List of Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients

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This is an alphabetized, partial list of recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, grouped by the aspect of life in which they are/were renowned. Unless otherwise noted, the names are listed as they were given in the official announcement of the award (e.g. President Jimmy Carter, Dr. Ralph J. Bunche) which may not match the recipient's highest office or their usual title. The Presidential Medal of Freedom is awarded by the President of the United States "for especially meritorious contribution to (1) the security or national interests of the United States, or (2) world peace, or (3) cultural or other significant public or private endeavors"; it is awarded to individuals selected by the President or recommended to him by the Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Board.[1] The only exception to the rule that the sitting president chooses those to be honored was that the first recipients were selected by President John F. Kennedy before his assassination and formally awarded by his successor in office, Lyndon B. Johnson.[2] President Bill Clinton awarded 88 Medals while President George W. Bush awarded 81 Medals; President Barack Obama has awarded 80 Medals as of November 24, 2014.[3][4][5]

Three people, Ellsworth Bunker, John Kenneth Galbraith, and Colin Powell, are two-time recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Ellsworth Bunker was given both of his awards with Distinction.

This list does not include those awarded the similarly named but very distinct Medal of Freedom, an antecedent award issued prior to 1963.

Total awards by president[edit]

President Term Number
awarded
Note
Harry Truman 1945–53 2
John F. Kennedy 1961-63 22
Lyndon B. Johnson 1963-69 46
Richard Nixon 1969-74 39
Gerald Ford 1974-77 15
Jimmy Carter 1977-81 39
Ronald Reagan 1981-89 101
George H.W. Bush 1989-93 41
Bill Clinton 1993-2001 92
George W. Bush 2001-09 78
Barack Obama 2009- 102 As of Dec 1, 2015

Arts[edit]

Architecture[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 1963 December 6 Lyndon B. Johnson [6]
Buckminster Fuller 1983 Ronald Reagan
I.M. Pei 1993 George H.W. Bush [7]

Art[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Andrew Wyeth 1963 John F. Kennedy
Willem de Kooning 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Alexander Calder 1977 January 10 Gerald Ford posthumous award[8]
Georgia O'Keeffe 1977 January 10 Gerald Ford [9]
Norman Rockwell 1977 January 10 Gerald Ford Rockwell's son, Jarvis, accepted the award[10]
Roger L. Stevens 1988 Ronald Reagan
Jasper Johns 2011 Barack Obama [4]

Dance[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Alvin Ailey 2014 November 24 Barack Obama Posthumous award[11]
Martha Graham 1976 October 14 Gerald Ford Awarded With Distinction[12]
Lucia Chase 1980 Jimmy Carter
George Balanchine 1983 Ronald Reagan
Lincoln Kirstein 1984 March 26 Ronald Reagan [13]
Chita Rivera 2009 August 12 Barack Obama [14]

Film[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Lucille Ball 1989 July 7 George H.W. Bush posthumous award[15]
James Cagney 1984 March 26 Ronald Reagan [16]
Doris Day 2004 June 23 George W. Bush [5]
Walt Disney 1964 September 14 Lyndon B. Johnson Described as "Mr. Walter Disney"[17]
Kirk Douglas 1981 Ronald Reagan
Lynn Fontanne 1964 September 14 Lyndon B. Johnson [18]
John Ford 1973 Richard Nixon
Samuel Goldwyn 1971 Richard Nixon
Helen Hayes 1986 Ronald Reagan
Audrey Hepburn 1992 George H.W. Bush
Charlton Heston 2003 July 23 George W. Bush [5]
Bob Hope 1969 Richard Nixon
Danny Kaye 1987 Ronald Reagan posthumous award
Alfred Lunt 1964 September 14 Lyndon B. Johnson [18]
Rita Moreno 2004 June 23 George W. Bush [5]
Gregory Peck 1969 Richard Nixon
Sidney Poitier 2009 August 12 Barack Obama [5]
Martha Raye 1993 November 2 Bill Clinton [5]
Steven Spielberg 2015 November 24 Barack Obama [19]
Meryl Streep 2014 November 24 Barack Obama [11]
Barbra Streisand 2015 November 24 Barack Obama [19]
James Stewart 1985 Ronald Reagan
Marlo Thomas 2014 November 24 Barack Obama [11]
Lew Wasserman 1995 September 29 Bill Clinton [5]
John Wayne 1980 June 9 Jimmy Carter posthumous award[20]

Literature[edit]

Harper Lee, 2007
Recipient Date President Notes
Isabel Allende 2014 November 24 Barack Obama [11]
Maya Angelou 2011 Barack Obama [4]
Jacques Barzun 2003 George W. Bush
James Burnham 1983 Ronald Reagan
J. Frank Dobie 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
T. S. Eliot 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Ralph Ellison 1969 Richard Nixon
Eric Hoffer 1982 Ronald Reagan
Louis L'Amour 1984 March 26 Ronald Reagan [21]
Harper Lee 2007 George W. Bush
Archibald MacLeish 1977 January 10 Gerald Ford Roderick MacLeish, Archibald's nephew, accepted the award[22]
James A. Michener 1977 January 10 Gerald Ford Named as James Albert Michener on the award citation[23]
Toni Morrison 2012 Barack Obama [24]
Carl Sandburg 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
John Steinbeck 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Robert Penn Warren 1980 Jimmy Carter
Eudora Welty 1980 Jimmy Carter
E.B. White 1963 John F. Kennedy
Elie Wiesel 1992 George H.W. Bush
Thornton Wilder 1963 John F. Kennedy
Tennessee Williams 1980 Jimmy Carter
Edmund Wilson 1963 John F. Kennedy
Albert Wohlstetter 1985 Ronald Reagan

Music[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Marian Anderson 1963 John F. Kennedy [25]
Pearl Bailey 1988 Ronald Reagan
'Count' Basie 1985 Ronald Reagan Posthumous award
Irving Berlin 1977 Jimmy Carter
James "Eubie" Blake 1981 Ronald Reagan
Pau Casals 1963 John F. Kennedy
Van Cliburn 2003 George W. Bush
Aaron Copland 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Plácido Domingo 2002 George W. Bush
Bob Dylan 2012 Barack Obama [24]
Duke Ellington 1969 Richard Nixon
Emilio Estefan 2015 November 24 Barack Obama [19]
Gloria Estefan 2015 November 24 Barack Obama [19]
Arthur Fiedler 1977 Jimmy Carter
Ella Fitzgerald 1992 George H.W. Bush
Ernest Jennings "Tennessee Ernie" Ford 1984 Ronald Reagan [26]
Aretha Franklin 2005 George W. Bush
Vladimir Horowitz 1986 Ronald Reagan
B. B. King 2006 George W. Bush
Loretta Lynn 2013 Barack Obama [27]
Yo-Yo Ma 2011 Barack Obama [4]
Mabel Mercer 1983 Ronald Reagan
Eugene Ormandy 1970 Richard Nixon
Itzhak Perlman 2015 November 24 Barack Obama [19]
Leontyne Price 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Mstislav Rostropovich 1987 Ronald Reagan
Arthur Rubinstein 1976 Gerald Ford Awarded with Distinction
Arturo Sandoval 2013 Barack Obama [27]
Rudolf Serkin 1963 John F. Kennedy
Beverly Sills 1980 Jimmy Carter
Frank Sinatra 1985 Ronald Reagan
Kate Smith 1982 Ronald Reagan
Stephen Sondheim 2015 November 24 Barack Obama [11]
Isaac Stern 1992 George H.W. Bush
Barbra Streisand 2015 November 24 Barack Obama [19]
James Taylor 2015 November 24 Barack Obama [19]
Meredith Willson 1987 Ronald Reagan Posthumous award
Stevie Wonder 2014 November 24 Barack Obama [11]

