LAM Mozambique Airlines

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LAM – Mozambique Airlines
LAM – Linhas Aéreas de Moçambique SARL
LAM Mozambique Airlines (logo).png
IATA ICAO Callsign
Founded26 August 1936; 83 years ago (1936-08-26) (as DETA - Direcção de Exploração de Transportes Aéreos)
Commenced operations22 December 1937 (1937-12-22)
Focus cities
Frequent-flyer programFlamingo Club[1]
SubsidiariesMoçambique Expresso (100%)
Fleet size6
Parent companyGovernment of Mozambique
HeadquartersMaputo, Mozambique
Key people

LAM - Mozambique Airlines, S. A. (LAM - Linhas Aéreas de Moçambique, S. A.) or Linhas Aéreas de Moçambique, Ltd.,[2] operating as LAM Mozambique Airlines (Portuguese: LAM Linhas Aéreas de Moçambique), is the flag carrier of Mozambique.[3] The airline was established by the Portuguese colonial government of Mozambique in August 1936 (1936-08) as a charter carrier named DETA - Direcção de Exploração de Transportes Aéreos, and was renamed in 1980 following reorganisation.

LAM Mozambique Airlines is based in Maputo,[4] and has its hub at Maputo International Airport.[5] It operates scheduled services in Southern Africa. The company is a member of the International Air Transport Association, and of the African Airlines Association since 1976.[6][7]


Early years[edit]

The airline was established on 26 August 1936 (1936-08-26) as DETA – Direcção de Exploração de Transportes Aéreos, as a division of the Department of Railways, Harbours and Airways of the Portuguese colonial government of Mozambique.[8] Charter flights were operated for a short period of time,[9] until a regular airmail service commenced on 22 December 1937 using a Dragonfly, a Hornet and two Rapides.[10][11][12] Shortly afterwards, these services started carrying passengers, most of them government officials.[11] Flown with Rapides, the Lourenço MarquesGerminston route was one of the company’s mainstays in the early years; it was operated on a twice-weekly basis, and connected with Imperial Airways services to London.[13][14] In April 1938 (1938-04), the eight-hour-long domestic Lourenço Marques–InhambaneBeiraQuelimane coastal route was opened.[13] DETA passengers that were flown along the Mozambican coast could also connect with Imperial services at Lourenço Marques. At that time, Imperial Airways ran a service between Cape Town and Cairo that called at Lourenço Marques. Early in 1938, DETA had signed a contract with Imperial for the provision of such feeder services.[11] During the spring, another Hornet was incorporated into the fleet.[11] Also in 1938, the airline acquired three Junkers Ju 52s and two more Rapides.[12] The coastal service was extended farther north in October, reaching Port Amelia.[11] At April 1939 (1939-04), one Drangonfly, one Hornet, three Junkers Ju 52s and six Rapides were part of the fleet.[15] Most of the operations came to a halt following the outbreak of World War II.[11]

A Beira–Salisbury route was launched in February 1947 (1947-02), with scheduled services to Durban and Madagascar also starting by the end of that year.[11] By March 1952 (1952-03) the carrier was operating a 2,000-mile (3,200 km) long route network that included domestic services as well as international ones to Durban, Johannesburg and Salisbury, served with a fleet of six Doves, five Rapides, three Douglas DC-3s, two Lockheed Lodestars, a Lockheed L-14 and a Junkers Ju 52.[16] A new MoçambiqueNampulaVila Cabral run that called at three more intermediate stops was opened in 1954. The last leg of this service was temporarily suspended when Vila Cabral was excluded from the airline's list of destinations, but flights to the city were later reinstated after Vila Cabral got linked with Beira via Vila Pery, Tete and Vila Coutinho.[11] At March 1955 (1955-03), the carrier's fleet included three DC-3s, six Doves, one Dragon Fly, four Dragon Rapides, two Junkers Ju 52/3s, one Lockheed 14H, two Lodestars and two Horner Moths.[17]

