J. C. Watts
|J. C. Watts|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Oklahoma's 4th district
January 3, 1995 – January 3, 2003
|Preceded by||Dave McCurdy|
|Succeeded by||Tom Cole|
|Member of the Oklahoma Corporation Commission|
January 14, 1991 – January 3, 1995
|Born||Julius Caesar "J. C." Watts, Jr.[note 1]
November 18, 1957
|Alma mater||University of Oklahoma (BA, 1981)|
|College:||University of Oklahoma|
|Ottawa Rough Riders
Career highlights and awards
|Honors:||1981 Grey Cup Most Valuable Player|
Julius Caesar "J. C." Watts, Jr.[note 1] (born November 18, 1957) is an American politician from Oklahoma who was a college football quarterback for the Oklahoma Sooners and later played professionally in the Canadian Football League. Watts served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1995 to 2003 as a Republican, representing Oklahoma's 4th Congressional District.
Watts was born and raised in Eufaula, Oklahoma, in a rural impoverished neighborhood. After being one of the first children to attend an integrated elementary school, he became a high school quarterback and gained a football scholarship to the University of Oklahoma. He graduated from college in 1981 with a degree in journalism and became a football player in the Canadian Football League until his retirement in 1986.
Watts became a Baptist minister and was elected in 1990 to the Oklahoma Corporation Commission as the first African-American in Oklahoma to win statewide office. He successfully ran for Congress in 1994 and was re-elected to three additional terms with increasing vote margins. Watts delivered the Republican response to Bill Clinton's 1997 State of the Union address and was elected Chair of the House Republican Conference in 1998. He retired in 2003 and turned to lobbying and business work, also occasionally serving as a political commentator.
Early life and career
Watts was born in Eufaula in McIntosh County, Oklahoma to J. C. "Buddy" Watts, Sr., and Helen Watts (d. 1992). His father was a Baptist minister, cattle trader, the first black police officer in Eufaula, and a member of the Eufaula City Council. His mother was a homemaker. Watts is the fifth of six children and grew up in a poor rural African-American neighborhood. He was one of two black children who integrated the Jefferson Davis Elementary School in Eufaula and the first black quarterback at Eufaula High School.
While in high school, Watts fathered a daughter with a white female, causing a scandal. Their families decided against an interracial marriage because of contemporary racial attitudes and Watts' family provided for the child until she could be adopted by Watts' uncle, Wade Watts, a Baptist minister, civil rights leader and head of the Oklahoma division of the NAACP.
He graduated from high school in 1976 and attended the University of Oklahoma on a football scholarship. In 1977, Watts married Frankie Jones, an African-American woman with whom he had fathered a second daughter during high school.
Watts began his college football career as the second-string quarterback and left college twice, but his father convinced him to return, and Watts became starting quarterback of the Oklahoma Sooners in 1979 and led them to consecutive Orange Bowl victories. Watts graduated from college in 1981 with a Bachelor of Arts in journalism. Watts sought entrance in the National Football League through the New York Jets, but instead entered the Canadian Football League and played for the Ottawa Rough Riders, whom he helped reach the 1981 Grey Cup game. He stayed with the team from 1981 to 1985 and played a season for the Toronto Argonauts before retiring in 1986.
Watts returned to Oklahoma and became a youth minister in Del City and was ordained as a Baptist minister in 1993. He is a teetotaler. Watts opened a highway construction company and later cited discontent with government regulation of his business as reason to become a candidate for public office. Watts' family was affiliated with the Democratic Party and his father and uncle Wade Watts were active in the party, but it did not help Watts when he ran for public office and he changed his party affiliation in 1989, months before his first statewide race. Watts later stated he had first considered changing parties when he covered the 1980 U.S. Senate campaign of Republican Don Nickles. Watts' father and uncle continued to strongly oppose the Republican party, but supported him. Watts won election to the Oklahoma Corporation Commission in November 1990 for a six-year term as the first African-American elected to statewide office in Oklahoma. He served as a member of the Commission from 1990 to 1995 and as its chairman from 1993 to 1995.