Photography[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Edwin H. Land 1963 John F. Kennedy
Edward Steichen 1963 John F. Kennedy
Ansel Adams 1980 Jimmy Carter

Business and economics[edit]

Alan Greenspan, 2005
Recipient Date President Notes
Iorwith Wilbur Abel 1977 Jimmy Carter
Walter Annenberg 1986 Ronald Reagan
Gary Becker 2007 George W. Bush
Edgar Bronfman, Sr. 1999 Bill Clinton
Irving Brown 1988 Ronald Reagan
Warren Buffett 2011 Barack Obama [4]
James E. Burke 2000 Bill Clinton
Edward J. DeBartolo, Sr. 1988 Ronald Reagan
Peter Drucker 2002 George W. Bush
David Dubinsky 1969 Richard Nixon
Henry Ford II 1969 Richard Nixon
Milton Friedman 1988 Ronald Reagan
John Kenneth Galbraith 2000 Bill Clinton
Alan Greenspan 2005 George W. Bush
Bryce Harlow 1981 Ronald Reagan
Friedrich Hayek 1991 George H.W. Bush
Paul G. Hoffman 1974 Gerald Ford
Edgar Kaiser 1969 Richard Nixon
Frederick Kappel 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Lane Kirkland 1994 Bill Clinton
Daniel Kahneman 2013 Barack Obama [27]
Estée Lauder 2004 George W. Bush
John L. Lewis 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
J. Willard Marriott 1988 Ronald Reagan Posthumous award
David Packard 1988 Ronald Reagan
Clarence B. Randall 1963 John F. Kennedy
Walter Reuther 1995 Bill Clinton Posthumous award
David Rockefeller 1998 Bill Clinton
Laurance Rockefeller 1969 Richard Nixon
James Rouse 1995 Bill Clinton
Robert Solow 2014 Barack Obama
John J. Sweeney 2011 Barack Obama [4]
Dave Thomas 2003 George W. Bush Posthumous award
Tex Thornton 1981 Ronald Reagan
Juan Trippe 1985 Ronald Reagan Posthumous award
Sam Walton 1992 George H.W. Bush
An Wang 1986 Ronald Reagan
Thomas Watson, Jr. 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Justin Whitlock Dart 1987 Ronald Reagan Posthumous award
Walter B. Wriston 2004 George W. Bush
Muhammad Yunus 2009 Barack Obama

Computing[edit]

Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn, 2005
Recipient Date President Notes
Gordon Moore 2002 July 9 George W. Bush [28]
Vinton Cerf 2005 November 9 George W. Bush [29]
Robert Kahn 2005 November 9 George W. Bush [30]

Education[edit]

Norman Francis, 2006
Recipient Date President Notes
Detlev Bronk 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Genevieve Caulfield 1963 John F. Kennedy
James E. Cheek 1983 Ronald Reagan
Ruth Johnson Colvin 2006 George W. Bush
James Bryant Conant 1963 John F. Kennedy Awarded with Distinction
Norman Francis 2006 George W. Bush
Hanna Holborn Gray 1991 George H.W. Bush
Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, C.S.C. 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Jerome H. Holland 1985 Ronald Reagan Posthumous award
Karl Holton 1963 John F. Kennedy
Margaret McNamara 1981 Ronald Reagan
Alexander Meiklejohn 1963 John F. Kennedy
Antonia Pantoja 1996 Bill Clinton
Frederick Patterson 1987 Ronald Reagan
George W. Taylor 1963 John F. Kennedy
Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson (The Lubavitch Rebbe) 1994 Bill Clinton
Admiral Hyman G. Rickover 1980 Jimmy Carter

History[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Bruce Catton 1977 Jimmy Carter
Robert Conquest 2005 George W. Bush
Ariel Durant 1977 Jimmy Carter
Will Durant 1977 Jimmy Carter
John Hope Franklin 1995 Bill Clinton
Vartan Gregorian 2004 George W. Bush
Dumas Malone 1983 Ronald Reagan
David McCullough 2006 George W. Bush
Samuel Eliot Morison 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Roberta Wohlstetter 1985 Ronald Reagan

Humanitarian[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Norman Borlaug 1977 Jimmy Carter
Nancy Goodman Brinker 2009 Barack Obama [14]
Bonnie Carroll 24 November 2015 Barack Obama [19]
Millard Fuller 1996 Bill Clinton
John W. Gardner 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Frances Hesselbein 1998 Bill Clinton
Gerda Weissmann Klein 2011 Barack Obama [4]
Juliette Gordon Low 2012 Barack Obama Posthumous award[24]
Paul Rusesabagina 2005 George W. Bush
Eunice Kennedy Shriver 1984 March 26 Ronald Reagan [31]
Leon Sullivan 1991 George H.W. Bush
Annie D. Wauneka 1963 December 6 Lyndon B. Johnson [32]

Media[edit]

William Safire, 2006.
Paul Harvey, 2005
Andy Griffith, 2005
Recipient Date Contributions to President Notes
Robert L. Bartley 2004 Journalism George W. Bush
Earl Charles Behrens 1970 Journalism Richard Nixon [33]
Herbert L. Block 1994 Journalism Bill Clinton
Ben Bradlee 2013 Journalism Barack Obama [27]
Tom Brokaw 2014 November 24 Barack Obama [11]
William F. Buckley, Jr. 1991 Journalism George H.W. Bush
Walter Cronkite 1981 Journalism Ronald Reagan
Edward T. Folliard 1970 Journalism Richard Nixon [33]
Katharine Graham 2002 Journalism George W. Bush Posthumous award
William M. Henry 1970 Journalism Richard Nixon [33]
John H. Johnson 1996 Journalism Bill Clinton
Paul Johnson 2006 Journalism George W. Bush
Arthur Krock 1970 Journalism Richard Nixon [33]
David Lawrence 1970 Journalism Richard Nixon [33]
George Gould Lincoln 1970 Journalism Richard Nixon [33]
Walter Lippmann 1964 Journalism Lyndon B. Johnson
Ralph McGill 1964 Journalism Lyndon B. Johnson
Raymond Moley 1970 Journalism Richard Nixon [33]
Edward R. Murrow 1964 Journalism Lyndon B. Johnson Awarded with Distinction
Frank Reynolds 1985 Journalism Ronald Reagan Posthumous award
Abe Rosenthal 2002 Journalism George W. Bush
Vermont C. Royster 1986 Journalism Ronald Reagan
William Safire 2006 Journalism George W. Bush
Albert Merriman Smith 1967 Journalism Lyndon B. Johnson
Adela Rogers St. Johns 1970 Journalism Richard Nixon [33]
DeWitt Wallace 1972 Journalism Richard Nixon
Lila Acheson Wallace 1972 Journalism Richard Nixon
Mark S. Watson 1963 Journalism John F. Kennedy
Oprah Winfrey 2013 Television Barack Obama [27]
William S. White 1969 Journalism Richard Nixon
Lowell Thomas 1977 Radio Jimmy Carter [34]
Paul Harvey 2005 Radio George W. Bush [5]
Lucille Ball 1989 Television George H.W. Bush Posthumous award[15]
David Brinkley 1992 Television George H.W. Bush
Carol Burnett 2005 Television George H.W. Bush [5]
Johnny Carson 1992 Television George H.W. Bush
Peggy Charren 1995 Television Bill Clinton [5]
Julia Child 2003 Television George W. Bush
Joan Ganz Cooney 1995 Television Bill Clinton [5]
Bill Cosby 2002 Television George W. Bush [5]
Andy Griffith 2005 Television George W. Bush [5]
Brian P. Lamb 2007 Television George W. Bush [5]
Fred Rogers 2002 Television George W. Bush [5]