The airline was one of the latest worldwide to operate the Junkers Ju 52s on scheduled services.[11] Two of these aircraft were still part of the aircraft park in April 1960 (1960-04), along with three DC-3s, four Doves, three Lodestars and four Rapides that operated a domestic network plus international services to Durban, Johannesburg and Salisbury.[18] DETA started a fleet modernisation in the early 1960s, when three Fokker F27-200s ordered in June 1961 (1961-06), making the airline the 64th customer for the type, had already been handed over to the company by August 1962 (1962-08); the first of them was named “Lourenço Marques” after the capital city of Portuguese East Africa.[19][20] DETA and Air Malawi inaugurated the Beira–Blantyre service in 1964; it was operated in a pool agreement between the two carriers. In 1965, Nova Freizo[nb 1] was added to the route network; in November that year, a service linking Beira with Lourenço Marques was launched. In March 1966 (1966-03), DETA and Swazi Air commenced flying the Lourenço Marques–Manzini run on a joint basis.[11] Two Boeing 737-200s were ordered in 1968 both to complement the three F27s, six DC-3s, one Dove, and one Beaver already in the fleet, and to support the company's regional expansion, that had grown up to five destinations regionally served with the addition of Blantyre and Manzini to the network.[22][23] The first of these machines entered the fleet in 1969.[11] The airline would order two more Boeing 737-200s in the forthcoming years, taking possession of the fourth one in 1973.[24]

Mozambique gained its independence from Portugal in 1975.[11] Intercontinental services started in 1976 serving the Lourenço Marques–Beira–AccraLisbon route, at first with a Boeing 707-320, and then with a Boeing 707-320C leased from Tempair International Airlines.[25][26][27] In 1979, a Douglas DC-8 was ordered.[11]


An Ireland-registered Boeing 767-200ER wearing a LAM Mozambique Airlines livery at Faro Airport in 1993.

DETA was Mozambique's flag carrier until 1980.[28] Following allegations of corruption,[29] the airline was restructured and renamed LAM – Linhas Aéreas de Moçambique early that year.[10] Four more Boeing 737-200s were ordered in 1981. The Douglas DC-8-62 that had been ordered at the end of the DETA era arrived in 1982. In 1983, a Douglas DC-10-30 was ordered. Also in 1983, a Maputo–Manzini–Maseru service that was flown using Fokker F27 aircraft was launched in cooperation with Lesotho Airways. The DC-10-30 joined the fleet in 1984, and new services to East Berlin, Copenhagen and Paris were started.[28] At March 1985 (1985-03), the carrier had 1,927 employees. At this time, the DC-10-30 and three Boeing 737-200s (including a convertible one) worked on a route network radiating from Maputo that served Beira, Berlin-Schonefeld, Dar-es-Salaam, Harare, Johannesburg, Lisbon, Lusaka, Manzini, Maseru, Nampula, Paris, Pemba, Sofia and Quelimane.[29] TACV Cabo Verde Airlines leased the DC-10 in the weekends during 1985.[30]

The first Boeing 737-300 entered the fleet in 1991.[31] By April that year, employment was 1,948, and the fleet consisted of two Boeing 737-200s (including a convertible one), one Boeing 767-200ER (plus another one on order) and four CASA 212-200s.[32] The company had returned the 737-300 to the lessor in 1995 because of its inability to afford the leasing costs of the aircraft, and a Boeing 767-200ER would follow the same fate late that year. An ex-Royal Swazi Fokker 100 was leased in October 1996 (1996-10).[31] On 23 December 1998 (1998-12-23) LAM was transformed into a limited company, adopting the denomination of LAM – Mozambique Airlines by Decree no. 69/98. A limited company incorporated by statute in Mozambique was formed in late 1999.[4]

EU ban[edit]