U.S. House of Representatives
1994 Congressional election
Watts ran for Congress in 1994 to succeed Dave McCurdy, who had announced his retirement from the House of Representatives to run for the Senate. He positioned himself as a conservative, favoring the death penalty, school prayer, a balanced budget amendment and welfare reform, and opposing abortion and reduced defense spending. After a hard-fought primary campaign against state representative Ed Apple, Watts won 49 percent to Apple's 48 percent of the vote in August 1994, and 52 percent in the resulting run-off election in September 1994 with the support of Representative Jack Kemp and actor and National Rifle Association president Charlton Heston. Watts started his race against the Democratic nominee, David Perryman, a white lawyer from Chickasha, with a wide lead in several early polls and 92 percent name recognition in one poll. Watts hosted former President George H. W. Bush, U.S. Senator Bob Dole, and Minority Whip Newt Gingrich and focused on welfare reform and the necessity of capital formation and capital gains, as well as a reduction in the capital gains tax as beneficial for urban blacks. Some voters were expected to not vote for Watts because of race, but the editor of a local political newspaper argued Watts' established Christian conservative image and his popularity as a football player would help him win. On November 8, 1994, Watts was elected with 52 percent of the vote as the first African-American Republican U.S. Representative from south of the Mason-Dixon Line since Reconstruction. He and Gary Franks of Connecticut were the only two African-American Republicans in the House. Oklahoma's Fourth District at the time was 90 percent white and had been represented by Democrats since 1922.
As Congressman, Watts was assigned to the Armed Services Committee and the Financial Services Committee. Watts emphasized moral absolutes and was considered in line with Republican Speaker Newt Gingrich's agenda, the Contract with America, and at the time was the only African-American who did not join the Congressional Black Caucus. He initially supported ending affirmative action, declaring inadequate education the main obstacle for racial equality, but subsequently opposed legislation banning the practice for the federal government. Watts focused on promoting his party, attending NAACP meetings and meeting with representatives from historically black colleges. In 1995, Watts was named national co-chairman for the presidential campaign of Republican Bob Dole.
Reelection and successive terms
Watts' 1996 reelection campaign featured state representative Ed Crocker as the Democratic candidate in a negative campaign. Crocker questioned Watts' business dealings because of tax issues for a real estate company of which Watts was the principal owner, and whether he was paying child support for one of his daughters born out of wedlock. Crocker suggested Watts might use drugs or sanction their use because he declined to participate in a voluntary drug screening in the House of Representatives. Watts denied the charge, took the test, and accused Cocker of draft dodging during the Vietnam War and later living at the "center of the West Coast drug culture." Watts was given a featured speaking role at the 1996 Republican National Convention and was re-elected with 58 percent of the vote in the 1996 U.S. House election.
Following the election, Watts switched from the Financial Services Committee to the House Transportation Committee. He was the only African-American Republican in the House and was chosen to deliver the Republican reply to President Bill Clinton's State of the Union address in February 1997, the youngest congressman and first African-American to do so. In his response, Watts focused on providing a positive vision of the Republican Party and advocated deficit and tax reduction and faith-based values. Watts had previously spoken to The Washington Times and created controversy by criticizing "race-hustling poverty pimps" as keeping African-Americans dependent on government. These remarks were viewed as critical of activist Jesse Jackson and Washington, D.C. mayor Marion Barry, and Jesse Jackson, Jr. demanded a public apology. Watts stated he did not speak about Barry and Jackson but about "some of the leadership in the black community."
In his 1998 reelection campaign against Democrat Bruce Ober, Watts faced accusations about debts, unpaid taxes and over actions in a federal bribery investigation in 1991, where he arranged to receive campaign contributions from a lobbyist for telephone companies that were investigated during Watts' membership on the Oklahoma Corporation Commission. Ober used portions of a transcript to try to discredit Watts, and the accusations were widely publicized in Oklahoma. Watts argued he had been exonerated from any criminal conduct and that his financial problems were a result of losses for Oklahoma oil and gas businesses during the 1980s. He was re-elected with 62 percent of the vote.
Leadership position and retirement
In Congress, Watts had established himself as a "devoted conservative." He had a lifetime 94 percent rating from the American Conservative Union and a lifetime "liberal quotient" of 1 percent from Americans for Democratic Action, and was regarded as a team player by Republicans. Watts was elected House Republican Conference Chair in 1998, replacing John Boehner, after a vote of 121–93. Watts assumed the position in 1999 and was the first African-American Republican elected to a leadership post.
In his leadership position, Watts opposed government regulations and President Clinton's attempt to restore the ability of the Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. He voted to impeach Bill Clinton, was appointed by Speaker Dennis Hastert to lead a group of House Republicans to investigate cybersecurity issues, and became a member of a presidential exploratory committee for George W. Bush. Watts argued for using tax reduction to improve education, job training and housing in poor urban and rural settings, and advocated letting religious institutions carry out the work. Watts worked to make his party more inclusive, promoted African trade, supported historically black colleges and universities, and was opposed to federal funding of embryonic stem cell research.
To keep a majority of House seats in the 2000 election, Watts advised Republicans to moderate their language and criticized the party for creating the perception it favored a view of "family values that excluded single mothers." Watts opposed the Confederate battle flag flying over the South Carolina State House and advised Republicans to go slowly on opposing racial quotas. By then, Watts had become involved in a contest with other members of the Republican House leadership, including Tom DeLay, over control of the party's message and nearly announced retirement in early February 2000, due to strains on his family, who remained in Oklahoma during his tenure in Washington, but changed his mind after consultations with constituents, Hastert, and his family. He ran, despite an earlier pledge to serve not more than three terms. Watts won re-nomination with 81 percent against James Odom and was re-elected by his largest margin yet against Democratic candidate Larry Weatherford.