Medicine[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Benjamin Carson 2008 George W. Bush
Denton Cooley 1984 March 26 Ronald Reagan [35]
Michael DeBakey 1969 Richard Nixon
Lena Frances Edwards 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
John F. Enders 1963 John F. Kennedy
Anthony Fauci 2008 George W. Bush
William Foege 2012 Barack Obama [24]
Pedro José Greer, Jr. 2009 Barack Obama [14]
David Hamburg 1996 Bill Clinton
Donald Henderson 2002 George W. Bush
C. Everett Koop 1995 Bill Clinton
Tom Little 2011 Barack Obama Posthumous [4]
Charles LeRoy Lowman 1974 Gerald Ford
Karl Menninger 1981 Ronald Reagan
Arnall Patz 2004 George W. Bush
Janet Davison Rowley 2009 Barack Obama [14]
Albert Sabin 1986 Ronald Reagan
Jonas Salk 1977 Jimmy Carter
Helen B. Taussig 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
William B. Walsh 1987 Ronald Reagan
Paul Dudley White 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson

Philanthropy[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
J. Clifford MacDonald 1963 John F. Kennedy
Lowell Thomas 1977 January 10 Gerald Ford [34]
Catherine Filene Shouse 1977 Jimmy Carter
Morris I. Leibman 1981 Ronald Reagan
Brooke Astor 1998 Bill Clinton
Zachary Fisher 1998 Bill Clinton
Eugene Lang 1996 Bill Clinton
Ronnie Eugene Ford 1978 Jimmy Carter

Philosophy[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Will Durant 1977 January 10 Gerald Ford [36]
Sidney Hook 1985 Ronald Reagan
Friedrich Hayek 1991 George H.W. Bush

Politics and government[edit]

Activism[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Arnold Aronson 1998 Bill Clinton
Roger Nash Baldwin 1981 Ronald Reagan
Oscar Elias Biscet 2007 George W. Bush
James Chaney 2014 November 24 Barack Obama Posthumously[11]
César Chávez 1994 Bill Clinton Posthumously
Justin Whitlock Dart, Jr. 1998 Bill Clinton
Evelyn Dubrow 1999 Bill Clinton
Marian Wright Edelman 2000 August 9 Bill Clinton [37]
James L. Farmer, Jr. 1998 Bill Clinton
Billy Frank, Jr. 2015 November 24 Barack Obama Posthumously[19]
Hector Garcia 1984 March 26 Ronald Reagan [38]
Andrew Goodman 2014 November 24 Barack Obama Posthumously[11]
Suzan Shown Harjo 2014 November 24 Barack Obama [11]
Dorothy Height 1994 Bill Clinton
George G. Higgins 2000 Bill Clinton
Gordon Hirabayashi 2012 Barack Obama Posthumously [24]
Benjamin Hooks 2007 George W. Bush
Dolores Huerta 2012 Barack Obama [24]
Rev. Jesse Jackson 2000 Bill Clinton
Millie Jeffrey 2000 Bill Clinton
Helen Keller 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Ethel Kennedy 2014 November 24 Barack Obama [11]
Martin Luther King, Jr. 1977 Jimmy Carter Posthumously
Fred Korematsu 1998 Bill Clinton
Mary Lasker 1969 Richard Nixon
Rev. Joseph Lowery 2009 Barack Obama [14]
Sylvia Mendez 2011 Barack Obama [4]
Harvey Milk 2009 Barack Obama Posthumously [14]
Clarence M. Mitchell 1980 Jimmy Carter
Mario G. Obledo 1998 Bill Clinton
Rosa Parks 1996 Bill Clinton
Esther Peterson 1981 Ronald Reagan
Bayard Rustin 2013 Barack Obama Posthumously [27]
Ginetta Sagan 1996 Bill Clinton
Michael Schwerner 2014 November 24 Barack Obama Posthumously[11]
Natan Sharansky 2006 George W. Bush
Gloria Steinem 2013 Barack Obama [27]
William C. Velasquez 1995 Bill Clinton Posthumously
Cordy Tindell "C.T." Vivian 2013 Barack Obama [27]
Lech Wałęsa 1989 George H.W. Bush
Roy Wilkins 1967 Lyndon B. Johnson
Minoru Yasui 2015 November 24 Barack Obama Posthumously[19]
Andrew Young 1981 Ronald Reagan

Diplomacy[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Anne L. Armstrong 1987 Ronald Reagan
Manlio Brosio 1971 Richard Nixon
David K. E. Bruce 1976 Gerald Ford Awarded with Distinction
Ralph J. Bunche 1963 December 6 Lyndon B. Johnson Awarded with Distinction[39]
Ellsworth Bunker 1963 December 6 Lyndon B. Johnson (Twice) Awarded with Distinction [40]
Ellsworth Bunker 1967 Lyndon B. Johnson (Twice) Awarded with Distinction [40]
Ryan Crocker 2009 Barack Obama [41]
General Andrew Goodpaster 1984 Ronald Reagan [42]
Philip Habib 1982 Ronald Reagan
Jan Karski 2012 Barack Obama Posthumously [24]
George F. Kennan 1989 George H.W. Bush
Jeane Kirkpatrick 1985 Ronald Reagan
Sol M. Linowitz 1998 Bill Clinton
Harry W. Shlaudeman 1992 George H.W. Bush
Gerard C. Smith 1981 Ronald Reagan
Jean Kennedy Smith 2011 Barack Obama [4]
Robert Schwarz Strauss 1981 Ronald Reagan
Llewellyn E Thompson, Jr. 1946 Harry Truman [43]

Environmentalism[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
John H. Adams 2011 Barack Obama [4]
Horace M. Albright 1980 Jimmy Carter
Rachel Carson 1980 Jimmy Carter Posthumously
Marjory Stoneman Douglas 1993 Bill Clinton
Gilbert Melville Grosvenor 2004 George W. Bush
Margaret Murie 1998 Bill Clinton
Roger Tory Peterson 1980 Jimmy Carter
Russell E. Train 1991 George H.W. Bush
Edgar Wayburn 1999 Bill Clinton

Intelligence[edit]

George Tenet, 2004.
Recipient Date President Notes
Whittaker Chambers 1984 March 26 Ronald Reagan [44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52]
Jean MacArthur 1988 Ronald Reagan
George Tenet 2004 George W. Bush

Foreign heads of state or government[edit]