Like all airlines with an AOC issued in Mozambique, the carrier is banned from operating into the European Union. The ban dates back to April 2011 (2011-04).[33][34][35][nb 2] At that time, the company claimed the Mozambican Civil Aviation Institute was responsible for the actions taken by the European Commission against all Mozambican carriers, and argued that it was an airline with an excellent safety record.[41] Prior to EuroAtlantic Airways launching Boeing 767-300ER operations to Lisbon on LAM's behalf in April 2011 (2011-04),[42][43] the Lisbon–Maputo–Lisbon run was operated by TAP Portugal on codeshare agreement with LAM.[44][45] The Maputo–Lisbon–Maputo route, the very same that was launched in November 2011 (2011-11), was announced to be discontinued as from late November that year, ahead of the constitution of a new autonomous division aimed at operating intercontinental routes.[46] As of June 2013, Lisbon was served with Airbus A340 aircraft.[nb 3] As of December 2014, the list of airlines banned in the EU still includes LAM.[49] In June 2017 the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), lifted the ban on Mozambican airlines from flying to Europe after teams from the EU Air Safety Committee carried out an audit of the National Institute of Civil Aviation of Mozambique in February 2017.[50]

Corporate affairs[edit]

Ownership and subsidiaries[edit]

As of August 2014, the state holds 91% of the shares and the employees hold the balance; the carrier employs a staff of 695.[4] The company Moçambique Expresso, set up in September 1995 (1995-09),[51] is 100% owned by LAM.[52][53]

Business trends[edit]

Annual reports for the airline do not appear to be published. In the absence of these, the main sources for trends are industry and press reports, as shown below (as at year ending 31 December):

2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Operating profits profit loss loss loss loss
Number of employees 715
Number of passengers (000s) 612 684 788
Passenger load factor (%) 73
Number of aircraft (at year end) 7
Notes/sources [54] [55] [56] [57] [58]

Key people[edit]

João Carlos Pó Jorge was appointed General Director of the company on 24 July 2018.[59]


Codeshare agreements[edit]

LAM Mozambique Airlines has codeshare agreements with the following airlines:[60]


Current fleet[edit]

A LAM Mozambique Airlines Embraer 190 at OR Tambo International Airport. (2009)

The LAM – Mozambique Airlines fleet consists of the following aircraft (as of August 2019):[63]

LAM – Mozambique Airlines Fleet
Aircraft In Fleet Orders Passengers Notes
C Y Total
Boeing 737-700 2 1[3] 12 120 132[64]
Bombardier Dash 8 Q400 2 72 72[65] Operated by MEX-Mozambique Express
Embraer 190AR 2 9 85 94[66]
Total 6 1

Fleet development[edit]

The newest aircraft on LAM's fleet is the Embraer 190, the first of which the airline took possession of in August 2009 (2009-08).[66] The carrier received the second aircraft of the type a month later.[67] LAM Mozambique Airlines took delivery of a Boeing 737-500 on lease from GECAS in November 2012 (2012-11).[68]

Three Embraer 190s were in operation until November 2013 (2013-11), when one of them crashed in Namibia. In early December, a Boeing 737 was leased to fill the capacity shortage created by the crashed airframe.[69] An order, that had been signed in November 2013 (2013-11), for three Boeing 737-700s valued at US$228 million, was announced in February 2014 (2014-02).[3][70]

Historical fleet[edit]

A France-registered McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 wearing LAM Mozambique Airlines markings is seen here at Charles de Gaulle Airport in 1983.

The airline previously operated the following aircraft:[71][48]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

As of 29 November 2013, Aviation Safety Network records seven hull-loss events for the airline. Three of these events occurred in the DETA era, while the other four correspond to LAM. As of November 2013 there has been one fatal accident for LAM proper.[77][78] Following is a list of these events.