After George W. Bush took office as president, Watts co-sponsored a bill to create tax incentives for charitable donations and allow religious charities to receive federal money for social programs, and proposed several new tax reductions in addition to Bush's tax cut plan, targeting the estate tax and marriage penalty. Watts was one of ten congressional leaders taken to an undisclosed location following the September 11 attacks.
In 2002, Watts stated he would not seek reelection, citing a desire to spend more time with his family, but stated the decision was difficult because Rosa Parks asked him to stay. Republicans argued Watts complained about the party message and the cancellation of an artillery system in his district by the Bush Administration, which Watts denied. Watts supported the candidacy of Tom Cole, who won the election to fill his seat.
After he left Congress, Watts was appointed by President Bush to be a member of the Board of Visitors to the United States Military Academy for a term expiring December 30, 2003. Watts founded a lobbying and consulting firm, J. C. Watts Companies, in Washington, D.C., to represent corporations and political groups and focus on issues he championed in Congress. The John Deere Company hired Watts as lobbyist in 2006 and Watts later invested in a Deere dealership and sought financial support from United States agencies and others for a farm-related project in Senegal. Watts wrote an autobiography, worked as a columnist for the Las Vegas Review-Journal and joined the boards of several companies, including Dillard's, Terex, Clear Channel Communications, and CSX Transportation, and served as chairman of GOPAC.
Watts supported the Iraq War in 2003, stating: "America did not become the leader of the free world by looking the other way to heinous atrocities and unspeakable evils." He was later hired as a political commentator by CNN and following the 2006 House election, Watts argued the Republican Party had lost seats because it failed to address the needs of urban areas and did not offer a positive message. He stated: "We lost our way, pure and simple."
In 2008, Watts announced he was developing a cable news network with the help of Comcast, focusing on an African-American audience, and that he considered voting for Barack Obama, criticizing the Republican party for failing in outreach to the African-American community. Reports showed he contributed to John McCain, but not to Obama.
- Watts, J. C., Jr.; Watson, Chriss (2002). What Color is a Conservative? My Life and My Politics. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-093240-6.
|Year||Democrat||Votes||Pct||Republican||Votes||Pct||3rd Party||Party||Votes||Pct||4th Party||Party||Votes||Pct|
|1994||David Perryman||67,237||43%||J. C. Watts, Jr.||80,251||52%||Bill Tiffee||Independent||7,913||5%|
|1996||Ed Crocker||73,950||40%||J. C. Watts, Jr.||106,923||58%||Robert Murphy||Libertarian||4,500||2%|
|1998||Ben Odom||52,107||38%||J. C. Watts, Jr.||83,272||62%|
|2000||Larry Weatherford||54,808||31%||J. C. Watts, Jr.||114,000||65%||Susan Ducey||Reform||4,897||3%||Keith B. Johnson||Libertarian||1,979||1%|
- "J. C. Watts, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Oklahoma State University Digital Library
- "J. C. Watts Jr.". Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Sanders, Bob Ray (2002-12-11). "Black conservative looks at life". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Waldman, Amy (October 1996). "The GOP's Great Black Hope". The Washington Monthly. Retrieved 2009-05-16.
- Fulwood, Sam, III (1999-02-22). "Republicans Cast Watts as Leader, Healer". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Schmitt, Eric (2000-02-21). "Public Lives; A Rising Republican Star, and Very Much His Own Man". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Seelye, Katharine Q. (1997-02-05). "G.O.P., After Fumbling in '96, Turns to Orator for Response". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Rhoden, William C. (2000-12-17). "Sports of The Times; Watts Now Excels on a Different Field". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Thomas, Jo (1998-11-16). "Rising Congressional Leader Experienced in Self-Defense". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Fineman, Howard (1997-11-08). "Four Eyes On The Prize". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28.
- Holmes, Steven A. (1995-08-06). "2 Black G.O.P. Lawmakers in House Differ Slightly on Affirmative Action". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
-  CFL Legends - J.C. Watts, by RAJEEV MULLICK
- Stout, David (1998-11-19). "The Republican Transition: Man in the News -- Julius Caesar Watts Jr.; A Republican of Many Firsts and Yet a Team Player". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Verhovek, Sam Howe (1994-10-07). "The 1994 Campaign: The Republicans; More Black Candidates Find Places on Republican Ballots". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- "Election Statistics". Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Kuharsky, Paul (1995-01-28). "Super Bowl XXIX; Former Football Stars Bring Game Plans to Capital". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Holmes, Steven A. (1996-09-26). "The States and the Issues". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Lewis, Neil A. (1996-10-08). "The States and the Issues". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Mitchell, Alison (2002-07-02). "Congress's Sole Black Republican Is Retiring". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- "2002 U.S. House Ratings". American Conservative Union. Archived from the original on 2008-02-09. Retrieved 2008-03-18. Lifetime average is given.