Tony Blair, 2009
Recipient Date Country President Notes
Tony Blair 2009 January 13 United Kingdom George W. Bush [53]
Václav Havel 2003 Czech Republic George W. Bush
John Howard 2009 January 13 Australia George W. Bush
Helmut Kohl 1999 Germany Bill Clinton
Joseph Luns 1984 Netherlands Ronald Reagan
Nelson Mandela 2002 South Africa George W. Bush
Wilma Mankiller 1998 January 15 Cherokee Nation Bill Clinton [54]
Angela Merkel 2011 Germany Barack Obama [4]
Shimon Peres 2012 Israel Barack Obama [24]
Mary Robinson 2009 Ireland Barack Obama [14]
Carlos P. Romulo 1984 Philippines Ronald Reagan
Anwar el-Sadat 1984 March 26 Egypt Ronald Reagan Posthumously [55]
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf 2007 Liberia George W. Bush
Margaret Thatcher 1991 United Kingdom George H.W. Bush
Álvaro Uribe 2009 January 13 Colombia George W. Bush

Law[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
John Doar 2012 Barack Obama [24]
Henry J. Friendly 1977 Jimmy Carter
A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr. 1995 Bill Clinton
Oliver White Hill 1999 Bill Clinton
Frank Minis Johnson 1995 Bill Clinton
Irving Robert Kaufman 1987 Ronald Reagan
Joseph Warren Madden 1947 Harry Truman
Joseph L. Rauh, Jr. 1993 Bill Clinton Posthumously
Cruz Reynoso 2000 Bill Clinton
Laurence Silberman 2008 George W. Bush
Elbert Tuttle 1981 Ronald Reagan
Patricia Wald 2013 Barack Obama [27]
John Minor Wisdom 1993 Bill Clinton

Military[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
General of the Army Omar Bradley 1977 Jimmy Carter
Admiral Arleigh Burke 1977 Jimmy Carter
General Wesley Clark 2000 Bill Clinton
War Chief Joe Medicine Crow 2009 Barack Obama [14]
Admiral William J. Crowe 2000 Bill Clinton
Lieutenant General Jimmy Doolittle 1989 George H.W. Bush
General Tommy Franks 2004 George W. Bush
General Lyman Lemnitzer 1987 Ronald Reagan
General Richard B. Myers 2005 George W. Bush
Jan Nowak-Jeziorański 1996 Bill Clinton
General Peter Pace 2008 George W. Bush
General Colin Powell 1991 George H.W. Bush Twice awarded
General Colin Powell 1993 Bill Clinton Twice awarded
General Matthew B. Ridgeway 1986 Ronald Reagan
Captain Joseph Rochefort 1986 Ronald Reagan Posthumously
General H. Norman Schwarzkopf 1991 George H.W. Bush
General John Shalikashvili 1997 Bill Clinton
John Paul Vann 1972 Richard Nixon Posthumously
General John W. Vessey 1992 George H.W. Bush
James E. Webb 1969 Richard Nixon
General Albert Coady Wedemeyer 1985 Ronald Reagan
Major General Chuck Yeager 1985 Ronald Reagan
Admiral Elmo Zumwalt 1998 Bill Clinton

Supreme Court Justices[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Associate Justice William J. Brennan, Jr. 1993 Bill Clinton
Chief Justice Warren E. Burger 1988 Ronald Reagan
Associate Justice Felix Frankfurter 1963 December 6 Lyndon B. Johnson Awarded with Distinction[56]
Associate Justice Arthur J. Goldberg 1978 Jimmy Carter
Associate Justice Thurgood Marshall 1993 Bill Clinton Posthumously
Associate Justice Sandra Day O'Connor 2009 August 12 Barack Obama [57]
Associate Justice John Paul Stevens 2012 Barack Obama [24]
Chief Justice Earl Warren 1981 Ronald Reagan Posthumously
Associate Justice Byron White 2003 Ronald Reagan Posthumously

U.S. Cabinet members[edit]

Donald Rumsfeld, displaying 1977 Medal (awarded With Distinction)
Recipient Date President Notes
Dean Acheson 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson Awarded with Distinction
Madeleine Albright 2012 Barack Obama [24]
James Baker 1991 George H.W. Bush
Malcolm Baldrige, Jr. 1988 Ronald Reagan Posthumously
Harold Brown 1981 Ronald Reagan
Zbigniew Brzezinski 1981 Ronald Reagan
Dick Cheney, as Secretary of Defense 1991 July 3 George H.W. Bush [58]
Warren Christopher 1981 Ronald Reagan
Clark Clifford 1969 Richard Nixon Awarded with Distinction
William T. Coleman, Jr. 1995 Bill Clinton
C. Douglas Dillon 1989 George H.W. Bush
Robert Gates 2011 Barack Obama
Averell Harriman 1969 Richard Nixon Awarded with Distinction
Henry Kissinger 1977 Jimmy Carter
Melvin Laird 1974 Gerald Ford
Robert A. Lovett 1963 John F. Kennedy Awarded with Distinction
Robert S. McNamara 1968 Lyndon B. Johnson
Norman Mineta 2006 George W. Bush
William Perry 1997 Bill Clinton
Elliot Richardson 1998 Bill Clinton
William P. Rogers 1973 Richard Nixon
Donald Rumsfeld 1977 Jimmy Carter Awarded with Distinction
Dean Rusk 1969 Richard Nixon Awarded with Distinction
Donna Shalala 2008 George W. Bush
George P. Shultz 1989 George H.W. Bush
Cyrus Vance 1969 Richard Nixon
Caspar Weinberger 1987 Ronald Reagan Awarded with Distinction

U.S. First Ladies[edit]

Betty Ford, 1992
Recipient Date President Notes
Lady Bird Johnson 1977 January 10 Gerald Ford [59]
Betty Ford 1991 November 18 George H.W. Bush [60]
Rosalynn Carter 1999 August 9 Bill Clinton [5]
Nancy Reagan 2002 July 9 George W. Bush [5]

U.S. members of Congress[edit]

Senator Edward Brooke, 2004
Senator Strom Thurmond, 1993
Recipient Date President Notes
Senator Howard H. Baker, Jr. 1984 March 26 Ronald Reagan [61]
Senator Lloyd M. Bentsen 1999 Bill Clinton
Senator Edward W. Brooke 2004 George W. Bush
Senator John H. Chafee 2000 Bill Clinton Posthumously
Representative Shirley Chisholm 2015 Barack Obama Posthumously[19]
Representative John Dingell 2014 Barack Obama
Senator Bob Dole 1997 Bill Clinton
Representative Dante B. Fascell 1998 Bill Clinton
Senator William Fulbright 1993 Bill Clinton
Senator Barry Goldwater 1986 Ronald Reagan
Representative Lee H. Hamilton 2015 Barack Obama [19]
Representative Henry Hyde 2007 George W. Bush
Senator Daniel Inouye 2013 Barack Obama Posthumously [27]
Senator Henry M. Jackson 1984 Ronald Reagan Posthumously
Senator Jacob K. Javits 1983 Ronald Reagan
Representative Barbara Jordan 1994 Bill Clinton
Representative Walter Judd 1981 Ronald Reagan
Representative Jack Kemp 2009 Barack Obama Posthumously [14]
Senator Edward Kennedy 2009 Barack Obama [14]
Representative Tom Lantos 2008 George W. Bush
Representative John Lewis 2011 Barack Obama [4]
Representative Clare Boothe Luce 1983 Ronald Reagan
Senator Richard Lugar 2013 Barack Obama [27]
Senator Mike Mansfield 1989 George H.W. Bush
Senator George McGovern 2000 Bill Clinton
Representative Robert H. Michel 1994 Bill Clinton
Senator Barbara Mikulski 2015 Barack Obama [19]
Representative Abner J. Mikva 2014 Barack Obama
Representative Patsy Mink 2014 Barack Obama Posthumously
Senator George J. Mitchell 1999 Bill Clinton
Representative G. V. (Sonny) Montgomery 2005 George W. Bush
Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan 2000 Bill Clinton
Senator Ed Muskie 1981 Ronald Reagan
Senator Gaylord Nelson 1995 Bill Clinton
Representative Tip O'Neill 1991 George H.W. Bush
Representative Claude Pepper 1989 George H.W. Bush
Representative Edward Roybal 2014 Barack Obama Posthumously
Senator Margaret Chase Smith 1989 George H.W. Bush
Senator Strom Thurmond 1993 Bill Clinton
Representative Mo Udall 1996 Bill Clinton
Representative Carl Vinson 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson Awarded with Distinction