Date Location Aircraft Tail number Aircraft damage Fatalities Description Refs
23 February 1944 PortugalQuelimane Lockheed L-14 CR-AAV W/O 13/13 Crashed on takeoff at Quelimane Airport. [79]
12 February 1950 PortugalLagoa Páti Ju 52 CR-AAJ W/O 0/15 Force landing. [80]
27 March 1970 PortugalLourenço Marques F27-200 CR-AIB W/O 3/3 Crashed on a training flight at Lourenço Marques Airport. [81]
27 March 1983 MozambiqueQuelimane Boeing 737-200 C9-BAB W/O 0/110 Undercarriage failure after landing some 400 metres (1,300 ft) short of the runway at Quelimane Airport. [82]
9 February 1989 MozambiqueLichinga Boeing 737-200 C9-BAD W/O 0/108 Overran the runway on landing at Lichinga Airport. [83][84]
5 October 1998 MozambiqueOff Maputo Boeing 747SP ZS-SPF W/O 0/66 Emergency landing, following an engine failure at 5,000 feet (1,500 m) that led to a fire. The aircraft, leased from South African Airways, was due to operate the Maputo–Lisbon route. [85][86]
29 November 2013 NamibiaBwabwata National Park Embraer 190 C9-EMC W/O 33/33 Preliminary evidence indicates the aircraft was deliberately crashed by the pilot. [87]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The name of the city served was actually Nova Freixo, as shown in a 1968 timetable.[21]
  2. ^ All airlines from Mozambique have been included in the last five lists of airlines banned in the EU released in April[36] and December 2012 (2012-12),[37] July[38] and December 2013 (2013-12),[39] and April 2014 (2014-04).[40]
  3. ^ According to latest timetable available.[47] The fleet composition includes no A340s for LAM Mozambique Airlines.[48]