- "Voting Records". Americans for Democratic Action. Retrieved 2009-03-19. Scores for years 1994 through 1997 were 0, 1998 as 10, and 1999 through 2002 were 0, with an average of 1.25 percent.
- Seelye, Katharine Q. (1998-11-19). "The Republican Transition: The Overview; Mix of Old and New Is to Lead House G.O.P.". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Clymer, Adam (2000-03-26). "Clinton Urges Giving F.D.A. Oversight Of Tobacco". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Berke, Richard L. (1999-03-08). "Bush Tests Presidential Run With a Flourish". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Hall, Mimi (2001-07-09). "Stem-cell issue splits Republicans". USA Today. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- "Oklahoma GOP Rep. Watts to run again, despite earlier term limits pledge". CNN. 2000-01-31. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- "Primary Election Results 8/22/00". Oklahoma State Election Board. Retrieved 2009-03-19.[dead link]
- Becker, Elizabeth (2001-03-18). "Bill on Church Aid Proposes Tax Incentives for Giving". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Rosenbaum, David E. (2001-03-15). "Republicans, In New Tactic, Offer Increase In Tax Breaks". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Page, Susan; Keen, Judy (2000-12-13). "Next chapter: Will Bush be able to govern?". USA Today. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Raasch, Chuck; Abrams, Doug (2001-09-11). "Top congressional leaders rushed to secure location". Gannett Company (USA Today). Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Waller, Douglas (2002-07-10). "10 Questions For J.C. Watts". Time (magazine). Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Jenkins, Ron (2009-03-03). "Watts' Capitol visit stirs speculation". Associated Press (The Edmond Sun). Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- "President Bush Announced His Intention to Nominate" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. 2003-01-09. Retrieved 2008-03-19.
- "Politics and the Economy; Former Rep. Watts Opens Consulting Firm". The New York Times. 2003-01-08. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Meier, Barry (2006-11-11). "Ex-Quarterback Thrives as Lobbyist". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Watts, J. C. (2009-03-08). "We'll all pay for this massive spending plan". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- "Dillard's, Inc. Announces Election of J.C. Watts, Jr. to Board of Directors". Business Wire (Dun & Bradstreet). 2003-03-04. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- "Terex Corporation Elects Former Congressman J.C. Watts, Jr. to Its Board". Business Wire (Dun & Bradstreet). 2003-01-08. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- "Terex Corporation Elects Former Congressman J.C. Watts, Jr. to Its Board". Business Wire. 2003-02-03. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- "GOPAC Chairman J.C. Watts, Jr. Travels to Mississippi for GOP Campaign Events on Tuesday, September 30". U.S. Newswire. 2003-09-23. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Espo, David (2008-10-01). "Analysis: A vote with unforeseen consequences?". Associated Press (USA Today). Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Wolf, Richard (2006-12-07). "Republicans of '94 revolution reflect on '06". USA Today. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Andrews, Helena (2008-07-17). "Watts launches African-American channel". The Politico. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- "Black Republicans consider voting for Obama". Associated Press (USA Today). 2008-06-14. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Jones, Del (2008-09-11). "Board diversity expands political spectrum". USA Today. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- McNutt, Michael (2009-05-07). "J.C. Watts vows to decide soon on run". The Oklahoman. Retrieved 2009-05-18.
- Hoberock, Barbara (2009-05-22). "Watts will not run for governor". Tulsa World. Retrieved 2009-05-23.
- "J.C. Watts, qb". TotalFootballStats.com. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- Mullick, Rajeev. "History >> CFL Legends >> J.C. Watts". WWW.CFL.CA. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: J. C. Watts|
- "J. C. Watts Companies". Official Company Website.
- "JCWattsFoundation.org". The J.C. & Frankie Watts Foundation.
- "Congressman J.C. Watts Jr.". Archived congressional website from the Library of Congress.
- "J. C. Watts Jr.". Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Congressional profile at GovTrack
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Financial information (federal office) at OpenSecrets.org
- Issue positions and quotes at On the Issues
- Voting record at The Washington Post
- J.C. Watts at the Internet Movie Database
|United States House of Representatives|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Oklahoma's 4th congressional district
|Party political offices|
|Chairman of the House Republican Conference
|Oklahoma Sooners starting quarterback
|Orange Bowl MVP
1980 – shared with Bud Hebert
1981 – shared with Jarvis Coursey