U.S. Presidents[edit]

Former President Ronald Reagan, January 13, 1993
Recipient Date President Notes
John F. Kennedy 1963 December 6 Lyndon B. Johnson 35th President; posthumous award[62]
Lyndon B. Johnson 1980 June 9 Jimmy Carter 36th President; posthumous award[63]
Ronald Reagan 1993 January 13 George H.W. Bush 40th President; Awarded with Distinction[64]
Gerald Ford 1999 August 9 Bill Clinton 38th President[5]
Jimmy Carter 1999 August 9 Bill Clinton 39th President[5]
George H. W. Bush 2011 February 15 Barack Obama 41st President[4]
Bill Clinton 2013 November 20 Barack Obama 42nd President; Awarded With Distinction[27]

U.S. Vice Presidents[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Nelson A. Rockefeller 1977 January 10 Gerald Ford 41st Vice President[65]
Hubert H. Humphrey 1980 June 9 Jimmy Carter 38th Vice President, Posthumous[66]

Other political figures[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Eugene R. Black, Sr. 1969 Richard Nixon
James Brady 1996 Bill Clinton
Paul Bremer 2004 George W. Bush
McGeorge Bundy 1969 Richard Nixon
The 6th Baron Carrington 1988 Ronald Reagan
Leo Cherne 1984 Ronald Reagan
Javier Perez de Cuellar 1991 George H.W. Bush
Governor Luis A. Ferré 1991 George H.W. Bush
Arthur Flemming 1994 Bill Clinton
Paul Drabinski 1993 Bill Clinton
James P. Grant 1994 Bill Clinton
Ella T. Grasso 1981 Ronald Reagan Posthumously
William J. Hopkins 1971 Richard Nixon
Max Kampelman 1999 Bill Clinton
Robert W. Komer 1967 Lyndon B. Johnson
Irving Kristol 2002 George W. Bush
Aung San Suu Kyi 2000 Bill Clinton
Governor Herbert H. Lehman 1963 December 6 Lyndon B. Johnson Lehman died the day before the ceremony, and the medal was presented to his widow on January 28, 1964[67]
Eugene M. Locke 1967 Lyndon B. Johnson
John Macy 1969 Richard Nixon
John J. McCloy 1963 December 6 Lyndon B. Johnson Awarded with Distinction
John McCone 1987 Ronald Reagan
George Meany 1963 December 6 Lyndon B. Johnson [68]
Jean Monnet 1963 December 6 Lyndon B. Johnson Awarded with Distinction
Governor Luis Muñoz-Marín 1963 John F. Kennedy Awarded with Distinction
Paul Nitze 1985 Ronald Reagan
Norman Podhoretz 2004 George W. Bush
George Robertson 2003 George W. Bush
Walt Rostow 1969 Richard Nixon
William Ruckelshaus 24 November 2015 Barack Obama [19]
Brent Scowcroft 1991 George H.W. Bush
Albert Shanker 1998 Bill Clinton Posthumously
Sargent Shriver 1994 Bill Clinton
Vernon Walters 1991 George H.W. Bush
William Webster 1991 George H.W. Bush
Simon Wiesenthal 2000 Bill Clinton
Whitney Young 1969 Richard Nixon

Religion[edit]

Recipient Date President Notes
Joseph Cardinal Bernardin, Archbishop of Chicago 1996 Bill Clinton
Terence Cardinal Cooke, former Archbishop of New York 1984 Ronald Reagan Posthumously
Sister M. Isolina Ferré 1999 August 11 Bill Clinton [5]
Billy Graham 1983 Ronald Reagan
Gordon B. Hinckley 2004 June 23 George W. Bush [5]
Archbishop Iakovos of America 1980 Jimmy Carter
Reinhold Niebuhr 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Pope John XXIII 1963 December 6 Lyndon B. Johnson Posthumously[69]
Pope John Paul II 2004 June 4 George W. Bush [5]
Norman Vincent Peale 1984 March 26 Ronald Reagan [70]
Reverend Gardner C. Taylor 2000 August 9 Bill Clinton [5]
Mother Teresa 1985 Ronald Reagan
Desmond Tutu, Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town 2009 August 12 Barack Obama [14]

Science[edit]

Stephen Hawking, 2009
Recipient Date President Notes
John Bardeen 1977 Jimmy Carter
Rachel Carson 1980 Jimmy Carter Posthumously
Robert Coles 1998 Bill Clinton
Francis Collins 2007 George W. Bush
Jacques-Yves Cousteau 1985 Ronald Reagan
Mildred Dresselhaus 2014 November 24 Barack Obama
Stephen Hawking 2009 Barack Obama [14]
Clarence Johnson 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Mathilde Krim 2000 Bill Clinton
Joshua Lederberg 2006 George W. Bush
George Low 1985 Ronald Reagan Posthumously
Margaret Mead 1979 Jimmy Carter Posthumously[71]
Mario Molina 2013 Barack Obama [27]
Lewis Mumford 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Simon Ramo 1983 Ronald Reagan
Edward Teller 2003 George W. Bush
Alan Tower Waterman 1963 John F. Kennedy
James D. Watson 1977 Jimmy Carter
James Q. Wilson 2003 George W. Bush

Space exploration[edit]

The Apollo 13 astronauts are awarded the medal by President Richard Nixon in 1970
Recipient Date Mission President Notes
Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin 1969 Apollo 11 Astronaut Richard Nixon Awarded with Distinction
Neil Armstrong 1969 Apollo 11 Astronaut Richard Nixon Awarded with Distinction
Michael Collins 1969 Apollo 11 Astronaut Richard Nixon Awarded with Distinction
Fred Haise 1970 Apollo 13 Astronaut Richard Nixon
Jim Lovell 1970 Apollo 13 Astronaut Richard Nixon
Jack Swigert 1970 Apollo 13 Astronaut Richard Nixon
George Abbey 1970 Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team Richard Nixon
Gerald D. Griffin 1970 Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team Richard Nixon
Gene Kranz 1970 Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team Richard Nixon
Glynn Lunney 1970 Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team Richard Nixon
Edgar Mitchell 1970 Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team Richard Nixon
Siguard A Sjoberg 1970 Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team Richard Nixon [72]
Milton L. Windler 1970 Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team Richard Nixon
John Glenn 2012 Mercury-Atlas 6 and Space Shuttle Discovery Barack Obama [24]
Katherine Johnson 2015 NASA Barack Obama [19]
Sally Ride 2013 Space Shuttle Challenger STS-7 and STS-41-G Barack Obama Posthumously[73]