  1. ^ "Flamingo Club". LAM Mozambique Airlines. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  2. ^ a b c "Boeing, LAM - Linhas Aereas de Mocambique Announce Next-Generation 737 Order" (Press release). Boeing. 5 February 2014. Archived from the original on 24 May 2014.
  3. ^ a b c "Company History". LAM Mozambique Airlines. Archived from the original on 2 August 2014. 
  4. ^ "LAM strengthens client support at Maputo International Airport" (Press release). LAM Mozambique Airlines. 30 January 2012. Archived from the original on 17 August 2013.
  5. ^ "Membership". International Air Transport Association. Archived from the original on 13 December 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  6. ^ "AFRAA Members". AFRAA. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  7. ^ "World airline directory – DETA Mozambique Airlines". Flight International. 118 (3716): 309. 26 July 1980. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
  8. ^ Guttery (1998), p. 129.
  9. ^ a b c d "World Airline Directory – LAM - Linhas Aereas de Moçambique". Flight International. 157 (4722): 91. 4–10 April 2000. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Guttery (1998), p. 130.
  11. ^ a b "Commercial Aviation – Eighteen Rapides". Flight. XXXV (1582): 398. 20 April 1939. Archived from the original on 11 June 2015.
  12. ^ a b "Commercial Aviation: World News – Portugal and Africa". Flight. XXXIII (1533): 477. 12 May 1938. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2015.
  13. ^ "Commercial Aviation: World News – Saving a Day in Africa". Flight. XXXIII (1521): 162. 17 February 1938. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016.
  14. ^ "Airline companies of the World—Africa – D.E.T.A. Airways". Flight. XXXV (1583): 429. 27 April 1939. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013.
  15. ^ "The World's Airlines – DETA (Divisao de Exploracao des Transportes Aereos)" (PDF). Flight: 593. 16 May 1952. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  16. ^ "World airline directory – Divisao de Exploracao dos Transportes Aeros [sic]". Flight. 67 (2407): 306. 11 March 1955. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013.
  17. ^ "Airlines of the World – Divisao de Exploraçao dos Transportes Aéreos—DETA". Flight International. 77 (2665): 498. 8 April 1960. Archived from the original on 29 August 2013.
  18. ^ "Air commerce..." Flight. 82 (2786): 158. 2 August 1962. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. All three Friendship 200s for DETA of Mozambique have now arrived in Africa. The first aircraft, named "Lourenco Marques" after the provincial capital, is seen on flight test over Zeeland
  19. ^ "Friendships for Portuguese East". Flight. 79 (2729): 910. 29 June 1961. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016.
  20. ^ "DETA summer timetable (Effectine November 1968 (1968-11))—L. Marques–Inhambane–Vilanculos–Beira–Quelimane–Tete–V. Coutinho–V. Cabral–N. Freixo–Nampula". Airline Timetable Images. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013.
  21. ^ "737s for DETA". Flight International. 3108 (94): 520. 3 October 1968. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. The Mozambique airline DETA has ordered two Boeing 737-200s for delivery late next year, bringing to 213 the number of 737s sold. DETA has three F.27s and six DC-3s in service for regional operations.
  22. ^ "World airline survey – Direccao de Exploracao dos Transportes Aereos (DETA)". Flight International. 93 (3083): 532. 11 April 1968. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013.
  23. ^ "World airlines update". Flight International. 105 (3389): 232. 21 February 1974. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. DETA ordered and took delivery of a fourth Boeing 737-200 last October.
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  25. ^
  26. ^ "World news – Tempair serves Mozambique" (PDF). Flight International: 4. 3 January 1976. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
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  28. ^ a b "World Airline Directory – Linhas Aéreas de Mocambique (LAM)". Flight International. 127 (3953): 93. 30 March 1985. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013.
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  30. ^ a b c d Guttery (1998), p. 132.
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  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^ "Mozambique: IACM Wants 'Further Information' On EU Ban". 20 April 2011. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013.
  41. ^ Buyck, Cathy (2 May 2011). "African airlines say they are 'being progressively destroyed' by EU blacklist". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. LAM said it will be able to continue offering Maputo-Lisbon service despite Mozambique's addition to the EU blacklist by wet-leasing a Boeing 767-300ER from Portuguese ACMI provider euroAtlantic.
  42. ^ "EC bans Mozambican airlines on safety grounds". Maputo: Bloomberg Businessweek. Associated Press. 19 April 2011. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. Portugal's EuroAtlantic Airways provides the aircraft, crew and maintenance for twice weekly Mozambique Airlines Maputo-Lisbon flights.
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  49. ^ "Europe lifts ban on Mozambican airlines". Retrieved 17 August 2017.
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  52. ^ "Moçambique Expresso". Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  53. ^ "Mozambique: National Airline's Operating Profits Up By 15 Per Cent". 5 March 2012.
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  61. ^
  62. ^ "Global Airline Guide 2019 (Part One)". Airliner World (October 2019): 21.
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  64. ^ a b EzPublish, powered by. "Aircraft Fleet / Company History / About LAM / Home - LAM". Retrieved 23 September 2016.
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  68. ^ Yeo, Ghim-Lay (3 December 2013). "LAM leases 737 temporarily after E-190 crash". Flightglobal. Washington DC. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013.
  69. ^ Moores, Victoria (5 February 2014). "LAM Mozambique orders three Boeing 737-700s". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 5 February 2014.
  70. ^ "SubFleets for: LAM Mozambique". AeroTransport Data Bank. 21 May 2013. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  71. ^ a b c "World Airline Directory – Linhas Aereas de Moçambique (LAM)". Flight International: 106. 24–30 March 1993. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
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  75. ^ "Other News - 12/16/2008". Air Transport World. 17 December 2008. Archived from the original on 3 June 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  76. ^ "Accident record for LAM Mozambique Airlines". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  77. ^ "Accident record for DETA Mozambique Airlines". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  78. ^ Accident description for CR-AAV at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 7 March 2015.
  79. ^ Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 7 March 2015.
  80. ^ Accident description for CR-AIB at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 10 January 2012.
  81. ^ Accident description for C9-BAB at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 24 January 2012.
  82. ^ Accident description for C9-BAD at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 13 January 2012.
  83. ^ "1989 airline safety so far – Non-fatal accidents/incidents: scheduled passenger flights" (PDF). Flight International. 22 July 1989. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  84. ^ Accident description for ZS-SPF at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 10 January 2012.
  85. ^ "Airline safety review – Non-fatal accidents and incidents: scheduled passenger flights". Flight International: 32. 13–19 January 1999. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  86. ^ Kaminski-Morrow, David (9 December 2014). "LAM 190 probe details pilot's actions during fatal descent". London: Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 9 December 2014. 


  • Guttery, Ben R. (1998). Encyclopedia of African Airlines. Jefferson, North Carolina 28640: Mc Farland & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-7864-0495-7.

External links[edit]