350-800s with a further six purchase rights - plans to fly to Paris and London were discussed. Deliveries for the A330s begin in 2010 while the first A350 will be delivered in 2017.[64] Mark Dunkerley, President and CEO of the airline has stated that the addition of the A330 aircraft will finally make nonstop flights to the U.S. East Coast economically feasible, as the current Boeing 767s face weight penalties during parts of the year.

These new Airbus A330s will be equipped with Panasonic Avionics Corporation's new eX2 in-seat audio/video-on-demand in-flight entertainment system.[65]

On October 27, 2008, Hawaiian announced that prior to the arrival of its new A330s, it would lease two additional Airbus A330-200 aircraft from AWAS beginning in 2011, at the same time extending the leases of two Boeing 767-300ER aircraft from AWAS to 2011 (to be withdrawn from service coincident with the delivery of the A330s).[66] Two weeks later, the airline announced the lease of an additional A330-200 from CIT Aerospace for delivery in 2010 and that one of the A330s coming from AWAS would also be delivered in 2010.[67]

On March 9, 2010, the airline announced that it had converted one of its purchase rights into an order scheduled for delivery in the second quarter of 2011.[68]

In December 2010 Hawaiian ordered an additional six A330-200 aircraft to the six A330-200 already ordered and three already in service.

On July 22, 2014, the airline signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for six Airbus A330-800neo aircraft along with six options, to be delivered from 2019. The MOU replaces the order of six A350-800's which were scheduled to be delivered from 2017. "The A330-800neo's fuel efficiency, additional range and commonality with our existing A330 fleet makes the A330-800neo an elegant solution to our need for growth aircraft toward the end of this decade," said Mark Dunkerley, Hawaiian Airlines president and chief executive officer."[69]

Fleet adjustments following Aloha Airlines and ATA shutdowns[edit]

Shortly after the Aloha Airlines shutdown, Hawaiian used one of its Boeing 767-300ER wide-body aircraft (normally used for trans-pacific flights), for several inter-island flights (for which Hawaiian normally uses its narrow-body Boeing 717) due to the large number of stranded Aloha passengers needing flights to the other Hawaiian islands.

On April 30, 2008, Hawaiian's President and CEO commented during a quarterly conference call that Hawaiian Airlines was in talks to acquire additional aircraft to meet demand due to the shutdown of Aloha Airlines' passenger operations and the closing of ATA Airlines. No firm agreements had been signed, but two options were given for the inter-island fleet: Leasing additional 717s from existing lessors or leasing McDonnell Douglas MD-80 aircraft on short-term leases. If the MD-80 had been chosen, it would have been the second time Hawaiian Airlines used that aircraft in its history. Hawaiian previously flew a small number of MD-80 aircraft during the 1980s. Also mentioned was a letter of intent for the acquisition of an additional Boeing 767-300ER to join the fleet.[70]

On June 4, 2008, the airline announced that it had agreed to lease an additional four 717s from Boeing Capital, with deliveries between September and the end of 2008.[71]

HawaiianMiles[edit]

HawaiianMiles logo

HawaiianMiles is Hawaiian Airlines' frequent-flyer program. Miles accumulated in the program allow members to redeem tickets, upgrade service class, or obtain free or discounted car rentals, hotel stays, merchandise, or other products and services through partners. The most active members, based on the amount and price of travel booked, are designated Pualani Gold and Pualani Platinum, with privileges such as separate check-in, priority upgrade and standby processing, or complimentary upgrades.[72]

Hawaiian also has frequent-flyer partnerships with several other airlines, allowing HawaiianMiles members to earn credit for flying partner airlines and/or members of partner airline frequent flyer programs to earn credit for Hawaiian flights. Some partnerships restrict credit to only certain flights, such as inter-island flights, or to code-share flights booked through Hawaiian.