Sports[edit]

Recipient Date Sport President Notes
Hank Aaron 2002 Baseball George W. Bush
Muhammad Ali 2005 Boxing George W. Bush
Arthur Ashe 1993 Tennis Bill Clinton Posthumously
Ernie Banks 2013[27] Baseball Barack Obama
Yogi Berra 2015 November 24 Baseball Barack Obama Posthumously[19]
Earl Blaik 1986 Football Ronald Reagan
Paul "Bear" Bryant 1983 Football Ronald Reagan Posthumously
Roberto Clemente 2003 Baseball George W. Bush Posthumously
Joe DiMaggio 1977 Baseball Jimmy Carter
Billie Jean King 2009[14] Tennis Barack Obama
Robert J. H. Kiphuth 1963 Swimming Lyndon B. Johnson Chosen by John F. Kennedy
Willie Mays 2015 November 24 Baseball Barack Obama [19]
Stan Musial 2011[4] Baseball Barack Obama
Jack Nicklaus 2005 Golf George W. Bush
Buck O'Neil 2006 Baseball George W. Bush
Jesse Owens 1977 Track Jimmy Carter
Arnold Palmer 2004 Golf George W. Bush
Richard Petty 1992 NASCAR George H.W. Bush
Frank Robinson 2005 Baseball George W. Bush
Jackie Robinson 1984 March 26 Baseball Ronald Reagan Posthumously[74]
Bill Russell 2011[4] Basketball Barack Obama
Charles Sifford 2014[11] Golf Barack Obama
Dean Smith 2013[27] Basketball Barack Obama
Pat Summitt 2012[24] Basketball Barack Obama
Ted Williams 1991 Baseball George H.W. Bush
John Wooden 2003 Basketball George W. Bush

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Executive Order 11085 The Presidential Medal of Freedom, retrieved 2009-07-30 Archived May 30, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. 
  3. ^ "Medal of Freedom Ceremony" (August 12, 2009), a news release, August 12, 2009, from the White House Press Secretary at whitehouse.gov, the White House's official website. Retrieved August 22, 2009.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "President Obama Names Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". whitehouse.gov. The White House. November 17, 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Secretary of the Senate, United States Congress. "Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". Official Website of the United States Senate. United States Senate (Government of the United States). Retrieved November 14, 2011. 
  6. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. Mr. Ludwig Mien van der Rohe...THE PRESIDENT. Teacher, designer, master builder, he has conceived soaring structures of glass, steel and concrete which at once embody and evoke the distinctive qualities of our age. 
  7. ^ "Curriculum Vitae of I. M. Pei". Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. Retrieved July 20, 2009. 
  8. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2011. NORMAN ROCKWELL...Normal Rockwell, represented by his son, Jarvis Rockwell. "Artist, illustrator and author, Norman Rockwell has portrayed the American scene with unrivaled freshness and clarity. Insight, optimism and good humor are the hallmarks of his artistic style. His vivid and affectionate portraits of our country and ourselves have become a beloved part of the American tradition." 
  9. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF). Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Georgia O'Keeffe (1887–1986)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received January 10, 1977 
  10. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2011. But let me again congratulate each and every one of you. I regret that Irving Berlin, Alexander Calder, the late Alexander Calder, and Georgia O'Keeffe were unable to be represented here today. We will of course present their medals to them or to their families at a later date. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "President Obama Announces the Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". The White House. November 10, 2014. Retrieved November 11, 2014. 
  12. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Gerald R. Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Martha Graham, October 14, 1976". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. [At this point, the President read the citation, the text of which follows:] The President of the United States of America Awards this Presidential Medal of Freedom With Distinction to Martha Graham. Dancer, teacher, and choreographer, Martha Graham has captivated the world with her magic and has left a legacy of imagination with all who have witnessed her talent. Her energy, creativity and daring have opened new doors of expression in dance. Her followers and friends adore her, and her country, the United States of America, is proud to proclaim her a brilliant star and a National treasure. 
  13. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Lincoln Kirstein: Lincoln Kirstein is an author and entrepreneur who has honored and delighted Americans through his enormous contribution to ballet in our country. Through his commitment, two major institutions of American dance, the New York City Ballet and the School of American Ballet, were created and flourished. Developing and fostering appreciation for the arts have always depended on the energy, creativity, and commitment of individual citizens. Lincoln Kirstein stands tall as one of a select and treasured few in the world of American art. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "President Obama Names Medal of Freedom Recipients; 16 Agents of Change to Receive Top Civilian Honor". White House. July 30, 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2009. 
  15. ^ a b "NATION : Lucille Ball Gets Medal of Freedom". Los Angeles Times. 1989-07-06. Retrieved 2011-05-22. 
  16. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. As a giant in the world of entertainment, James Cagney has left his mark not only on the film industry but on the hearts of all his fellow Americans. In some 60 years in entertainment, performing on stage and screen, he mastered drama and action adventure, as well as music and dance. One of his most remembered performances, as George M. Cohan in "Yankee Doodle Dandy," was a whirlwind singing and dancing film that inspired a Nation at war when it sorely needed a lift in spirit. James Cagney's professional and personal life has brought great credit to him and left unforgettable memories with millions who have followed his career. 
  17. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Lyndon B. Johnson, XXXVI President of the United States: 1963–1969, Remarks at the Presentation of the 1964 Presidential Medal of Freedom Awards, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved May 22, 2011. Mr. Walter Disney. THE PRESIDENT. Artist and impresario, in the course of entertaining an age, he has created an American folklore. 
  18. ^ a b Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Lyndon B. Johnson, XXXVI President of the United States: 1963–1969, Remarks at the Presentation of the 1964 Presidential Medal of Freedom Awards, March 26, 1964". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved May 22, 2011. Mr. Alfred Lunt and Miss Lynn Fontainne. THE PRESIDENT. A luminous partnership of artistic talents and personal devotion they have brilliantly enlivened and enriched the American stage. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "President Obama Names Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom". The White House. November 16, 2015. Retrieved November 16, 2015. 
  20. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Jimmy Carter, XXXIX President of the United States: 1977–1981, Presidential Medal of Freedom Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony, June 9, 1980". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2011. All of these are famous people, they're well-known throughout the world. But even including Vice Presidents and Presidents, noted singers and dancers and writers and ornithologists, I think the next would be the most famous of us all, including the one who reads this citation. I would like to ask Mrs. John Wayne to come forward. [At this point, the President read the citation, the text of which follows: THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AWARDS THIS PRESIDENTIAL MEDAL OF FREEDOM TO JOHN WAYNE. John Wayne was both an example and a symbol of true American grit and determination. Through his countless film roles, "The Duke" still leads millions on heroic adventures on behalf of fairness and justice. He embodies the enduring American values of individualism, relentless bravery and perseverance in pursuit of what is right. He was the quintessential patriot, and will especially be remembered whenever our Nation faces a challenge calling for steadfast courage.] 
  21. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Louis L'Amour: Through his western novels, Louis L'Amour has played a leading role in shaping our national identity. His writings portrayed the rugged individual and the deep-seated values of those who conquered the American frontier. Starting out from humble beginnings, he has lived a fulfilling and adventurous life. An eminently successful writer, more than 100 million copies of his novels are in print, L'Amour's descriptions of America and Americans have added to our understanding of our past and reaffirmed our potential as an exploring, pioneering, and free people. 
  22. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2011. Archibald MacLeish, represented by his nephew, Roderick MacLeish. "Poet and playwright, teacher and statesman, Archibald MacLeish has combined the vocation of man of letters with that of public spokesman. A poet of realities as well as dreams, his eloquent words are matched by his sensitive social conscience. He seeks truth inspired by love of his fellow men and of his country. We are proud to recognize his stature as a humanist, an artist, and an American." 
  23. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2011. JAMES ALBERT MICHENER, "Author, teacher and popular historian, James Michener has entranced a generation with his compelling essays and novels. From 'Tales of the South Pacific,' to 'Centennial,' the prolific writings of this master storyteller have expanded the knowledge and enriched the lives of million." 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Albright, World War II hero among 13 to receive Presidential Medal of Freedom". CNN. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  25. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF). Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Marian Anderson (1897–1993)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received December 6, 1963 
  26. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Ernest Jennings "Tennessee Ernie" Ford: Through his musical talents, warm personality, and quick "down-home" wit Tennessee Ernie Ford won the hearts of the American people. Ford's music, which revealed his character and soul to all who listened, inspired as well as entertained his audiences. His respect for traditional values, his strong faith in God, and his unlimited capacity for human kindness have greatly endeared him to his fellow countrymen. America is a Nation richer in spirit because of Tennessee Ernie Ford. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "President Obama Names Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". Office of the Press Secretary, The White House. August 8, 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2013. 
  28. ^ McFeatters, Ann (July 10, 2002). "Fred Rogers gets Presidential Medal of Freedom". Pittsburg Post-Gazette (www.post-gazette.com). Retrieved February 9, 2011. Intel Corp. co-founder Gordon Moore. Through the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Moore is a philanthropic leader in higher education, scientific research, the environment and San Francisco Bay Area projects. 
  29. ^ Vargas, Jose Antonio (November 10, 2005). "At the White House, Prizes for 14 Champs,Medal of Freedom Ceremony Shows Ali as Fast as Ever". The Washington Post (washingtonpost.com). Retrieved February 9, 2011. Also honored yesterday...Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn, the men who in figuring out how to routinely and quickly transmit data over computer networks helped start a digital revolution 
  30. ^ "Net pioneers receive top honour". BBC News (www.bbc.com). November 10, 2005. Retrieved February 9, 2011. "Dr Cerf and Dr Kahn have been at the forefront of a digital revolution that has transformed global commerce, communication, and entertainment," read the citation for the medal. 
  31. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Eunice Kennedy Shriver: With enormous conviction and unrelenting effort, Eunice Kennedy Shriver has labored on behalf of America's least powerful people, the mentally retarded. Over the last two decades, she has been on the forefront of numerous initiatives on the behalf of the mentally retarded, from creating day camps, to establishing research centers, to the founding of the Special Olympics. Her decency and goodness have touched the lives of many, and Eunice Kennedy Shriver deserves America's praise, gratitude, and love. 
  32. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF). Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Annie Wauneka (1910–1997)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received December 6, 1963 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h Nixon, Richard (April 22, 1970). "Remarks on Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Eight Journalists". Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on 2011-12-25. Retrieved 2011-12-25. 
  34. ^ a b Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (10 January 1977). "Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2011. 
  35. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Dr. Denton Cooley: In an outstanding professional career, Dr. Denton Cooley has distinguished himself time and again in the field of medicine. As one of this country's leading heart surgeons, he has charted new territory in his search for ways to prolong and enrich human life. His efforts have saved the lives not only of his own patients, but of those of many other doctors who have studied and mastered techniques developed by him. As a heart surgeon and as a creative, independent thinker, Dr. Denton Cooley is a force for innovation in American medicine. 
  36. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (10 January 1977). "Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2011. WILL DURANT "Writer, historian and philosopher, Will Durant has provided an open window into the lives and thoughts of past ages. With the collaboration of his wife, Ariel, he has helped lead us through the past to the meaning of the present. An eloquent apostle of social order and individual freedom, he is an enemy of chaos, a friend and an invaluable guide to the millions of grateful readers." 