HawaiianMiles airline partnerships[73]
Airline Program Earn/redeem partner miles
for Hawaiian flights
Earn/redeem HawaiianMiles
for partner flights
Ref
All Nippon Airways ANA Mileage Club Yes Yes [74]
American Airlines AAdvantage Yes Yes [75]
China Airlines Dynasty Flyer Yes Yes [76]
Delta Air Lines SkyMiles Yes No [77]
JetBlue Airways TrueBlue Yes Yes [78]
Korean Air SKYPASS Yes Yes
United Airlines MileagePlus Yes No
US Airways Dividend Miles Yes No
Virgin America eleVAte Redeem Yes [79]
Virgin Atlantic Airways Flying Club Yes Yes
Virgin Australia Velocity Rewards Yes Yes

HawaiianMiles allows one-way redemption on Hawaiian Airlines flights only. Currently, the lowest-priced one-way economy class ticket is an inter-island coach saver flight for 7,500 miles.[80]

In-flight services[edit]

Hawaiian provides complimentary and paid beverage service on all of its flights. Meals are not provided on interisland flights due to their short length (30–45 minutes). On its U.S. mainland and international flights, Hawaiian is one of the only major U.S. airlines to still provide complimentary meals in its main cabin (coach class); each meal is made with no preservatives, all-natural ingredients and packaged with recyclable materials.[81] In 2009, Hawaiian introduced premium meals in its main cabin, giving passengers the option of having the complimentary meal or paying to upgrade to a premium meal. The premium meals consist of a variety of high end Asian cuisine, among others.[81][82]

In March 2007, Hawaiian introduced a "tasting menu" or "tapas menu" for its first class passengers on its U.S. mainland and international flights. The menu consists of twenty entrees set on a rotation, with five available on any given flight. Passengers are provided information on the available entrees for their flight when they board, or shortly after takeoff, and may choose up to three entrees as part of their inflight meal.[82][83]

On Boeing 767 aircraft, Hawaiian offers iPad mini tablet computers for rent,[84] in addition to movies shown on overhead projection screens. Prior to September 1, 2013, Hawaiian offered DigEplayer portable video players for rent. Airbus A330 aircraft are equipped with on-demand units built into every seatback.

In August 2012, Hawaiian announced an upgrade to its economy-class inflight U.S. mainland service. Among the upgrades were a new menu, a complimentary glass of wine on lunch/dinner flights and a free tropical cocktail before landing on breakfast flights. This was in contrast to other airlines cutting back on meal service.[85] According to Hawaiian's CEO Mark Dunkerley:

"In today's competitive world you cannot justify providing complimentary meals on a traditional business model. It simply does not pay for itself... which explains why essentially everybody has taken all that free food off the airplane. We're being illogical by actually investing heavily in this area... It's part of who we are, and it's what makes us different from everybody else."[85]

Beginning August 1, 2014 Hawaiian Airlines will be offering Extra Comfort only on Airbus A330-200 aircraft, comes with priority boarding, full 36 inches (91 cm) of legroom, complimentary on-demand in-seat entertainment, upgraded meal on international main meal only, comfort kit on international routes only, complimentary pillow and blanket on all domestic routes, souvenir pillow and blanket set on international routes only.[86]

Incidents[edit]

On December 23, 2000, Hawaiian Airlines flight 481 from Honolulu to Papeete, Tahiti operated by a DC-10 (N132AA), landed long in crosswinds during a thunderstorm on a wet runway, overran the runway and came to a stop with its front landing gear in a lagoon off the end of the runway. There were no injuries. The aircraft was repaired and returned to service, then sold to Federal Express in 2005 when Hawaiian Airlines replaced its DC-10 fleet with Boeing 767 aircraft.[87]

On April 20, 2014, a 15-year old teenager from Santa Clara, California, jumped over a 6-foot fence at San Jose International Airport. He then stowed away on the wheel well of Hawaiian Airlines flight 45, a Boeing 767-300ER en route to Kahului Airport in Maui. The aircraft landed in Kahului about 5 hours later and he remained in the wheel well for about an hour before leaving the plane. Airport security saw the teenager and immediately notified authorities. An ambulance and police arrived and the teen was taken to a hospital.[88]

The teen told FBI authorities that he had lost consciousness when the plane took off, regaining consciousness after landing. The FBI decided not to press charges against the teen, while a San Jose airport spokesperson said that "no system is 100 percent and it is possible to scale an airport perimeter fence line, especially under cover of darkness and remain undetected and it appears that’s what this teenager did." The teen had reportedly been trying to get to Somalia to see his mother.[88]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gradidge, J.M. The Convairliners story. 1997. Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd ISBN 0-85130-243-2.
  • Gradidge, Jennifer. DC-1, DC-2, DC-3 - The First Seventy Years. 2006. Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd. ISBN 0-85130-332-3.

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External links[edit]