  37. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF). Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Marian Wright Edelman (1939 – )...Presidential Medal of Freedom received August 9, 2000 
  38. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Dr. Hector Garcia: Dr. Hector Garcia's patriotism and community concern exemplify the meaning of good citizenship. His many community-building endeavors included his work as a founder and first National Chairman of the American G.I. Forum, a veterans' organization which has done much to improve the lot of Americans of Mexican descent. Over the years, he has faithfully represented our government on numerous occasions, overseas and domestically. Dr. Hector Garcia is a credit to his family and community, and to all Americans. Through his efforts, based on a deep belief in traditional American ideals, he has made this a better country. 
  39. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. Mr. Ball: And now, Mr. President, let me present those who are to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Special Distinction....Dr. Ralph J. Bunche. THE PRESIDENT. Scholar and diplomat, servant of the emerging world order, he has opened up new vistas in the demanding quest for international justice and peace. 
  40. ^ a b Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. Mr. Ball: And now, Mr. President, let me present those who are to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Special Distinction....First, Mr. Ellsworth Bunker. THE PRESIDENT. Citizen and diplomat, he has brought integrity, patience and a compassionate understanding of other men and nations to the service of the Republic under three Presidents. 
  41. ^ "President Bush Commemorates Foreign Policy Achievements and Presents Medal of Freedom to Ambassador Ryan Crocker". White House. January 15, 2009. Retrieved January 16, 2009. 
  42. ^ http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1984/22184b.htm
  43. ^ Original Citation accompanying medal of Freedom issued December 11, 1946, signed by Acting Secretary of State Dean Acheson, reissued April 30, 1956 as signed by James F. Byrnes January 1, 1947, Thompson Family Archives.
  44. ^ "White House Freedom Medal Set for Whittaker Chambers". New York Times. February 22, 1984. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  45. ^ Sterling, Dorothy (March 9, 1984). "http://www.nytimes.com/books/97/03/09/reviews/chambers-letter.html". New York Times. Retrieved January 16, 2011.  External link in |title= (help)
  46. ^ Buckley Jr., William F. (August 6, 2001). "Witness and Friends". National Review. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  47. ^ Stonor-Saunders, Frances (April 6, 2007). "Was Whittaker Chambers a hero or a traitor?". Telegraph. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  48. ^ Edroso, Roy (July 30, 2009). "Medal of Freedom Recipients Announced, Include Tutu, Harvey Milk". Village Voice. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  49. ^ "Whittaker Chambers". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved March 22, 2015. 
  50. ^ Romero, Frances (August 12, 2009). "A Brief History of the Presidential Medal of Freedom". TIME magazine. Retrieved March 22, 2015. 
  51. ^ "Announcement of the Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom". UCSB American President Project. Retrieved March 22, 2015. 
  52. ^ "Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum. 26 March 1984. Retrieved March 22, 2015. 
  53. ^ Mayer, Catherine (January 13, 2009). "A Presidential Medal for Tony Blair". Time (www.time.com). Retrieved February 9, 2011. Later today in a ceremony in the East Room of the White House, Bush is set to dole out a Presidential Medal of Freedom to Blair. 
  54. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF). Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Chief,Wilma Mankiller (1945–2010)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received January 15, 1998 
  55. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Mr. Gamal el-Sadat will accept for his father, the late President Anwar el-Sadat. President Anwar el-Sadat, as a soldier, led his country in war, but his greatest acts of courage came in pursuit of peace. He captured the imagination of people everywhere by taking the first great step toward achieving a lasting peace between Egypt and Israel. His humanity and sense of responsibility, even now that he is gone, remain a giant force for peace and stability in the world. Anwar el-Sadat was a peacemaker of monumental wisdom and tenderness who will remain forever a hero in the hearts of the American people. 
  56. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. Mr. Ball: And now, Mr. President, let me present those who are to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Special Distinction....Mr. Justice Felix Frankfurter. THE PRESIDENT. Jurist, scholar, counselor, conversationalist, he has brought to all his roles a zest and wisdom which has made him teacher to his time. 
  57. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF). Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Justice Sandra Day O’Connor (1930 – )...Presidential Medal of Freedom received August 12, 2009 
  58. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "George Bush, XLI President of the United States: 1989–1993, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medals of Freedom and Presidential Citizen's Medals, July 3, 1991". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. this ceremony would not be complete without honoring three more American leaders, exceptional public servants who each contributed singularly to our success in the Gulf...Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney....As to Dick Cheney, Secretary Cheney not only oversaw one of the largest deployments of forces in American history but also worked hard at the beginning of the crisis to ensure that America would respond decisively to aggression. His effective testimony before the United States Congress helped all our fellow countrymen understand what was at stake in the Gulf. Working swiftly, yet skillfully, when time was truly of the essence, he traveled to Saudi Arabia and arranged for the first deployment of U.S. and coalition troops to that nation. And when war came America was ready, and Secretary Cheney's leadership contributed enormously to the victory. 
  59. ^ "Lady Bird Johnson Biography". Lbjlib.utexas.edu. Retrieved January 5, 2011. , for date of award see The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF). Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Lady Bird Johnson (1912–2007)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received January 10, 1977 
  60. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF). Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Betty Ford (1918 – )...Presidential Medal of Freedom received November 18, 1991 
  61. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Senator Howard H. Baker, Jr. The citation: As a Member of the United States Senate, one of the country's most powerful and influential citizens, and an individual whose character shines brightly as an example to others, Howard Baker has been a force for responsibility and civility on a generation of Americans. In his almost 20 years of service, he has earned the respect and admiration of his fellow citizens regardless of their political persuasion. As Majority Leader of the Senate, his quiet, cooperative style and keen legislative skills have honored America's finest traditions of enlightened political leadership and statesmanship. 
  62. ^ "Presidential Medal of Freedom – John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum". Jfklibrary.org. December 6, 1963. Retrieved January 5, 2011. 
  63. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Jimmy Carter, XXXIX President of the United States: 1977–1981, Presidential Medal of Freedom Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony, June 9, 1980". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved February 11, 2011. The President of the United States of America Awards This Presidential Medal of Freedom to Lyndon Baines Johnson, Lyndon B. Johnson cared deeply about our country, its citizens, and the condition of their lives. He knew well how to translate concern into action, and action into a national agenda. He did more than any American of his time to break the chains of injustice, illiteracy, poverty and sickness. We are a greater society because President Johnson lived among us and worked for us. 
  64. ^ "Remarks on presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to President Ronald Reagan-President George Bush-Transcript". The White House: Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. January 18, 1993. Retrieved December 31, 2007. 
  65. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Vice President Nelson A. Rockefeller...Patriot, philanthropist, patron of the arts, diplomat, Governor of New York, Vice President of the United States, his long years of service to his country have yielded governmental, economic, social and cultural contributions beyond measures." 
  66. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Jimmy Carter, XXXIX President of the United States: 1977–1981, Presidential Medal of Freedom Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony, June 9, 1980". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved February 11, 2011. On occasion in our lives, a certain person touches the heartstrings of our existence and inspires us all in a special, deeply human way. I'd now like to ask the wife of Hubert Humphrey to come forward. [Applause] If you'll permit me an aside, I think the applause is not only for the honoree but for Muriel Humphrey as well, who shared so much. At this point, the President read the citation, the text of which follows: The President of the United States of America Awards this Presidential Medal of Freedom to Hubert H. Humphrey. Hubert H. Humphrey awed us with the scope of his knowledge; he inspired us with the depth of his sympathy; he moved us with his passion for social justice; he delighted us with his joyous love of his fellow human beings. He brought honor and enthusiasm to everything he did. He ennobled the political process. 
  67. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. Mr. Ball: Governor Herbert H. Lehman. I know that we were all deeply saddened to hear yesterday of the death of this great citizen. Mr. President, you may wish to read his citation in absentia. THE PRESIDENT. Citizen and statesman, he has used wisdom and compassion as the tools of government and has made politics the highest form of public service. Later, on January 28, 1964, the medal for Herbert H. Lehman was presented to Mrs. Lehman at a special ceremony at the White House. 
  68. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. Mr. Ball: Mr. George Meany. THE PRESIDENT. Citizen and national leader, in serving the cause of labor, he has greatly served the cause of his Nation and of freedom throughout the world. 
  69. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. [President Johnson then resumed speaking.] I have also determined to confer the Presidential Medal of Freedom posthumously on another noble man whose death we mourned 6 months ago: His Holiness, Pope John XXIII. 
  70. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Dr. Norman Vincent Peale: With a deep understanding of human behavior and an appreciation for God's role in our lives, Dr. Norman Vincent Peale helped originate a philosophy of happiness. Through the American Foundation of Religion and Psychiatry and his many books, Dr. Peale became an advocate of the joy of life, helping millions find new meaning in their lives. Few Americans have contributed so much to the personal happiness of their fellow citizens as Dr. Norman Vincent Peale. 
  71. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF). Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Dr. Margaret Mead (1901–1978)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received January 19, 1979 
  72. ^ "The American Presidency Project – ''Remarks on Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team in Houston – April 18, 1970". Presidency.ucsb.edu. April 18, 1970. Retrieved January 5, 2011. 
  73. ^ "President Obama Announces Sally Ride as a Recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom – April 18, 1970". Office of the Press Secretary. May 20, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2013. 
  74. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Mrs. Jackie Robinson will accept for her late husband, Mr. Jackie Robinson. As an individual of courage and conviction, and as a skilled and dedicated athlete, Jackie Robinson stood tall among his peers. His courage opened the door of professional sports to all Americans when, in 1947, he became the first black baseball player in the major leagues. He bravely demonstrated to all that skill and sportsmanship, not race or ethnic background, are the qualities by which athletes should be judged. In doing so, he struck a mighty blow for equality, freedom, and the American way of life. Jackie Robinson was a good citizen, a great man, and a true American champion. 

External links[edit]

Offline materials[edit]

  • Wetterau, Bruce. The Presidential Medal of Freedom: Winners and Their Achievements. p. 513. ISBN 978-1-56802-128-7.  – contains a list of awardees from 1963 to approximately 1995